Siné Mcdougall

Siné Mcdougall
Bournemouth University | BU · Department of Psychology, Faculty of Science and Technology

About

64
Publications
18,061
Reads
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1,656
Citations
Citations since 2017
13 Research Items
623 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
Additional affiliations
July 2007 - present
Bournemouth University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (64)
Article
Full-text available
The current studies examined the effect of aesthetic appeal on performance. According to one hypothesis, appeal would lead to overall decrements or enhancements in performance [e.g. Sonderegger & Sauer, (Applied Ergonomics, 41, 403–410, 2010)]. Alternatively, appeal might influence performance only in problem situations, such as when the task is di...
Article
Full-text available
Until recently the guiding tenet in human-computer interaction was that any interface must be easy to learn and use. However, it has been increasingly recognized that the appeal of the interface to the user and their enjoyment of it is also important. The aim of the current study was to examine the nature of the relationships between icon character...
Article
Full-text available
Searching for icons, symbols, or signs is an integral part of tasks involving computer or radar displays, head-up displays in aircraft, or attending to road traffic signs. Icons therefore need to be designed to optimize search times, taking into account the factors likely to slow down visual search. Three factors likely to adversely affect visual s...
Article
Full-text available
This research examined the relative importance of icon characteristics in determining the speed and accuracy of icon identification. Studies to date have focused on the role of one or two icon characteristics when users first experience an icon set. This means that little is known about the relative importance of icon characteristics or how the rol...
Article
Full-text available
In this study the effects of 'brain training' using the Nintendo DS Brain Training program were examined in two groups of older adults; the cognitive performance of an experimental group (n = 21) who were asked to use the Nintendo DS regularly over a 6-week period was compared with the control group (n = 20). Groups were matched on age (mean age =...
Article
Full-text available
Subjective ratings have been central to the evaluation of icon characteristics. The current study examined biases in ratings in relation to the context in which icons are presented. Context was manipulated between-participants, with some groups rating icon sets with limited variability, and others rating icon sets with wide variability. It was pred...
Article
Full-text available
Aesthetic appeal of a visual image can influence performance in time-critical tasks, even if it is irrelevant to the task. This series of experiments examined whether aesthetic appeal can act as an object attribute that guides visual search. If appeal enhances the salience of the targets pre-attentively, then appealing icons would lead to more effi...
Article
Full-text available
Icons play an important role in modern interfaces and therefore recent empirical research has focused on enhancing icon processing — that is, icon perception and icon function understanding. However, in existing sets, icons vary simultaneously across different icon characteristics, confusing the contribution of each to icon processing. We developed...
Article
Full-text available
Aesthetically appealing stimuli can improve performance in demanding target localisation tasks compared to unappealing stimuli. Two search-and-localisation experiments were carried out to examine the possible underlying mechanism mediating the effects of appeal on performance. Participants (N = 95) were put in a positive or negative mood prior to c...
Article
Full-text available
Given the ease with which the diverse array of environmental sounds can be understood, the difficulties encountered in using auditory alarm signals on medical devices are surprising. In two experiments, with nonclinical participants, alarm sets which relied on similarities to environmental sounds (concrete alarms, such as a heartbeat sound to indic...
Chapter
Users’ levels of satisfaction increase when their interactions are swift and they experience the interface as easy to use. Given that most interactions start with searching for the icon for the application you wish to use, characteristics affecting the efficacy of icon search are important. This study mimicked icon search on mobile devices in order...
Article
p>The aim of this study was to investigate how perceptions of security and trust are involved in user evaluations of tourism websites and whether manipulations to heighten or lessen trust features could predict trust perceptions. Seven websites were manipulated to produce low and high trust versions, with the original used as a control version. Fou...
Article
The reserved set of audible alarm signals embodied within the global medical device safety standard, IEC 60601-1-8, is known to be problematic and in need of updating. The current alarm signals are not only suboptimal, but there is also little evidence beyond learnability (which is known to be poor) that demonstrates their performance in realistic...
Poster
Full-text available
Good icon design is now recognized as crucial in determining user experience with mobile, PC and other applications. However, research examining icon use and processing is based on the use of existing icon sets. This leaves many questions about how new icons can be created with specific characteristics. Based on extensive design research, specific...
Article
Objective Four sets of eight audible alarms matching the functions specified in IEC 60601-1-8 were designed using known principles from auditory cognition with the intention that they would be more recognizable and localizable than those currently specified in the standard. Background The audible alarms associated with IEC 60601-1-8, a global medi...
Poster
IEC 60601-1-8 is a global medical device standard concerned with instrument safety.
Article
Full-text available
Do surgeons need support – and, if so, what kind?
Article
IEC 60601-1-8 is a medical alarms standard concerned with equipment safety. Part of its content specifies a set of audible alarms for eight clinical functions: cardiovascular, drug administration, oxygen, artificial perfusion, power down, temperature, ventilation and a general sound, along with a medium- and a low-priority alarm. It has long been a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
First impressions have been deemed important when making evaluations of website appeal. However, little is known about the long term nature of decision-making with respect to judgements of website appeal and how these may be shaped by other information available to us. This research aims to examine (a) how users' evaluations of website may change o...
Article
Full-text available
Although icons appear on almost all interfaces, there is a paucity of research examining the determinants of icon appeal. The experiments reported here examined the icon characteristics determining appeal and the extent to which processing fluency – the subjective ease with which individuals process information – was used as a heuristic to guide ap...
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown that individuals' knowledge structures change as a result of learning and experience. This article investigates the possibility that the content of graphical user interfaces can play a role in determining the nature of the knowledge structures users develop. Users employed either concrete, abstract, or arbitrary icon sets in a co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Correlations between subjective ratings of interface usability and appeal have been frequently reported. This study examined the possibility that the relationship between usability and appeal are underpinned by implicit perceptions of ease of processing which act as a heuristic in making judgments of appeal. Ease of processing was manipulated by va...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the effects of extraversion and neuroticism on participants' reported vividness of visual imagery and on their memory performance for concrete and abstract nouns. Groups of extraverts (n = 15) and introverts (n = 15) were selected from a larger original sample and asked to remember a series of concrete and abstract nouns, includ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Interactive digital storytelling has attracted a great deal of research interest in recent years. However, most interactive stories are told following a goal-oriented and task-based mode, which motivates the player to interact with stories by achieving the goals rather than empathizing with the characters and experience the enriched emotions. Given...
Article
A number of questions remain largely unanswered about when subjects are likely to employ imagery as opposed to verbal encoding and the subsequent effect this will have on recall. The present experiments examined some of the factors determining such use. Subjects were asked to learn mixed lists of word pairs which were either spatially related (i.e....
Conference Paper
Recently there has been a shift in emphasis from interface usability to interface appeal. Very few studies, however, have examined the link between usability and appeal and evidence regarding the direction of the relationship between the two remains equivocal. This paper examines the nature of the relationships between the usability and aesthetic a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Identifying icon functions differs from naming pictures in that strong semantic links between pictures and their names have been formed over a long period of time whereas the meaning of icons has often to be learned. This paper examines roles of icon characteristics such as complexity, concreteness, familiarity and aesthetic appeal in determining h...
Article
Full-text available
Communication using icons is now commonplace. It is therefore important to understand the processes involved in icon comprehension and the stimulus cues that individuals utilize to facilitate identification. In this study, we examined predictors of icon identification as participants gained experience with icons over a series of learning trials. A...
Article
Thirty preschoolers from low-income families participated in a 12-month intervention programme, funded by Sure Start, which engaged them in scaffolded educational activities delivered at home by their mothers. Immediately following the programme, the intervention group outperformed matched controls in tests of academic knowledge, receptive vocabula...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last decade there has been a shift in emphasis from interface usability to interface appeal. Very few studies, however, have examined the link between the two. The current study examined the possibility that aesthetic appeal may affect user performance. In a visual search task designed to mimic user searches of interface displays, particip...
Article
Nicola Grove, speech/language therapist, and Sine McDougall, psychologist, from the Division of Psychiatry of Disability, Department of Mental Health Sciences, St. George's Hospital Medical School, London, explore use of Makaton signs in teacher-directed and free play settings by children with severe learning difficulties.
Article
Full-text available
Doctors' confidence in their actions is important for clinical performance. While static confidence has been widely studied, no study has examined how confidence changes dynamically during clinical tasks. The confidence of novice (n = 10) and experienced (n = 10) trainee anaesthetists was measured during two simulated anaesthetic crises, bradycardi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study shows that both icon and function label characteristics combine subtly to affect the way that individuals perceive icons. Icon users unconsciously use the cues available to them: the extent to which these cues are utilised depends on the language background of the user. In order to optimise design we therefore need know more, not only ab...
Article
The study examined whether the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children affects parental attributions and emotional responses to different types of child behaviours. The responses of parents of children with ADHD and a control group made up of parents of children with behaviour difficulties were compared. Participants...
Article
Despite the intense debate surrounding the use of orthographic analogy in the clue word paradigm, little is known about the skills and strategies children actually use and how these compare with their everyday reading of single words. This study, with 4- and 5-year-olds (N=125), supports previous work which suggests children rely on phonological, r...
Article
Full-text available
The Tandem Project is an educational programme, targeting preschoolers, sponsored by the DfEE Sure Start initiative. It aims to encourage parents from low-SES backgrounds to take a greater role in preparing their children for school. Parents are given a series of games to play with their children designed to develop basic pre-reading and numerical...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Covers: icon design approache; standards and metrics; cognition, context and workload in design; role of icons in the visual enhancement and commercial placement of products. Explores how contributions from each perspective can optimise icon design.
Article
A number of studies have shown that childrenwith reading difficulties perform poorly ontests of verbal memory span. The extent towhich differences in memory span for good andpoor readers can be explained by differences ina long-term memory component to span as well asby differences in short-term memory processeswas investigated in this study. Memor...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the memory strategies used by psychology students during their finals examinations. The strategies used, as evidenced by exam plans at the front of their answers, were related to actual examination performance. The results of the present study showed that, when students' worst marks were considered, those not showing evidence of...
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown that individuals' knowledge structures change as a result of learning and experience. This article investigates the possibility that the content of graphical user interfaces can play a role in determining the nature of the knowledge structures users develop. Users employed either concrete, abstract, or arbitrary icon sets in a co...
Article
Full-text available
Because icons, signs, and symbols are now widely used to communicate information, it is essential for system designers to know what makes them easy to use and interpret. The authors report a series of studies that examine characteristics considered central to icon usability. After quantifying the properties of icon concreteness, complexity, and dis...
Article
The ESPbase provides a tool for storing symbols and icons along with information about their characteristics. Information about a wide range of symbol characteristics is included on the database to facilitate the selection of symbol sets for research and design. The database includes information about the graphical characteristics and functions of...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides rating norms for a set of symbols and icons selected from a wide variety of sources. These ratings enable the effects of symbol characteristics on user performance to be systematically investigated. The symbol characteristics that have been quantified are considered to be of central relevance to symbol usability research and inc...
Article
Full-text available
The ESPbase provides a tool for storing symbols and icons along with information about their characteristics. Information about a wide range of symbol characteristics is included on the database to facilitate the selection of symbol sets for research and design. The database includes information about the graphical characteristics and functions of...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides rating norms for a set of symbols and icons selected from a wide variety of sources. These ratings enable the effects of symbol characteristics on user performance to be systematically investigated. The symbol characteristics that have been quantified are considered to be of central relevance to symbol usability research and inc...
Article
The visual metaphor lies at the heart of modern graphical user interfaces. The benefits ascribed to its use rest largely on the belief that pictorially realistic icons allow users to apply pre-existing world knowledge to the computer domain. Added visual realism, however, has also been associated with increased levels of visual complexity. This, in...
Article
This paper is a response to commentaries on our papers ‘Are dyslexics different? I. A comparison between dyslexics, reading age controls, poor readers and precocious readers’ (Dyslexia, 2, 31–58) and ‘Are dyslexics different?  II. Individual differences among dyslexics, reading age controls, poor readers and precocious readers’ (Dyslexia, 2, 59–68)...
Article
Four groups of children with matched reading ages of 7:03–8:06 were given a battery of tests assessing a range of skills related to reading, visual processing and phonological processing. The groups were: (i) dyslexics (mean age 10:03, mean IQ 118 with a minimum of 105); (ii) younger normal readers (conventional ‘reading age controls’ with a mean a...
Article
Cognitive neuropsychological analyses of developmental dyslexia have suggested that different forms of dyslexia exist, and that these forms resemble some of the varieties of acquired dyslexia which can be observed in previously literate people following brain injury. Thus, developmental ‘phonological’ dyslexics are meant to have a relatively intact...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the relationships between reading, short-term memory and phonological skills, and the mechanisms responsible for the short-term memory differences found between groups of children differing in reading ability. Differences were found between groups of good, average, and poor readers in verbal, but not visual, short-term memor...
Article
According to the prevalent articulatory loop hypothesis of memory span (Baddeley, 1986), subjects recall items from a decaying phonological store that is refreshed by a covert articulatory process. The rate of covert articulation is said to determine memory span. The present research indicates that this account underemphasizes effects of (1) other...
Article
Full-text available
Much of the research looking for the underlying cognitive deficit(s) in dyslexia involves comparing groups of dyslexics with groups of non‐dyslexic readers who are matched with the dyslexic group on some basis such as chronological age or their reading age. We review some of the findings obtained using this methodology, and also some of the problem...
Article
Full-text available
One hundred and twelve alcoholic patients treated by an intensive one-month residential programme were followed up for one year. As a group, they were socially disadvantaged and highly dependent on alcohol. Outcome of treatment was assessed at six months and one year following discharge by multiple measures which included assessments of drinking be...

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Projects

Project (1)
Project
To create a corpus of websites which are accompanied by subjective norms across several dimension.