Simonetta Fraschetti

Simonetta Fraschetti
University of Naples Federico II | UNINA · Department of Biology

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218
Publications
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Publications

Publications (218)
Article
Habitat degradation and loss are severely affecting macroalgal forests worldwide, and their successful mitigation depends on the identification of the drivers of loss and the implementation of effective conservation and restoration actions. We made an extensive literature review 1- to document the historical (1789–1999) and recent (2000−2020) occu...
Article
Full-text available
Algal habitat-forming forests composed of fucalean brown seaweeds ( Cystoseira , Ericaria , and Gongolaria ) have severely declined along the Mediterranean coasts, endangering the maintenance of essential ecosystem services. Numerous factors determine the loss of these assemblages and operate at different spatial scales, which must be identified to...
Article
Full-text available
Restoration is considered an effective strategy to accelerate the recovery of biological communities at local scale. However, the effects of restoration actions in the marine ecosystems are still unpredictable. We performed a global analysis of published literature to identify the factors increasing the probability of restoration success in coastal...
Article
Full-text available
Canopy-forming macroalgae play a crucial role in coastal primary production and nutrient cycling, providing food, shelter, nurseries, and habitat for many vertebrate and invertebrate species. However, macroalgal forests are in decline in various places and natural recovery is almost impossible when populations become locally extinct. Hence, active...
Article
Full-text available
Global change is striking harder and faster in the Mediterranean Sea than elsewhere, where high levels of human pressure and proneness to climate change interact in modifying the structure and disrupting regulative mechanisms of marine ecosystems. Rocky reefs are particularly exposed to such environmental changes with ongoing trends of degradation...
Article
Full-text available
Cystoseira sensu lato (Class Phaeophyceae, Order Fucales, Family Sargassaceae) forests play a central role in marine Mediterranean ecosystems. Over the last decades, Cystoseira s.l. suffered from a severe loss as a result of multiple anthropogenic stressors. In particular, Gongolaria barbata has faced multiple human-induced threats, and, despite it...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Fucalean brown algae of the genera Carpodesmia, Cystoseira and Treptacantha are a typical feature of shallow subtidal Mediterranean habitats, where these habitat-forming seaweeds produce canopies playing a key role in the functioning of coastal ecosystems. In recent decades these communities have undergone a major decline in cover and biomass; this...
Presentation
Full-text available
Talk at the Society for Ecological Restoration SER21 World Conference 21-24.06.2021
Article
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The increasing consideration of gender balance in conservation science and practice has been reflected in the setting of global commitments. Yet, women remain under-represented in science and conservation decision-making. We compiled and analyzed data on the representation of women in hiring, publishing, funding, and leadership positions in Europea...
Poster
Explorative surveys aiming at broadening the knowledge on the status and distribution of biodiversity are fundamental to set the baselines for the identification of conservation priorities. A group of researchers with complementary expertises carried out a large-scale survey along the coasts of the Campania region (southern Italy) to assess the con...
Article
Full-text available
Like most ocean regions today, the European and contiguous seas experience cumulative impacts from local human activities and global pressures. They are largely in poor environmental condition with deteriorating trends. Despite several success stories, European policies for marine conservation fall short of being effective. Acknowledging the challe...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change (CC) is a key, global driver of change of marine ecosystems. At local and regional scales, other local human stressors (LS) can interact with CC and modify its effects on marine ecosystems. Understanding the response of the marine environment to the combined effects of CC and LS is crucial to inform marine ecosystem-based management...
Article
Full-text available
Rhodolith beds represent a key habitat worldwide, from tropical to polar ecosystems. Despite this habitat is considered a hotspot of biodiversity, providing a suite of ecosystem goods and services, still scarce quantitative information is available thus far about rhodolith beds occurrence and ecological role, especially in the Mediterranean Sea. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing anthropogenic pressures are causing long-lasting regime shifts from high-diversity ecosystems to low-diversity ones. In the Mediterranean Sea, large expanses of rocky subtidal habitats characterized by high diversity have been completely degraded to the barren state due to the high grazing pressure exerted by sea urchins, which could per...
Article
Full-text available
The date mussel Lithophaga lithophaga is an edible endolithic bivalve, protected by the EU Habitats Directive and other international agreements, living inside carbonate rocks. Its illegal harvesting is carried by breaking the rocks where the bivalve grows. The impact has cascade consequences as it causes permanent changes in the substrate characte...
Article
Full-text available
The Mediterranean Sea is subject to multiple human pressures increasingly threatening its unique biodiversity. Spatially explicit information on the ecological status of marine ecosystems is therefore key to an effective maritime spatial planning and management, and to help the achievement of environmental targets. Here, we summarized scientific da...
Article
The seaweed Caulerpa cylindracea (Sonder) is one of the most successful marine bioinvaders worldwide. Caulerpa cylindracea can influence the quantity and biochemical composition of sedimentary organic matter (OM). However, it is still unknown if the effects of C. cylindracea on both OM and small metazoans (i.e. meiofauna) can change according to di...
Article
Full-text available
Macroalgal forests are one of the most productive and valuable marine ecosystems, but yet strongly exposed to fragmentation and loss. Detailed large-scale information on their distribution is largely lacking, hindering conservation initiatives. In this study, a systematic effort to combine spatial data on Cystoseira C. Agardh canopies (Fucales, Pha...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic climate change, and global warming in particular, has strong and increasing impacts on marine ecosystems (Poloczanska et al., 2013; Halpern et al., 2015; Smale et al., 2019). The Mediterranean Sea is considered a marine biodiversity hotspot contributing to more than 7% of world’s marine biodiversity including a high percentage of ende...
Article
Full-text available
Extensive loss of macroalgal forests advocates for large-scale restoration interventions, to compensate habitat degradation and recover the associated ecological functions and services. Yet, restoration attempts have generally been limited to small spatial extensions, with the principal aim of developing efficient restoration techniques. Here, the...
Article
Full-text available
In the Anthropocene, marine ecosystems are rapidly shifting to new ecological states. Achieving effective conservation of marine biodiversity has become a fast‐moving target because of both global climate change and continuous shifts in marine policies. How prepared are we to deal with this crisis? We examined EU Member States Programs of Measures...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Marine bioconstructions such as coralligenous formations are hotspot of biodiversity and play a relevant ecological role in the preservation of biodiversity by providing carbon regulation, protection and nursery areas for several marine species. For this reason, the European Union Habitat Directive included them among priority habitats to be pr...
Article
Marine protected areas (MPAs) represent the main tool for halting the loss of marine biodiversity. However, there is increasing evidence concerning their limited capacity to reduce or eliminate some threats even within their own boundaries. Here, we analysed a Europe-wide dataset comprising 31,579 threats recorded in 1692 sites of the European Unio...
Chapter
Marine space is three dimensional, the turnover of life forms is rapid, defining a fourth dimension: time. The definition of ecologically significant spatial units calls for the spatio-temporal framing of significant ecological connections in terms of extra-specific (biogeochemical cycles), intra-specific (life cycles), and inter-specific (food web...
Preprint
Full-text available
Marine/maritime spatial planning (MSP) is intended as a process to apply an adaptive ecosystem-based approach in order to manage the oceans towards the sustainable use of marine resources. Several policy documents and research articles have identified the need for MSP to address change, intended as dynamic aspects from different drivers. However, p...
Article
Marine bioconstructions are biodiversity-rich, three-dimensional biogenic structures, regulating key ecological functions of benthic ecosystems worldwide. Tropical coral reefs are outstanding for their beauty, diversity and complexity, but analogous types of bioconstructions are also present in temperate seas. The main bioconstructions in the Medit...
Article
Full-text available
As a response to increasing human pressures on marine ecosystems, the legislation aimed at improving the conservation and management of marine coastal areas in European and Contiguous Seas (ECS) underwent crucial advances. ECS, however, still remain largely affected by increasing threats leading to biodiversity loss. Here, by using emblematic case...
Article
Full-text available
As a response to increasing human pressures on marine ecosystems, the legislation aimed at improving the conservation and management of marine coastal areas in European and Contiguous Seas (ECS) underwent crucial advances. ECS, however, still remain largely affected by increasing threats leading to biodiversity loss. Here, by using emblematic case...
Article
Full-text available
As a response to increasing human pressures on marine ecosystems, the legislation aimed at improving the conservation and management of marine coastal areas in European and Contiguous Seas (ECS) underwent crucial advances. ECS, however, still remain largely affected by increasing threats leading to biodiversity loss. Here, by using emblematic case...
Presentation
Talk at the SER Europe Conference 2018 - Restoration in the era of climate change. Reykjavik, Iceland, 9-13.09.2018
Chapter
Marine bioconstructions are biodiversity-rich, three-dimensional biogenic structures, regulating key ecological functions of benthic ecosystems worldwide. Tropical coral reefs are outstanding for their beauty, diversity and complexity, but analogous types of bioconstructions are also present in temperate seas. The main bioconstructions in the Medit...
Article
Full-text available
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are key tools to mitigate human impacts in coastal environments, promoting sustainable activities to conserve biodiversity. The designation of MPAs alone may not result in the lessening of some human threats, which is highly dependent on management goals and the related specific regulations that are adopted. Here, we d...
Preprint
Full-text available
: In the Mediterranean Sea, many species of Cystoseira , which are important habitat-forming species on shallow rocky bottoms, have gone missing from many coastal areas, impairing essential ecosystem services. Cystoseira crinita forests thrive in very shallow waters from sheltered environments and are currently regressing in several European shores...
Preprint
Full-text available
: In the Mediterranean Sea, many species of Cystoseira , which are important habitat-forming species on shallow rocky bottoms, have gone missing from many coastal areas, impairing essential ecosystem services. Cystoseira crinita forests thrive in very shallow waters from sheltered environments and are currently regressing in several European shores...
Preprint
Full-text available
A review of 573 studies on active restoration actions in the marine environment, published in the last 25 years, was carried out at global scale. We assessed how, where, at which spatial and temporal scales and under which socio-ecological settings restoration studies have been carried out, from very shallow to deep sea habitats. Results show that...
Preprint
Full-text available
A review of 573 studies on active restoration actions in the marine environment, published in the last 25 years, was carried out at global scale. We assessed how, where, at which spatial and temporal scales and under which socio-ecological settings restoration studies have been carried out, from very shallow to deep sea habitats. Results show that...
Preprint
Full-text available
: In the Mediterranean Sea, many species of Cystoseira , which are important habitat-forming species on shallow rocky bottoms, have gone missing from many coastal areas, impairing essential ecosystem services. Cystoseira crinita forests thrive in very shallow waters from sheltered environments and are currently regressing in several European shores...
Article
Full-text available
In the last decade, the 'Cumulative Pressure and Impact Assessment' (CPIA) approach emerged as a tool to map expected impacts on marine ecosystems. However, CPIA assumes a linear response of ecosystems to increasing level of cumulative pressure weighting sensitivity to different anthropogenic pressures through expert judgement. We applied CPIA to M...
Article
Full-text available
There is an increasing recognition of the importance of cultural ecosystem services of marine habitats for supporting the management of the marine environment. However, these services are still largely unknown compared to other ecosystem services (e.g. provisioning services) owing to the challenge of quantifying and valuing them. Linking human welf...
Technical Report
Full-text available
MERCES is producing a census of European marine key habitat maps, degraded habitat maps and investigating key habitat restoration potential.
Technical Report
Full-text available
The overall scope of MERCES Deliverable 1.2 is to review current knowledge regarding the major marine pressures placed upon marine ecosystems in EU waters and the mechanisms by which they impact habitats in order to determine potential restoration pathways.
Article
Full-text available
Caulerpa cylindracea (Sonder), among the most successful marine bio-invaders on a global scale, poses severe threats to biodiversity. However, the effects of this seaweed on the quantity and the biochemical composition of sedimentary organic matter are still poorly known. Since the whole set of sedimentary features affects the availability of subst...
Article
Changes occurring over a pluri-millennial span of time (6207-1767. yr B.P.) within the sponge assemblages present in two coralligenous pillars, about 60. cm high, collected at 20. m depth, inside the Marine Protected Area of Porto Cesareo (Ionian Sea, Mediterranean Sea) have been studied. The sponge diversity has been analyzed at generic level, usi...
Article
Full-text available
Globally, the spread of non-indigenous species in marine ecosystems is a major ecological and socio-economical concern. The need for long-term assessment on a large scale is a pre-requisite for understanding the drivers associated with their establishment and expansion. Here, the patterns of invasions of subtidal soft-bottom assemblages of shelled...
Article
Full-text available
This volume contains the main results of the EC FP7 “The Ocean of Tomorrow” Project CoCoNet, divided in two sections: 1) a set of guidelines to design networks of Marine Protected Areas in the Mediterranean and the Black Seas; 2) a smart wind chart that will allow evaluating the possibility of installing Offshore Wind Farms in both seas. The concep...
Poster
Full-text available
One of the main goals of MERCES project (http://www.merces-project.eu/) is to produce a census of available maps for marine habitats, along with their degradation status and restoration potential in the European Seas. To achieve this goal, we performed an extensive review and compiled a catalogue with mapping sources for (a) marine key-habitats, (b...
Article
Understanding the mechanisms underlying the complex seaweed-bacteria associations in nature may provide information on the fitness of an invasive host. This may require the use of different approaches. In this study, we employed, for the first time, the Biolog system-Ecoplates™ to analyze the functional diversity of the culturable fraction of the b...
Article
Full-text available
Cumulative human impacts have led to the degradation of marine ecosystems and the decline of biodiversity in the European and contiguous seas. Effective conservation measures are urgently needed to reverse these trends. Conservation must entail societal choices, underpinned by human values and worldviews that differ between the countries bordering...
Book
Full-text available
The European Red List of Habitats provides an overview of the risk of collapse (degree of endangerment) of marine, terrestrial and freshwater habitats in the European Union (EU28) and adjacent regions (EU28+), based on a consistent set of categories and criteria, and detailed data and expert knowledge from involved countries1. A total of 257 benthi...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, there is a growing interest towards the development of strategies for invasive seaweed control and exploitation as source of secondary metabolites. Here, we investigated the potential of exploitation in biotechnology and recycling options in eradication programs of the lipidic extract of the Mediterranean invasive seaweed Caulerpa cylindr...