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The fascial system of the breast has, to date, only been described in general terms. This anatomical study has developed two distinct methods for better defining existing breast structures such as the inframammary fold, as well as defining previously unnamed ligamentous structures. The authors harvested and examined 40 frozen, entire chest wall cad...
Venous congestion leading to partial or total nipple necrosis is a relatively uncommon complication of breast reduction and mastopexy procedures but still occurs, particularly in larger reduction procedures. This is largely preventable if the surgeon has an understanding of the venous drainage to the nipple and carefully preserves it. An anatomical...
Standardized outcome measurement in wound healing has been an elusive goal. Whilst research into wound healing science and technology continues to progress rapidly, the lack of a uniform outcome assessment is making comparative analysis of results difficult. This paper seeks to outline the reported clinical, physiological, and histological outcomes...