Simona Sacchini

Simona Sacchini
Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | ULPGC · Instituto Universitario de Sanidad Animal y Seguridad Alimentaria (IUSA)

DVM, PhD

About

63
Publications
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Publications

Publications (63)
Article
Full-text available
Neuromelanin (NM) is a dark polymer pigment that is located mostly in the human substantia nigra, and in the locus ceruleus, referred to as “the blue spot”. NM increases linearly with age, and has been described mainly in the human brain; however, it also occurs in the neurons of monkeys, horses, giraffes, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs, rats, and even...
Article
Full-text available
This study analyses the aortic wall structure in nine cetacean species with deep diving habits belonging to four Odontoceti families: Ziphiidae, Kogiidae, Physteridae, and Delphinidae. Samples of ascending, thoracic and abdominal aorta were processed for histological and morphometric studies. The elastic component was higher in the proximal aortic...
Article
Full-text available
Herpesviruses are causative agents of meningitis and encephalitis in cetaceans, which are among the main leading known natural causes of death in these species. Brain samples from 103 stranded cetaceans were retrospectively screened for the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the brain. Molecular detection of Cetacean Morbillivirus was performed in HV p...
Research Proposal
https://www.mdpi.com/journal/vetsci/special_issues/animal_neurodegenerative_diseases
Article
Full-text available
Cetacean brain sampling may be an arduous task due to the difficulty of collecting and histologically preparing such rare and large specimens. Thus, one of the main challenges of working with cetaceans’ brains is to establish a valid methodology for an optimal manipulation and fixation of the brain tissue, which allows the samples to be viable for...
Article
Full-text available
Estimating cetacean interactions with fishery activities is challenging. Bycatch and chronic entanglements are responsible for thousands of cetacean deaths per year globally. This study represents the first systematic approach to the postmortem investigation of fishery interactions in stranded cetaceans in the Canary Islands. We retrospectively stu...
Article
Full-text available
Estimating cetacean interactions with fishery activities is challenging. Bycatch and chronic entanglements are responsible for thousands of cetacean deaths per year globally. This study represents the first systematic approach to the postmortem investigation of fishery interactions in stranded cetaceans in the Canary Islands. We retrospectively stu...
Article
Full-text available
Hypoxia could be a possible risk factor for neurodegenerative alterations in cetaceans’ brain. Among toothed whales, the beaked whales are particularly cryptic and routinely dive deeper than 1,000 m for about one hour in order to hunt squids and fishes. Samples of frontal cerebral and cerebellar cortex were collected from nine animals, representin...
Article
Full-text available
Fat embolism is the mechanical blockage of blood vessels by circulating fat particles. It is frequently related to traumas involving soft tissues and fat-containing bones. Different techniques have been used for decades to demonstrate histologically fat emboli, being the extremely toxic post-fixation with osmium tetroxide one of the most used techn...
Article
Full-text available
Simple Summary: Hearing is arguably the primary sensory and communication channel for cetaceans. The study of diverse physiological and pathological events involving this system, requires standardized and reliable protocols for processing valuable and scarce samples such as the ears of cetaceans. As part of our research, standardized tissue process...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Alzheimer’s disease results from the interplay of multiple risk factors and their effects. Diving mammals may be routinely exposed to severe hypoxia when submerged. Among toothed whales, the beaked whales are particularly cryptic and routinely dive deeper than 1,000 m for about one hour in order to hunt deep-water squid and fish. We hyp...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Brucella spp. isolation is increasingly reported in cetaceans, although associated pathologies, including lesions of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems, are less frequently described. Concerning the nervous system, Brucella sp. infection causing meningitis, meningoencephalitis or meningoencephalomyelitis have been extensively repo...
Data
Main microscopic findings in prescapular, pulmonary, mediastinal and mesenteric lymph nodes of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Canary Islands (Spain) and Italy, and Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from Brazil. (DOCX)
Data
Main microscopic findings in the respiratory system of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) and Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Canary Islands (Spain) and Italy, and Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from Brazil. (DOCX)
Data
Template for recording histopathological findings in the central nervous system, including prosencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon. (DOCX)
Data
Template for recording histopathological findings in the respiratory system. (DOCX)
Data
Gross and microscopic pathologic findings, and most probable cause(s) of stranding and/or death (COD) in Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) included in this study. (DOCX)
Data
Main microscopic findings in central nervous system of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Canary Islands (Spain) and Italy, and Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from Brazil. (DOCX)
Data
Main microscopic findings in spleen of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Canary Islands (Spain) and Italy, and Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from Brazil. (DOCX)
Data
Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) brain; Mediosagittal aspect. A) Areas for neuroanatomical sampling (indicated as black rectangles) in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose dolphins from the Canary Islands (Spain). AcL, anterior cerebellar lobe; H, hypothalamus; Hy, hypophysis; Met, metencephalon; My, myelencephalon; OrL, o...
Data
Template for recording histopathological findings in the lymphoid system (lymph nodes, spleen). (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) is a major natural cause of morbidity and mortality in cetaceans worldwide and results in epidemic and endemic fatalities. The pathogenesis of CeMV has not been fully elucidated, and questions remain regarding tissue tropism and the mechanisms of immunosuppression. We compared the histopathologic and viral immunohistoc...
Article
Full-text available
This study describes the pathologic findings and most probable causes of death (CD) of 224 cetaceans stranded along the coastline of the Canary Islands (Spain) over a 7-year period, 2006–2012. Most probable CD, grouped as pathologic categories (PCs), was identified in 208/224 (92.8%) examined animals. Within natural PCs, those associated with good...
Data
Tissues submitted for microbiological analysis and results from a subset of 224 stranded and necropsied cetaceans. (DOCX)
Data
Main morphologic and etiologic diagnoses in animals included in ‘natural pathology associated with significant loss of nutritional status’. (DOCX)
Data
Main morphologic and etiologic diagnoses in animals included in ‘vessel collision’. (DOCX)
Data
Main morphologic and etiologic diagnoses in animals included in ‘pathology associated with good nutritional status’. (DOCX)
Data
Main morphologic and etiologic diagnoses in animals included in ‘neonatal and perinatal pathology’. (DOCX)
Data
Main morphologic and etiologic diagnoses in animals included in ‘intra- and interspecific traumatic interactions’. (DOCX)
Data
Biological and epidemiological data of 224 stranded and necropsied cetaceans. Sex: female (F), male (M). Age: fetus (F), neonate (N), calf (C), juvenile (Jv), subadult (Sad), adult (Ad). Stranding date (SD; mm/dd/yy). Type of stranding (TS). Stranding location, island (IS): Gran Canaria (GC), Fuerteventura (FT), Lanzarote (LZ), Tenerife (TF), La Go...
Data
Details of immunohistochemical analyses performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from selected cetacean species, including primary antibody (Ab), manufacturer, clonality, dilution, pretreatment, incubation, secondary Ab, manufacturer, and visualization system. CD: Cluster of differentiation; CK: cytokeratin; GFAP: glial fibril...
Data
Main morphologic and etiologic diagnoses in animals included in ‘interaction with fishing activities’. (DOCX)
Data
Main morphologic and etiologic diagnoses in animals included in ‘foreign body-associated pathology’. (DOCX)
Article
Marine pollution, overrepresented by plastic, is a growing concern worldwide. However, there is little knowledge on occurrence and detrimental impacts of marine debris in cetaceans. To partially fill in this gap of knowledge, we aimed to investigate the occurrence and pathologies associated with foreign bodies (FBs) in a large cohort of cetaceans (...
Conference Paper
Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, should be investigated in toothed whales and considered as a possible cause of stranding. In the study, we showed the preliminary results on the beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide and phosphorylated tau protein expression, the pathological hallmarks of AD, in different species of toothed whales.
Article
Full-text available
The locus coeruleus (LC) is the largest catecholaminergic nucleus and extensively projects to widespread areas of the brain and spinal cord. The LC is the largest source of noradrenaline in the brain. To date, the only examined Delphinidae species for the LC has been a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). In our experimental series including di...
Article
Full-text available
Diving air-breathing vertebrates have long been considered protected against decompression sickness (DCS) through anatomical, physiological, and behavioural adaptations. However, an acute systemic gas and fat embolic syndrome similar to DCS in human divers was described in beaked whales that stranded in temporal and spatial association with militar...
Chapter
Full-text available
The study of animal welfare continues to struggle with two persistent, interrelated problems: how to define animal welfare, and how to determine which measures should be used to evaluate it. One potential indicator of an animal’s welfare is the presence or absence of stress, or anything that seriously threatens homeostasis. The actual or perceived...
Data
Technical Appendix. Microscopic images of tissue samples from 2 short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) from the eastern Atlantic Ocean stranded along the Canary Islands, Spain, 2015.
Article
Full-text available
An adult male striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded alive at Arico, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. The dolphin died shortly after stranding, and a complete postmortem examination was performed. The most remarkable gross findings were two fleshy masses of approximately 1 cm diameter, near the tip of the penis. These masses were composed...
Article
A uterine prolapse associated with a leiomyoma (fibroid) was observed in a live-stranded Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis). A 7 cm segment of the reproductive tract including the cervix, uterine neck and caudal uterine body had intussuscepted and prolapsed into the cranial vaginal vault. In the leading edge of the intussuscepted/prolaps...
Article
This report describes the gross, microscopical and immunohistochemical features of a high-grade astrocytoma (glioblastoma multiforme) in an adult male Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis). On necropsy examination, a 5 × 2.5 × 2 cm, poorly demarcated, red, friable and locally expansile mass effaced the thalamus and the left periventricular...
Article
This report describes the gross, microscopical and immunohistochemical features of a high-grade astrocytoma (glioblastoma multiforme) in an adult male Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis). On necropsy examination, a 5 × 2.5 × 2 cm, poorly demarcated, red, friable and locally expansile mass effaced the thalamus and the left periventricular...
Article
Full-text available
Background The capacity for herpesvirus to cause disease in cetaceans is unclear and may be varied depending on the different conditions of individuals and between different species. Kidney pathology and intralesional virus-associated infection have been rarely reported in cetaceans. Result On April 2004, an old adult male Blainville’s beaked whal...
Article
Full-text available
Gas embolic lesions linked to military sonar have been described in stranded cetaceans including beaked whales. These descriptions suggest that gas bubbles in marine mammal tissues may be more common than previously thought. In this study we have analyzed gas amount (by gas score) and gas composition within different decomposition codes using a sta...
Article
Full-text available
Gas embolic lesions linked to military sonar have been described in stranded cetaceans including beaked whales. These descriptions suggest that gas bubbles in marine mammal tissues may be more common than previously thought. In this study we have analyzed gas amount (by gas score) and gas composition within different decomposition codes using a sta...
Article
Full-text available
Vascular tumors and disorders, like angiomatosis, are rarely described in cetacean species. A retrospective histological study was carried out on lung samples from 35 common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) stranded in the Canary Islands coasts looking for morphological vascular changes and likely related causes. Twenty-five out of thirty-five (71%) co...
Article
Full-text available
In July 2004, four Ziphius cavirostris stranded in the Canary Islands several days after an international naval exercises were conducted north of the Canary Islands. During the maneuvers high intensity mid-frequency sonar was used. Three of the animals were fully necropsied. Abundant fresh non-digestive aliment was found in all stomachs. Hemorrhage...
Article
Full-text available
Gas-bubble lesions were described in cetaceans stranded in spatio-temporal concordance with naval exercises using high-powered sonars. A behaviourally induced decompression sickness-like disease was proposed as a plausible causal mechanism, although these findings remain scientifically controversial. Investigations into the constituents of the gas...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
This Ph.D. research is focused on the diagnosis of natural and anthropogenic traumatic interactions in stranded cetaceans in the Canary Islands, based on full anatomopathological studies.
Project
Diagnosis, Research and Teaching Canary Islands Stranding Network. International Collaboration on Unusual cetacean mass mortalities. World wide investigation on cetacean pathology. Pathology as a tool for Cetacean Conservation and Welfare