Simon White

Simon White
Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics | MPA · Cosmic strcture formation

MA, PhD, DSc

About

818
Publications
63,083
Reads
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158,981
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1994 - present
Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
Position
  • Managing Director
August 1984 - June 1990
The University of Arizona
Position
  • Professor
September 1980 - June 1984
University of California, Berkeley
Position
  • Senior Researcher

Publications

Publications (818)
Preprint
Full-text available
I present an analytic model for the early post-collapse evolution of a spherical density peak on the coherence scale of the initial fluctuations in a universe filled with collisionless and pressure-free "dust". On a time-scale which is short compared to the peak's collapse time $t_0$, its inner regions settle into an equilibrium cusp with a power-l...
Preprint
We use very high resolution cosmological zoom simulations to follow the early evolution of twelve first-generation haloes formed from gaussian initial conditions with scale-free power spectra truncated on small scales by a gaussian. Initial collapse occurs with a diverse range of sheet- or filament-like caustic morphologies, but in almost all cases...
Preprint
We employ several galaxy formation models, in particular, L-GALAXIES, IllustrisTNG, and EAGLE, as well as observational samples from SDSS and DESI, to investigate galactic conformity, the observed large-scale correlation between the star-formation properties of central (primary) galaxies and those of their neighbours. To analyse the models and obse...
Article
We make use of z = 0 samples of strongly barred and unbarred disc galaxies from the TNG100 and TNG50 cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to assess the performance of the simple disc instability criterion proposed by Efstathiou, Lake & Negroponte (1982) (ELN-criterion). We find that strongly barred galaxies generally assemble earlier, are more s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Assessing in a simple manner the stability of disc galaxies against bar formation is a considerable challenge, especially for semi-analytic models of galaxy formation. Thus far, the standard approach to address this has been the analytical criterion originally proposed by Efstathiou, Lake, and Negroponte (ELN-criterion), although several works have...
Article
We compare the surface brightness profile and morphology of the Galactic Centre Excess (GCE) identified in wide-angle γ-ray maps from the Fermi-Large Area Telescope to dark matter annihilation predictions derived from high-resolution ΛCDM magnetohydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation. These simulations produce isolated, disc-dominated galaxie...
Preprint
We compare the the surface brightness profile and morphology of the Galactic Centre Excess (GCE) identified in wide-angle $\gamma$-ray maps from the Fermi-Large Area Telescope to dark matter annihilation predictions derived from high-resolution $\Lambda$CDM magnetohydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation. These simulations produce isolated, dis...
Article
This paper aims to quantify how the lowest halo mass that can be detected with galaxy-galaxy strong gravitational lensing depends on the quality of the observations and the characteristics of the observed lens systems. Using simulated data, we measure the lowest detectable NFW mass at each location of the lens plane, in the form of detailed sensiti...
Preprint
This paper aims to quantify how the lowest halo mass that can be detected with galaxy-galaxy strong gravitational lensing depends on the quality of the observations and the characteristics of the observed lens systems. Using simulated data, we measure the lowest detectable NFW mass at each location of the lens plane, in the form of detailed \emph{s...
Article
We present “sheet+release” simulations that reliably follow the evolution of dark matter structure at and below the dark matter free-streaming scale, where instabilities in traditional N-body simulations create a large population of spurious artificial haloes. Our simulations sample a large range of power-spectrum cutoff functions, parameterized th...
Preprint
We present "sheet+release" simulations that reliably follow the evolution of dark matter structure at and below the dark matter free-streaming scale, where instabilities in traditional N-body simulations create a large population of spurious artificial haloes. Our simulations sample a large range of power-spectrum cutoff functions, parameterized th...
Article
We investigate the formation of the satellite galaxy population of a Milky Way-mass halo in a very highly resolved magneto-hydrodynamic cosmological zoom-in simulation (baryonic mass resolution mb = 800 $\rm M_{\odot }$). We show that the properties of the central star-forming galaxy, such as the radial stellar surface density profile and star form...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present a detailed overview of the science goals and predictions for the Prime-Cam receiver being constructed by the CCAT-prime collaboration for dedicated use on the Fred Young Submillimeter Telescope (FYST). The FYST is a wide-field, 6-m aperture submillimeter telescope being built (first light in late 2023) by an international consortium of i...
Article
The pattern speed with which galactic bars rotate is intimately linked to the amount of dark matter in the inner regions of their host galaxies. In particular, dark matter haloes act to slow down bars via torques exerted through dynamical friction. Observational studies of barred galaxies tend to find that bars rotate fast, while hydrodynamical cos...
Article
We present a variation of the recently updated Munich semi-analytical galaxy formation model, L-Galaxies, with a new gas stripping method. Extending earlier work, we directly measure the local environmental properties of galaxies to formulate a more accurate treatment of ram-pressure stripping for all galaxies. We fully recalibrate the modified L-G...
Preprint
We investigate the formation of the satellite galaxy population of a Milky Way-mass halo in a very highly resolved magneto-hydrodynamic cosmological zoom-in simulation (baryonic mass resolution $m_b =$ 800 $\rm M_{\odot}$). We show that the properties of the central star-forming galaxy, such as the radial stellar surface density profile and star fo...
Article
We present a modified version of the L-Galaxies 2020 semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution, which includes significantly increased direct metal enrichment of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) by supernovae (SNe). These more metal-rich outflows do not require increased mass-loading factors, in contrast to some other galaxy evolution models. This mod...
Article
We present anisotropic ‘separate universe’ simulations which modify the N-body code gadget4 in order to represent a large-scale tidal field through an anisotropic expansion factor. These simulations are used to measure the linear, quasi-linear and nonlinear response of the matter power spectrum to a spatially uniform trace-free tidal field up to wa...
Article
Full-text available
We study the two-dimensional (2D) line-of-sight velocity ( V los ) field of the low-inclination, late-type galaxy VV304a. The resulting 2D kinematic map reveals a global, coherent, and extended perturbation that is likely associated with a recent interaction with the massive companion VV304b. We use multiband imaging and a suite of test-particle si...
Article
We perform a comparison, object-by-object and statistically, between the Munich semi-analytical model, L-Galaxies, and the IllustrisTNG hydrodynamical simulations. By running L-Galaxies on the IllustrisTNG dark matter-only merger trees, we identify the same galaxies in the two models. This allows us to compare the stellar mass, star formation rate...
Article
We use six, high-resolution ΛCDM simulations of galaxy formation to study how emission from dark matter annihilation is affected by baryonic processes. These simulations produce isolated, disc-dominated galaxies with structure, stellar populations, and stellar and halo masses comparable to those of the Milky Way. They resolve dark matter structures...
Preprint
We use six, high-resolution $\Lambda$CDM simulations of galaxy formation to study how emission from dark matter annihilation is affected by baryonic processes. These simulations produce isolated, disc-dominated galaxies with structure, stellar populations, and stellar and halo masses comparable to those of the Milky Way. They resolve dark matter st...
Preprint
Full-text available
The angular velocity with which galactic bars rotate is intimately linked to the amount of dark matter in the inner regions of their host galaxies. In particular, dark matter haloes act to slow down bars via torques exerted through dynamical friction. Observational studies of barred galaxies tend to find that bars rotate fast, while hydrodynamical...
Preprint
We study the two dimensional (2D) line-of-sight velocity ($V_{\rm los}$) field of the low-inclination, late-type galaxy VV304a. The resulting 2D kinematic map reveals a global, coherent and extended perturbation that is likely associated with a recent interaction with the massive companion VV304b. We use multi-band imaging and a suite of test parti...
Preprint
We present a variation of the recently updated Munich semi-analytical galaxy formation model, L-Galaxies, with a new gas stripping method. Extending earlier work, we directly measure the local environmental properties of galaxies to formulate a more accurate treatment of ram-pressure stripping for all galaxies. We fully re-calibrate the modified L-...
Preprint
We present a modified version of the L-GALAXIES 2020 semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution, which includes significantly increased direct metal enrichment of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) by supernovae (SNe). These more metal-rich outflows do not require increased mass-loading factors, in contrast to some other galaxy evolution models. This mod...
Article
We present constraints on the emergence and evolution of passive galaxies with the empirical model emerge, which reproduces the evolution of stellar mass functions (SMFs), specific and cosmic star formation rates since $z$ ≈ 10, ‘quenched’ galaxy fractions, and correlation functions. At fixed halo mass, present-day passive galaxies are more massive...
Article
Action space synthesizes the orbital information of stars and is well-suited to analyse the rich kinematic substructure of the disc in the Gaia DR2 radial velocity sample (RVS). We revisit the strong perturbation induced in the Milky Way (MW) disc by an m = 2 bar, using test particle simulations and the actions (JR, Lz, Jz) estimated in an axisymme...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Full-text available
Cosmological models in which dark matter consists of cold elementary particles predict that the dark halo population should extend to masses many orders of magnitude below those at which galaxies can form1–3. Here we report a cosmological simulation of the formation of present-day haloes over the full range of observed halo masses (20 orders of mag...
Preprint
The extreme astrophysical processes and conditions that characterize the early Universe are expected to result in young galaxies that are dynamically different from those observed today. This is because the strong effects associated with galaxy mergers and supernova explosions would lead to most young star-forming galaxies being dynamically hot, ch...
Article
Full-text available
We present measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential using the final Planck 2018 temperature and polarization data. Using polarization maps filtered to account for the noise anisotropy, we increase the significance of the detection of lensing in the polarization maps from 5σ to 9σ. Combined with temperature, lensing is...
Article
Full-text available
The European Space Agency’s Planck satellite, which was dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched on 14 May 2009. It scanned the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously between 12 August 2009 and 23 October 2013, producing deep, high-resolution, all-sky maps in nine frequency bands from 30 to 857 GHz....
Article
Full-text available
We report on the implications for cosmic inflation of the 2018 release of the Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements. The results are fully consistent with those reported using the data from the two previous Planck cosmological releases, but have smaller uncertainties thanks to improvements in the characterization of polar...
Article
Full-text available
We present cosmological parameter results from the final full-mission Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies, combining information from the temperature and polarization maps and the lensing reconstruction. Compared to the 2015 results, improved measurements of large-scale polarization allow the reionization optic...
Article
Full-text available
The extreme astrophysical processes and conditions that characterize the early Universe are expected to result in young galaxies that are dynamically different from those observed today1–5. This is because the strong effects associated with galaxy mergers and supernova explosions would lead to most young star-forming galaxies being dynamically hot,...
Article
We investigate whether the galaxy and star formation model used for the Auriga simulations can produce a realistic globular cluster (GC) population. We compare statistics of GC candidate star particles in the Auriga haloes with catalogues of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) GC populations. We find that the Auriga simulations do produce suffic...
Article
At early times, dark matter has a thermal velocity dispersion of unknown amplitude which, for warm dark matter (WDM) models, can influence the formation of non-linear structure on observable scales. We propose a new scheme to simulate cosmologies with a small-scale suppression of perturbations that combines two previous methods in a way that avoids...
Article
We explore the chemodynamical properties of a sample of barred galaxies in the Auriga magnetohydrodynamical cosmological zoom-in simulations, which form boxy/peanut (b/p) bulges, and compare these to the Milky Way (MW). We show that the Auriga galaxies which best reproduce the chemodynamical properties of stellar populations in the MW bulge have qu...
Preprint
We perform a comparison, object-by-object and statistically, between the Munich semi-analytical model, L-Galaxies, and the IllustrisTNG hydrodynamical simulations. By running L-Galaxies on the IllustrisTNG dark matter-only merger trees, we identify the same galaxies in the two models. This allows us to compare the stellar mass, star formation rate...
Article
We use the Millennium and Millennium-II simulations to illustrate the Tessellation-Level-Tree (tlt), a hierarchical tree structure linking density peaks in a field constructed by voronoi tessellation of the particles in a cosmological N-body simulation. The tlt uniquely partitions the simulation particles into disjoint subsets, each associated with...
Preprint
We present anisotropic ``separate universe'' simulations which modify the N-body code Gadget-4 in order to represent a large-scale tidal field through an anisotropic expansion factor. These simulations are used to measure the linear, quasi-linear and nonlinear response of the matter power spectrum to a spatially uniform trace-free tidal field up to...
Preprint
We have updated the Munich galaxy formation model, L-Galaxies, to follow the radial distributions of stars and atomic and molecular gas in galaxy discs. We include an H2-based star-formation law, as well as a detailed chemical-enrichment model with explicit mass-dependent delay times for SN-II, SN-Ia and AGB stars. Information about the star format...
Article
We have updated the Munich galaxy formation model, L-galaxies, to follow the radial distributions of stars and atomic and molecular gas in galaxy discs. We include an H2-based star-formation law, as well as a detailed chemical-enrichment model with explicit mass-dependent delay times for SN-II, SN-Ia, and AGB stars. Information about the star forma...
Article
Using a set of 15 high-resolution magnetohydrodynamic cosmological simulations of Milky Way formation, we investigate the origin of the baryonic material found in stars at redshift zero. We find that roughly half of this material originates from subhalo/satellite systems and half is smoothly accreted from the intergalactic medium. About $90 {{\ \rm...
Preprint
Dark matter haloes are the basic units of all cosmic structure. They grew by gravitational amplification of weak initial density fluctuations that are still visible on large scales in the cosmic microwave background radiation. Galaxies formed within relatively massive haloes as gas cooled and condensed at their centres, but many hypotheses for the...
Preprint
We explore a sample of barred galaxies in the Auriga magneto-hydrodynamical cosmological zoom-in simulations that form boxy/peanut (b/p) bulges. The morphology of bars and b/p's vary for different mono-abundance populations, according to their kinematic properties, which are in turn set by the galaxy's assembly history. We find that the Auriga gala...
Article
We study the galactic bulges in the Auriga simulations, a suite of 30 cosmological magneto-hydrodynamical zoom-in simulations of late-type galaxies in Milky Way sized dark matter haloes performed with the moving-mesh code arepo. We aim to characterize bulge formation mechanisms in this large suite of galaxies simulated at high resolution in a fully...
Preprint
We present constraints on the formation and evolution of early-type galaxies (ETGs) with the empirical model EMERGE. The parameters of this model are adjusted so that it reproduces the evolution of stellar mass functions, specific star formation rates, and cosmic star formation rates since $z\approx10$ as well as 'quenched' galaxy fractions and cor...
Preprint
We use the Millennium and Millennium-II simulations to illustrate the Tessellation-Level-Tree (TLT), a hierarchical tree structure linking density peaks in a field constructed by voronoi tessellation of the particles in a cosmological N-body simulation. The TLT uniquely partitions the simulation particles into disjoint subsets, each associated with...
Preprint
Using a set of 15 high-resolution magnetohydrodynamic cosmological simulations of Milky Way formation, we investigate the origin of the baryonic material found in stars at redshift zero. We find that roughly half of this material originates from subhalo/satellite systems and half is smoothly accreted from the Inter-Galactic Medium (IGM). About $90...
Preprint
We investigate whether the galaxy and star formation model used for the Auriga simulations can produce a realistic GC population. We compare statistics of GC candidate star particles in the Auriga haloes with catalogues of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) GC populations. We find that the Auriga simulations do produce sufficient stellar mass f...
Preprint
At early times dark matter has a thermal velocity dispersion of unknown amplitude which, for warm dark matter models, can influence the formation of nonlinear structure on observable scales. We propose a new scheme to simulate cosmologies with a small-scale suppression of perturbations that combines two previous methods in a way that avoids the num...
Article
We introduce a local background environment (LBE) estimator that can be measured in and around every galaxy or its dark matter subhalo in high-resolution cosmological simulations. The LBE is designed to capture the influence of environmental effects such as ram-pressure stripping (RPS) on the formation and evolution of galaxies in semi-analytical m...
Article
We investigate the impact of dynamical streams and substructure on estimates of the local escape speed and total mass of Milky-Way-mass galaxies from modelling the high-velocity tail of local halo stars. We use a suite of high-resolution magnetohydrodynamical cosmological zoom-in simulations that resolve phase space substructure in local volumes ar...
Article
We explore the origin of phase-space substructures revealed by the second Gaia data release in the disc of the Milky Way, such as the ridges in the Vφ-r plane, the undulations in the Vφ-r-Vr space and the streams in the Vφ-Vr plane. We use a collisionless N-body simulation with co-spatial thin and thick discs, along with orbit integration, to study...
Preprint
We study the galactic bulges in the Auriga simulations, a suite of thirty cosmological magneto-hydrodynamical zoom-in simulations of late-type galaxies in Milky Way-sized dark matter haloes performed with the moving-mesh code AREPO. We aim to characterize bulge formation mechanisms in this large suite of galaxies simulated at high resolution in a f...
Article
We analyse the orbital kinematics of the Milky Way (MW) satellite system utilizing the latest systemic proper motions for 38 satellites based on data from Gaia Data Release 2. Combining these data with distance and line-of-sight velocity measurements from the literature, we use a likelihood method to model the velocity anisotropy, β, as a function...
Preprint
Action space synthesizes the orbital information of stars and is well-suited to analyse the rich amount of kinematic disk substructure in the Gaia DR2 radial velocity sample (RVS). In this work, we revisit one of the strongest perturbers in the Milky Way (MW) disk: the m=2 bar. We investigate how its resonances affect the actions of individual test...
Preprint
We investigate the impact of dynamical streams and substructure on estimates of the local escape speed and total mass of Milky Way-mass galaxies from modelling the high velocity tail of local halo stars. We use a suite of high-resolution, magneto-hydrodynamical cosmological zoom-in simulations, which resolve phase space substructure in local volume...
Article
We use the Henriques et al. version of the Munich galaxy formation model (L-GALAXIES) to investigate why the halo and stellar mass scales above which galaxies are quenched are constant with redshift and coincide with the scale, where baryons are most efficiently converted into stars. This model assumes that central galaxies are quenched by active g...
Preprint
We introduce a Local Background Environment (LBE) estimator that can be measured in and around every galaxy or its dark matter subhalo in high-resolution cosmological simulations. The LBE is designed to capture the influence of environmental effects such as ram-pressure stripping on the formation and evolution of galaxies in semi-analytical models....
Preprint
Full-text available
We explore the origin of phase-space substructures in the disc of the Milky Way, such as the ridges in the $V_{\phi}$-$r$ plane, the undulations in the $V_{\phi}$-$r$-$V_r$ space and the streams in the $V_{\phi}$-$V_r$ plane, seen in the second Gaia data release. We use a collisionless N-body simulation with co-spatial thin and thick discs to study...
Preprint
We analyse the orbital kinematics of the Milky Way (MW) satellite system utilizing the latest systemic proper motions for 38 satellites based on data from $Gaia$ Data Release 2. Combining these data with distance and line-of-sight velocity measurements from the literature, we use a likelihood method to model the velocity anisotropy, $\beta$, as a f...
Preprint
We use the Henriques et al. (2015) version of the Munich galaxy formation model (L-GALAXIES) to investigate why the halo and stellar mass scales above which galaxies are quenched are constant with redshift and coincide with the scale where baryons are most efficiently converted into stars. This model assumes that central galaxies are quenched by AG...
Preprint
Full-text available
The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, which was dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched on 14 May 2009. It scanned the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously between 12 August 2009 and 23 October 2013, producing deep, high-resolution, all-sky maps in nine frequency bands from 30 to 857GHz. T...
Preprint
Full-text available
We report on the implications for cosmic inflation of the 2018 Release of the Planck CMB anisotropy measurements. The results are fully consistent with the two previous Planck cosmological releases, but have smaller uncertainties thanks to improvements in the characterization of polarization at low and high multipoles. Planck temperature, polarizat...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present cosmological parameter results from the final full-mission Planck measurements of the CMB anisotropies. We find good consistency with the standard spatially-flat 6-parameter $\Lambda$CDM cosmology having a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations (denoted "base $\Lambda$CDM" in this paper), from polarization, temperature, and...
Preprint
We present measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential using the final $\textit{Planck}$ 2018 temperature and polarization data. We increase the significance of the detection of lensing in the polarization maps from $5\,\sigma$ to $9\,\sigma$. Combined with temperature, lensing is detected at $40\,\sigma$. We present an...
Preprint
Full-text available
This is a personal and historical essay based on the Shaw Prize Lecture given in Hong Kong in September 2017 in association with the 2017 Shaw Prize in Astronomy.
Article
Full-text available
We examine the stellar haloes of the Auriga simulations, a suite of thirty cosmological magneto-hydrodynamical high-resolution simulations of Milky Way-mass galaxies performed with the moving-mesh code AREPO. We study halo global properties and radial profiles out to $\sim 150$ kpc for each individual galaxy. The Auriga haloes are diverse in their...
Article
In this paper we carry out anisotropic "separate universe" simulations by including a large-scale tidal field in the N-body code \textsc{gadget}4 using an anisotropic expansion factor $A_{ij}$. We use the code in a pure \textit{particle-mesh} (PM) mode to simulate the evolution of 16 realizations of an initial density field with and without a large...
Article
We compare the transverse velocity dispersions recently measured within the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy to the predictions of previously published dynamical models. These provide good fits to the observed number count and velocity dispersion profiles of metal-rich and metal-poor stars both in cored and in cusped potentials. At the projected ra...