Simon John More

Simon John More
University College Dublin | UCD · Centre for Veterinary Epidemiology and Risk Analysis (CVERA)

About

376
Publications
87,814
Reads
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7,992
Citations
Citations since 2017
108 Research Items
4442 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
December 2003 - present
University College Dublin
Position
  • Professor of Veterinary Epidemiology and Risk Analysis

Publications

Publications (376)
Article
Full-text available
Background The cattle sector is the most important economic production unit of the Irish farming and agri-food sector. Despite its relevance, there has been limited quantitative information about the structure of differing cattle production types and of the connections between them. This paper addresses this gap by providing, for the first time, an...
Article
We used logistic regression to investigate whether the risk of an Irish cattle herd undergoing a bovine tuberculosis (bTB) breakdown increased with the size of the Ingoing Contact Chain (ICC) of previous herd to herd cattle movements, in a sequence up to eight moves back from the most recent, direct, movement into the herd. We further examined whet...
Article
Full-text available
Background In Ireland between 2008 and 2022, intramammary antimicrobial (AM) products could be prescribed by a veterinary practitioner under what was known as Schedule 8 (or remote) prescribing. Under this prescribing route, an annual herd visit was not required when criteria were met as outlined in Animal Remedies Regulation 2007 to 2017 (statutor...
Article
Full-text available
Healthcare workers (HCWs) have increased exposure and subsequent risk of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). This case-control study was conducted to investigate the contemporaneous risks associated with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection amongst HCWs following in-work exposure to a confirmed coronavirus disease...
Article
Johne’s disease (bovine paratuberculosis) is an endemic disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map). Map is transmitted between herds primarily through movement of infected but undetected animals. Within infected herds, possible control strategies include improving herd hygiene by reducing calf exposure to faeces from co...
Article
Full-text available
Honey bees are key insect pollinators, providing important economic and ecological value for human beings and ecosystems. This has triggered the development of several monitoring methods for assessing the temporal development of colony size, food storage, brood and pathogens. Nonetheless, most of these methods are based on visual assessments that a...
Conference Paper
Objective: In the process of eradication of M.bovis in an area, quantification of the reproduction ratio parameter (R) is important to assess the current situation and to guide improvement of the eradication effort. For eradication we strive to have R<1 and thus we want to know during the process how close R is to 1. However, for an infection that...
Article
Full-text available
Bovine paratuberculosis is an endemic disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map). Map is mainly transmitted between herds through movement of infected but undetected animals. Our objective was to investigate the effect of observed herd characteristics on Map spread on a national scale in Ireland. Herd characteristics in...
Article
In the last decade and a half, emerging vector-borne diseases have become a substantial threat to cattle across Europe. To mitigate the impact of the emergence of new diseases, outbreaks must be detected early. However, the clinical signs associated with many diseases may be nonspecific. Furthermore, there is often a delay in the development of new...
Article
The STOC free project constructed a generic framework that allows a standardised and harmonised description of different control programmes (CP) for cattle diseases. The STOC free model can be used to determine the confidence of freedom from infection that has been achieved in disease CPs, in support of an ongoing assessment of progress towards out...
Article
Full-text available
The Veterinary Medicines Regulation (EU 2019/6) came into force in all EU member states on 28 January 2022. This regulation places particular emphasis on prudent and responsible antimicrobial use in food animal production. Key changes include restrictions on the prophylactic use of antimicrobials in animals, and the possibility to reserve certain a...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid Antigen Diagnostic Tests (RADTs) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 offer advantages in that they are cheaper and faster than currently used PCR tests but have reduced sensitivity and specificity. One potential application of RADTs is to facilitate gatherings of individuals, through testing of attendees at the point of, or immediately prior to e...
Article
Full-text available
Countries have implemented control programmes (CPs) for cattle diseases such as bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) that are tailored to each country-specific situation. Practical methods are needed to assess the output of these CPs in terms of the confidence of freedom from infection that is achieved. As part of the STOC free project, a Bayesian H...
Article
Background A national programme to eradicate bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) has been in place in Ireland since 2013. To inform decision making in the end stages of eradication, and support the development of post-eradication surveillance strategies, an understanding of risks of infection in a low prevalence system is required. Methods A case-control...
Article
Mycoplasma bovis is a serious disease of cattle worldwide; mastitis, pneumonia, and arthritis are particularly important clinical presentations in dairy herds. Mycoplasma bovis was first identified in Ireland in 1994, and the reporting of Mycoplasma-associated disease has substantially increased over the last 5 years. Despite the presumed endemic n...
Article
Zoonotic tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is mainly linked to the consumption of raw milk from infected cows. In many countries, cases are rare, due to pasteurisation of milk and national programmes to control M. bovis infection in cattle. Specialty cheeses, which are often produced using raw milk, present challenges to risk managers in...
Article
Control programmes against non-regulated infectious diseases of farm animals are widely implemented. Different control programmes have different definitions of “freedom from infection” which can lead to difficulties when trading animals between countries. When a disease is still present, in order to identify herds that are safe to trade with, estim...
Article
Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), is a globally distributed chronic disease of animals. The bacteria can be transmitted to humans via the consumption of unpasteurised (raw) milk, thus representing an important public health risk. To investigate the risk of zoonotic transmission of M. bovis via raw milk, this study syste...
Article
The collective control programmes (CPs) that exist for many infectious diseases of farm animals rely on the application of diagnostic testing at regular time intervals for the identification of infected animals or herds. The diversity of these CPs complicates the trade of animals between regions or countries because the definition of freedom from i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Rapid Antigen Diagnostic Tests (RADTs) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 offer advantages in that they are cheaper and faster than currently used PCR tests but have reduced sensitivity and specificity. One potential application of RADTs is to facilitate gatherings of individuals, through testing of attendees at the point of, or immediately prior to e...
Article
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis which results in a significant economic cost to cattle industries and governments where it is endemic. In Ireland, the European badger is the main wildlife reservoir of infection. In this study, we investigated whether (motorway) road construction was associated...
Article
Full-text available
Background Contact tracing is conducted with the primary purpose of interrupting transmission from individuals who are likely to be infectious to others. Secondary analyses of data on the numbers of close contacts of confirmed cases could also: provide an early signal of increases in contact patterns that might precede larger than expected case num...
Article
Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an important zoonotic disease which has serious and sometimes fatal effects on both human and non-human animals. In many countries it is endemic in the cattle population and has a considerable economic impact through losses in productivity and impacts on trade. The incidence rate in Ireland varies by herd a...
Article
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This article describers the development and implementation of the Irish Johne's Control Programme. Issues that have arisen, particularly in communications and recruiting herds into the voluntary programme, and solutions, are explored. The need to integrate behavioural science in refining the programme is described.
Article
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A mandatory national Irish bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) eradication programme, coordinated by Animal Health Ireland, commenced in 2013. Key decisions and programme review are undertaken by a cross-industry Implementation Group (BVDIG) supported by a Technical Working Group. Ear notch tissue is collected from all new-born calves using modified offic...
Article
We present a new modelling framework to address the evaluation of national control/surveillance programs planned in line with the European Animal Health Law (AHL) for livestock diseases. Our modelling framework is applied to the cattle sector in Ireland where there is need for policy support to design an optimal programme to achieve bovine herpesvi...
Article
Full-text available
Background The serial interval is the period of time between the onset of symptoms in an infector and an infectee and is an important parameter which can impact on the estimation of the reproduction number. Whilst several parameters influencing infection transmission are expected to be consistent across populations, the serial interval can vary acr...
Article
Full-text available
Various European Member States have implemented control or eradication programmes for endemic infectious diseases in cattle. The design of these programmes varies between countries and therefore comparison of the outputs of different control programmes is complex. Although output-based methods to estimate the confidence of freedom resulting from th...
Article
Full-text available
We present a modelling framework for the spreading of epidemics on temporal networks from which both the individual-based and pair-based models can be recovered. The proposed temporal pair-based model that is systematically derived from this framework offers an improvement over existing pair-based models by moving away from edge-centric description...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Contact tracing is conducted with the primary purpose of interrupting transmission from individuals who are likely to be infectious to others. Secondary analyses of data on the numbers of close contacts of confirmed cases could also: provide an early signal of increases in contact patterns that might precede larger than expected case num...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Antimicrobial resistance has been recognised as one of the most difficult challenges facing human and animal health in recent decades. The surveillance of antimicrobial use in animal health plays a major role in dealing with the growing issue of resistance. This paper reviews current data available on antimicrobial use in farmed animals in...
Article
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Abstract The Irish dairy industry has established a reputation for the production of safe and healthy dairy products and is seeking to further expand its export market for high value dairy products. To support its reputation, stakeholders aim to control Johne’s disease. To assist decision-makers determine the most appropriate design for an Irish pr...
Article
Full-text available
The serial interval is the time between symptom onsets in an infector–infectee pair. The generation time, also known as the generation interval, is the time between infection events in an infector–infectee pair. The serial interval and the generation time are key parameters for assessing the dynamics of a disease. A number of scientific papers repo...
Article
Full-text available
Many studies report age as a risk factor for BoHV-1 infection or seropositivity. However, it is unclear whether this pattern reflects true epidemiological causation or is a consequence of study design and other issues. Here, we seek to understand the age-related dynamics of BoHV-1 seroprevalence in seasonal calving Irish dairy herds and provide dec...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Our objective was to review the literature on the inferred duration of the infectious period of COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, and provide an overview of the variation depending on the methodological approach. Design: Rapid scoping review. Literature review with fixed search te...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives: The aim of this study was to conduct a scoping review of estimates of the relative infectiousness of asymptomatic persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 compared with symptomatic individuals. Design: Rapid scoping review of literature available until 8th April 2020. Setting: International studies on the infectiousness of individuals infected...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 determines both the ability of the virus to invade a population and the strength of intervention that would be required to contain or eliminate the spread of infection. The basic reproduction number, R 0 , provides a quantitative measure of the transmission potential of a pathogen. Objective Conduct a...
Article
Full-text available
Cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) is a severe cardiac disease of Atlantic salmon caused by the piscine myocarditis virus (PMCV), which was first reported in Ireland in 2012. In this paper, we describe the use of data-driven network modeling as a framework to evaluate the transmission of PMCV in the Irish farmed Atlantic salmon population and the impact...
Article
Antibody-detecting tests for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) have low sensitivity and imperfect specificity for detection of infection. Sensitivity increases as the disease progresses. Aside from infection status and stage of disease, several factors affect test performance. These factors have not yet been studied in dairy cows prod...
Article
Full-text available
African swine fever (ASF) entered Georgia in 2007 and the EU in 2014. In the EU, the virus primarily spread in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the period from 2014–2018. However, from the summer 2018, numerous domestic pig farms in Romania were affected by ASF. In contrast to the existing knowledge on ASF transmission routes, the understanding of risk fa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is spreading rapidly worldwide and threatening the collapse of national health care systems. The development of effective resource models are critical for long term health planning. The aim was to evaluate the available literature, to consider parameters affecting hospital res...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Understanding the extent of virus transmission that can occur before symptom onset is vital for targeting control measures against the global pandemic of COVID-19. Objective: Estimation of (1) the proportion of pre-symptomatic transmission of COVID-19 that can occur and (2) timing of transmission relative to symptom onset. Design: Secon...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The serial interval is the time between symptom onsets in an infector infectee pair. The generation time, also known as the generation interval, is the time between infection events in an infector infectee pair. The serial interval and the generation time are key parameters for assessing the dynamics of a disease. A number of scientific...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives: Our objective was to review the literature on the inferred duration of the infectious period of COVID-19, caused by SARS-COV-2 virus, and provide an overview of the variation depending on the methodological approach. Design: Rapid scoping review. Literature review with fixed search terms, up to 1st April 2020. Central tendency and varia...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Reliable estimates of the incubation period are important for decision making around the control of infectious diseases. Knowledge of the incubation period distribution can be used directly to inform decision-making or as inputs into mathematical models. Objectives: The aim of this study was to conduct a rapid systematic review and meta...
Article
Full-text available
A compulsory national BVD eradication programme commenced in Ireland in 2013. Since then considerable progress has been made, with the animal-level prevalence of calves born persistently infected (PI) falling from 0.67 % in 2013 to 0.06 % in 2018. The herd-level prevalence fell from 11.3 % in 2013 to 1.1 % in 2018. In the Irish programme, herds in...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The European Commission requested EFSA to estimate the risk of spread of African swine fever (ASF) and to identify potential risk factors (indicators) for the spread of ASF, given introduction in the south‐eastern countries of Europe (region of concern, ROC), namely Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Montenegro, Nort...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The most significant knowledge gaps in the prevention and control of African swine fever (ASF) were identified by the EU Veterinary services and other stakeholders involved in pig production and wild boar management through an online survey. The respondents were asked to identify the major research needs in order to improve short‐term ASF...
Article
Bovine paratuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). This is the first in a two-part review of the epidemiology and control of paratuberculosis in dairy herds. Paratuberculosis was originally described in 1895 and is now considered endemic among farmed cattle worldwide. M...
Article
Bovine paratuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease of cattle, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). This is the second in a two-part review of the epidemiology and control of paratuberculosis in dairy herds. Several negative production effects associated with MAP infection have been described, but perhaps the most si...
Article
Full-text available
In light of the various adverse effects of Johne's disease on animal productivity and the debate on the role of its causative organism, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, in the etiology of Crohn's disease, major dairy-producing countries around the world have implemented national control programs aimed at reducing the prevalence of this in...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility and cost-effectiveness of a range of national surveillance methods for paratuberculosis in Irish dairy herds. We simulated alternative surveillance strategies applied to dairy cattle herds for the detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-infected herds (case-detection) or for est...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to create a clear visual representation of the live movements of cattle in the Republic of Ireland over the course of the year 2016. The animation created can be viewed online: https://youtu.be/PTCdPMnenBw This animation was created to be a communication tool to enable stakeholders to appreciate the extent of high risk cat...
Article
Full-text available
Background Bovine tuberculosis (bTB, caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis) is endemic in the Irish cattle population, and the subject of a national eradication programme since the late 1950s. During 2014, a substantial area-level bTB outbreak developing in north County Sligo, necessitating the need for an enhanced response. This paper descr...
Article
Full-text available
Extending on earlier work, trends in bovine tuberculosis (bTB) from 2003 to 2015 are described for the countries of the UK and the Republic of Ireland using standardised definitions and measures. Based on measures of animal and herd incidence, there remains a stable situation of extremely low prevalence in Scotland and the Low Risk Area of England,...
Article
Estimation of the true prevalence of infected individuals involves the application of a diagnostic test to a population and adjusting according to test performance, sensitivity and specificity. Bayesian latent class analysis for the estimation of herd and animal-level true prevalence, has become increasingly used in veterinary epidemiology and is p...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of the value of multiple data sources available to fulfill surveillance objectives, and the use of these has been applied to address many questions relating to animal health surveillance. In Ireland, we face a slightly different problem, namely, best use of an existing surveillance resource (se...
Article
Full-text available
Ongoing objective assessment of national bovine tuberculosis (bTB) policy in Ireland is important to monitor efforts towards improved bTB control. The study objective was to investigate temporal trends in the risk of herd recurrence. The study included all herds derestricted following a bTB episode ending in 1998, 2008 or 2012. The respective ‘stud...
Article
In the epidemiology of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD), Trojan dams (animals that are not persistently infected (PI) with BVD (BVDv) virus but carrying PI foetuses) are a vehicle through which infection can be transmitted. We investigated the degree to which restricting movement of cattle from BVDv infected herds would prevent Trojan births in other h...
Article
Full-text available
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has published a series of opinions to assess the impact of changing from the current meat inspection procedures (CMI) to visual-only inspection (VOI) procedures. Concern has been raised that changes from CMI to VOI would adversely affect the effectiveness of surveillance for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in EU...