Simon Lannon

Simon Lannon
Cardiff University | CU · CRiBE - Centre for Research in the Built Environment

About

74
Publications
23,662
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
916
Citations
Introduction

Publications

Publications (74)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The assessment of the impact of solar radiation on building envelopes has typically been achieved by using simulation software, which is time consuming and requires advanced computational knowledge. Given the increased complexity of large scale-projects and the demand for performative buildings, new innovative methods are required to assess the des...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines whether and how the challenging target of 95% decarbonisation can be achieved for the Welsh building stock. First, a critical review of the literature and relevant case studies are presented to understand the effectiveness of different retrofit approaches in practice, and the degree to which these approaches are evidence based,...
Preprint
This research introduces a novel way of classifying the built environment based on its geometrical features and its surroundings and link the classified buildings to its environmental performance. These features consist of urban block orientation within the configuration, urban blocks exposure to main street, building orientation within the urban b...
Article
Full-text available
Geometry is an important architectural design issue in the assessment of a building model's energy performance using Building Performance Simulation tools. The commonly used window-to-wall ratio method, while providing a fast and automatic way of modelling glazing, is prone to geometrical inaccuracies, which can contribute to the energy performance...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the characteristics of 3D solid modeling software libraries – otherwise known as ’geometric modeling kernels’ in non-manifold applications. ’Non-manifold’ is a geometric topology term that means ’to allow any combination of vertices, edges, surfaces and volumes to exist in a single logical body’. In c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Buildings enclose and partition space and are built from assemblies of connected components. The many different forms of spatial and material partitioning and connectedness found within buildings can be represented by topology. This paper introduces the ‘Topologic’ software library which integrates a number of architecturally relevant topological c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Accuracy and time are metrics inherently associated with the design process and the energy performance simulation of buildings. The accurate representation of the building is an essential requirement for energy analysis, which comes with the expense of time; however, this is in contrast with the need to minimise the simulation time in order to make...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes non-manifold topology (NMT) as it relates to the field of architecture and presents Topologic, an open-source software modelling library enabling hierarchical and topological representations of architectural spaces, buildings and artefacts through NMT. Topologic is designed as a core library and additional plugins to visual dat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
DOI: … Non-Manifold Topology: Mathematically, Non-Manifold Topology (NMT) is defined as cell-complexes that are subsets of Euclidean Space [15]. Practically, topology refers to the spatial relationships between the various entities in a model and it describes how geometric entities are connected. 'Non-manifold' is a geometric topology term that mea...
Article
Full-text available
Background We investigated tenant healthcare utilisation associated with upgrading 8558 council houses to a national quality standard. Homes received multiple internal and external improvements and were analysed using repeated measures of healthcare utilisation. Methods The primary outcome was emergency hospital admissions for cardiorespiratory co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Geometry has been found to be one of the main architectural design issues that architects are concerned with when they assess the energy performance of their models through the use of Building Performance Simulation tools. Accurate geometry, coupled with correct energy analysis settings, can avoid errors and provide more accurate results which are...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a comparison of different pathways for the energy modelling of complex building geometry. We have identified three key modelling questions: first, how can the spatial organisation of the building be appropriately represented for energy analysis? Second, how can curved building geometry be post-rationalized as planar elements giv...
Article
Full-text available
Background Poor-quality housing adversely affects residents’ health but there is a paucity of high-quality evidence to support this. Objective This research investigated the health impact of bringing housing to a national quality standard. Design A natural experiment of improvements to housing quality analysed using repeated measures of health-ca...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The report covers the outline description of the derivation of the 32Gb of Half-Hourly Energy profiles for the Domestic and Non-Domestic Energy Demands that have been modelled in Wales. These files are available at http://orca.cf.ac.uk/107222/ along with GIS maps showing the modelled consumptions. Please be aware this work was designed to provide...
Chapter
Cities have become a focal point for efforts to transition towards a more sustainable, low-carbon society, with many municipal agencies championing ‘eco city’ initiatives of one kind or another. And yet, national policy initiatives frequently play an important – if sometimes overlooked – role, too. This chapter provides comparative perspectives on...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The conventional building simulation method places the sensor at centre of the room to control the lighting output of the whole room without considering urban context. In the practical situation, sensors will be placed in a position that control a zone of light fixtures. This research aims to propose a new method for optimising the daylight sensor...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There is a need to assess the growth of urban communities through analytical frameworks that have a multi-objective and holistic approach. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on urban geometry with a holistic and integrative approach as it has a significant influence on the building heat loss/gain that determines the energy demand n...
Article
Full-text available
Background While existing research indicates that housing improvements are associated with health improvements, less is known about the wider social and health benefits of meeting national housing standards, as well as those of their specific constituent measures. This study evaluates the impacts of a managed housing upgrade programme through a rep...
Article
Retrofitting cities provides major challenges for decision-makers and planners seeking to provide strategic management of urban transitions. Recognising the implications of disruptive innovations for the urban energy sector is key to understanding how transition management can be operationalised. This also requires an integrated urban foresight app...
Chapter
Full-text available
The existing housing stock in the UK will make a significant contribution to national carbon emissions for many decades to come. Existing houses present a significant challenge to systemic upgrades because they are influenced by a disparate set of regulations, incentives, and stakeholders. Unlike the new build industry, there is no single set of st...
Chapter
Deep energy efficient retrofit of hard to treat (HTT) properties is emerging as a major concern in the UK. A number of studies have highlighted the difficulties of effective delivery of this type of retrofit, citing issues of lower than expected performance, known as the ‘performance gap’. The aim of this study is to investigate the different facto...
Chapter
Universities have an important role to play in supporting cities through transitions to sustainability, amongst many other issues facing citizens and decision makers. The London 2062 project invited academics and students of University College London (UCL), a multi-faculty university located in central London, and partners from across London to con...
Chapter
Using Cardiff City Regions as a case study this work investigates the potential for cost effective energy and carbon saving measures at the city region scale, taking into account characteristics and constraints in each locality. Results indicate that compositional downscale using statistical information at the local authority level can provide usef...
Chapter
Research findings from the EPSRC funded Retrofit 2050 project, aim to advance and explore the theoretical and practical understandings that underpin a shift to sustainability of the UK's core city regions in 2050. Utilising a participatory backcasting and scenario building process at national and regional levels, the Retrofit 2050 project has...
Chapter
Forecasts of continued high rates of population growth for Australia's major cities is placing increased pressure on metropolitan planning strategies for more innovative urban infill solutions. To slow sprawl, infill targets of 70% or more designed to accommodate new dwelling development over the next 25 years in the established middle suburbs are...
Chapter
Among the many major challenges to the implementation of large-scale housing retrofit in the UK is combining climate change mitigation through energy efficiency upgrades with climate adaptation. Whilst the specification of increasingly airtight and insulated building envelopes is necessary to reduce carbon emissions from the domestic building secto...
Chapter
Engineering of future UK cities typically involves starting with an urban context shaped over hundreds of years and, whether adding new developments or regenerating existing areas, the essential process is one of retrofitting in this wider city context. In supporting citizens and city systems, civil engineers create artefacts that often function de...
Chapter
Climate change makes many challenges on suburban areas. This chapter focuses on one of the multiple problematics of climate change: the challenge of overheating. Reporting on evidence from the EPSRC-funded SNACC project (EP/G061289/1), the chapter presents results from neighbourhood modelling of potential overheating in six English neighbourhoods u...
Chapter
Commercial property produces about 10% of the UK's greenhouse gas emissions and consumes 7% of UK energy. It is estimated that UK business is overlooking a potential cost-saving of £1.6b through under-investment in energy efficiency, with the UK's commercial retrofit market potential estimated at £9.7b (or US$16b). Using the multi-level perspective...
Chapter
Full-text available
The transition of the built environment from energy consuming and unsustainable towards energy producing and sustainable is a complex, long-term challenge. One might assume that this transition will happen just because it is (increasingly) possible, affordable, desirable and just, but the speed of changes and the likely outcomes of the transition a...
Chapter
Australia needs to increase the adaptation of the existing commercial property stock to reduce building related greenhouse gas emissions. Some of these emission reductions could be achieved by retrofitting green roofs. Given that Germany had over 10 million square metres of green roofs by 1996, have we been missing an opportunity in Australia? Gree...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The growth of urban communities creates the need for analytical frameworks that have a multi-objective and holistic approach. It is important to integrate these frameworks within commonly used architectural tools. The urban environment is mostly designed and formed by architects and urban planners who can create more sustainable urban growth. In th...
Article
This paper aims to build a theoretical foundation for parametric design thinking by exploring its cognitive roots, unfolding its basic tenets, expanding its definition through new concepts, and exemplifying its potential through a use-case scenario. The paper focuses on a specific type of topological parameter, called non-manifold topology as a nov...
Conference Paper
This paper presents a modelling-led approach to low carbon innovative housing, including a new build and five retrofits located in Wales. The research aims to investigate the implementation of combinations of existing and emerging low carbon technologies through a systems based approach to optimise the use of energy at the point of generation. A pe...
Article
Full-text available
Various studies have shown that neighborhood quality is linked to neighborhood attachment and satisfaction. However, most have relied upon residents’ own perceptions rather than independent observations of the neighborhood environment. This study examines the reliability and validity of the revised Residential Environment Assessment Tool (REAT 2.0)...
Book
The engagement of concerns regarding sustainability and building conservation has had a long incubation. Government initiatives such as the Green Deal bring urgency for the issue to be addressed and understood by architects not simply in technical but also philosophical terms. Internationally, focus is drawn to the challenges of developing conserva...
Article
Cities may be responsible for up to 70% of global carbon emissions and 75% of global energy consumption and by 2050 it is estimated that 70% of the world's population could live in cities. The critical challenge for contemporary urbanism, therefore, is to understand how to develop the knowledge, capacity and capability for public agencies, the priv...
Chapter
In order to inform the design of a building or a group of buildings in relation to their potential energy efficiency, the main impact will be at the initial concept design stage. Variations and interactions of parameters need to be considered quickly as the design develops. This paper describes the development of a ‘sensitivity tool’ based around t...
Article
The significance of retrofitting the existing housing stock is considered for the policy commitment of delivering an 80% CO2 emission reduction by 2050. Background issues of energy, legislation, potential and actual CO2 savings, socioeconomics (payback, fuel poverty, health impacts, employment stimulus, etc.) are discussed. Different potential retr...
Conference Paper
One of the key responses of the UK Government to the European Energy Performance Building Directive EPBD2002 has been the introduction and refinement of an energy efficiency compliance tool for domestic dwellings, the Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP, 2009). A major disadvantage of the current assessment procedure is that a SAP model is generally...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper introduces a new approach to predicting domestic energy use on an urban scale and is based on a method of applying sets of results from a SAP (UK's Standard Assessment Procedure) sensitivity tool (WSA 2013) to an area, using and extracting data from a Geographical Information System (GIS). It is demonstrated for the Cardiff Local Authori...
Article
In order to inform the design of a building or a group of buildings in relation to their potential energy efficiency, the main impact will be at the initial concept design stage. Variations and interactions of parameters need to be considered quickly as the design develops. In addition to the variation and interrelation of parameters associated wit...
Article
Full-text available
While significant progress has been made in reducing Operational Energy: Embodied Energy has been largely ignored. However, these topics are strongly linked and should be considered as a 'Balance Equation"', where all factors must be carefully measured in order to avoid the excesses of both. A comparative study of urban layout and form utilising VI...
Article
We present a simulation model that can describe the coupled behaviour of PhotoVoltaics (PV), a storage battery, and solid-state Light-Emitting-Diode (LED) lighting, for a single office room in a generic multilevel building in the United Kingdom. The PV modules are integrated into an unobstructed south- facing facade possessing a window, and hourly...
Article
Retrofitting our current building stock is a vital part of meeting emissions reductions targets, using energy in a more efficient way and creating sustainable lifestyles. However, one of the key barriers identified is a lack of tools to support making retrofitting decisions. In this paper, the creation of a transparent and flexible building energy...
Article
A bottom up engineering modelling approach has been used to investigate the pathways to 2050 low carbon residential building stock. The impact of housing retrofit, renewable technologies, occupant behaviour, and grid decarbonisation is measured at a local authority scale. The results of this exercise were visualised using a client web application,...
Article
The current study aimed to evaluate the locally directed radon roll-out program that was conducted between 2001 and 2005 in England and Wales to increase radon awareness and testing rates. A representative sample of 1,578 residents aged 16 and older were interviewed who lived in radon-affected areas of 15 local authorities in England and Wales that...
Article
Background: Injury in the home is common, accounting for approximately a third of all injuries. The majority of injuries to children under five and people aged 75 and older occur at home. Multifactorial injury prevention interventions have been shown to reduce injuries in the home. However, few studies have focused specifically on the impact of ph...
Article
Background Injury in the home is common, accounting for approximately a third of all injuries. The majority of injuries to children under five and people aged 75 and older occur at home. Multifactorial injury prevention interventions have been shown to reduce injuries in the home. However, few studies have focused specifically on the impact of phy...
Article
Full-text available
Building energy and Carbon emission calculation methods for regions are of limited use if appropriate input data cannot be economically generated. To enable a wider uptake of regional modelling methods an automated analysis system is required to replace or assist time-consuming and expensive manual surveys of building stock. Building age is an impo...
Conference Paper
Building on the extensive research in Virtual Reality (VR), we are proposing a new dynamic prototype for modelling and simulating carbon emissions in a virtual village called VIRVIL. VIRVIL is a simulated settlement for the assessment of the impact of low and zero carbon technologies and measures in the built environment. The prototype will focus o...
Article
Full-text available
Existing detailed simulation methods generally address the energy use of individual buildings, through the specification of its fabric, ventilation, fuelled services and occupancy patterns. Current concerns in developing sustainable built environments however often focus on groups or communities of buildings. In the Virtual Village (VIRVIL) project...
Article
In order to develop the concept of sustainability in the built environment there must be increased use of detailed predictive tools, both at an individual building level and at urban scale. A number of tools exist for predicting the energy and environmental performance at an individual building level. However, there are few tools available to predi...
Article
Background Injury in the home is extremely common, accounting for around a third of all injuries. The majority of injuries of children under five and people aged 75 and over, occur at home. Multifactorial injury prevention interventions have been shown to reduce injuries in the home. However, few studies have focused specifically on the impact of p...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses a combination of a dynamic thermal model (HTB2) and a regional energy and emission auditing tool (Energy and environmental prediction model) to analyze the energy efficiency potential of different design strategies, in new or renovated projects. The main aim of the model is to enable decision-makers and other sectors in built e...
Article
Background: Injury in the home is extremely common, accounting for around a third of all injuries. The majority of injuries of children under five and people aged 75 and over, occur at home. Multifactorial injury prevention interventions have been shown to reduce injuries in the home. However, few studies have focused specifically on the impact of...
Article
The effect of the built environment on the quality of life of its residents is of growing interest. To investigate this properly, a method for measuring the physical condition of residential areas is required and this paper describes the development of such a tool. The Residential Environment Assessment Tool (REAT) is designed as a survey instrumen...