Simon C Kitto

Simon C Kitto
University of Ottawa · Department of Innovation in Medical Education

PhD

About

171
Publications
73,290
Reads
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4,155
Citations
Introduction
Dr. Kitto is a medical sociologist who has been working in health professions education research since 2002. His main research interests are studying how structural, historical and socio-cultural variables shape interprofessional clinical practice, educational settings and activities. His current research focuses on the nature and role of continuing interprofessional education and practice within the nexus of patient safety, QI and implementation science intervention design and practice.
Additional affiliations
September 2013 - March 2015
University of Toronto
Position
  • Associate Member
Description
  • Ontario Institute of Studies in Education
March 2013 - present
University of Toronto
Position
  • Associate Member
Description
  • Graduate Faculty
January 2013 - October 2013
University of California, San Francisco
Position
  • Researcher
Education
September 1998 - August 2006
Monash University (Australia)
Field of study
  • Sociology
September 1997 - August 1998
University of Tasmania
Field of study
  • Health And Medical Sociology
September 1994 - August 1995
University of Tasmania
Field of study
  • Social Sciences

Publications

Publications (171)
Article
Full-text available
In 2007 the Cancer Care Ontario Hepatobiliary-Pancreatic (HPB) Community of Practice was formed during the wake of provincial regionalization of HPB services in Ontario, Canada. Despite being conceptualized within the literature as an educational intervention, communities of practice (CoP) are increasingly being adopted in healthcare as quality imp...
Article
Specialty certification is an important method to demonstrate that RNs possess advanced training, knowledge, and competencies required to provide safe, high-quality care for specific populations.
Article
Evidence-based interventions to improve health care and medical education face multiple complex barriers to adoption and success. Implementation science focuses on the period following research dissemination, which is necessary but insufficient to address important gaps in clinician performance and patient outcomes. This article describes the force...
Article
Background: Interprofessional education (IPE) aims to bring together different professionals to learn with, from, and about one another in order to collaborate more effectively in the delivery of safe, high-quality care for patients/clients. Given its potential for improving collaboration and care delivery, there have been repeated calls for the w...
Article
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Background: Over the last 31 years, there have been several institutional efforts to better recognize and reward clinician teachers. However, the perception of inadequate recognition and rewards by clinician teachers for their clinical teaching performance and achievements remains. The objective of this narrative review is two-fold: deepen understa...
Article
Objectives We set out to identify and count the types of reasons that are used in contemporary scholarship about the ethical permissibility of randomized trials, with the goal of developing a finer-grained taxonomy of reasons than is currently employed by most participants in this literature. Because of its central role in justifying normative conc...
Article
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Background Despite substantial implications for healthcare provider practice and patient outcomes, gender has yet to be systematically explored with regard to interprofessional operating room (OR) teamwork. We aimed to explore and describe how gender and additional social identity factors shape experiences and perceptions of teamwork in the OR. Me...
Article
Research on best practices for family member involvement has shown that such involvement improves care quality in critical care settings and helps to reduce medical errors leading to adverse events. Although many critical care units promote the principle of "patient-centered care" and family member involvement, there can be a significant gap betwee...
Article
Introduction: Patient-centered care (PCC) is widely considered as essential in chronic disease management. As the underlying rationale for engaging patients in continuing professional development (CPD) is commonly described as fostering care that is more patient-centered, we hoped to understand the discursive conditions for how educators and healt...
Chapter
Healthcare workers took center stage in the early unfolding drama of the COVID-19 pandemic. Subject to multiple demands, these workers embodied debates about the duties of professionals, the responsibilities of employers, and reasonable expectations of publics. These dynamics have long been of interest to sociologists studying professions. In this...
Article
Transitions in medical education are moments of intense learning, bringing significant challenges for the trainees, the medical programs and healthcare provision. Frequently, transitional periods are not prepared or mentored; this process of transformation in the trainee is left to occur by chance and opportunity. Promotion of medical education con...
Article
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Background: Effective teamwork is critical for safe, high-quality care in the operating room (OR); however, teamwork interventions have not consistently resulted in the expected gains for patient safety or surgical culture. In order to optimize OR teamwork in a targeted and evidence-based manner, it is first necessary to conduct a comprehensive, t...
Article
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Background Recruitment and engagement of clusters in a cluster randomized controlled trial can sometimes prove challenging. Identification of successful or unsuccessful strategies may be beneficial in guiding future researchers in conducting their cluster randomized controlled trial. This study aimed to identify strategies that could be used to fac...
Article
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Background and objectives: The implementation of effective competency-based medical education (CBME) relies on building a coherent and integrated system of assessment across the continuum of training to practice. As such, the developmental progression of competencies must be assessed at all stages of the learning process, including continuing prof...
Article
Interprofessional education (IPE) aims to prepare health-care students to provide patient care in a collaborative team environment. However, much health-care education is delivered in places and spaces which do not support interprofessional interaction. To examine the consequences of this, we explored how a relatively new health-care education cent...
Article
Introduction: The authors sought to identify how physician specialty certification is defined in the North American literature. Methods: A rigorous, established six-stage scoping review framework was used to identify the North American certification literature published between January 2006 and May 2016 relating to physician specialty certificat...
Article
Interprofessional working relationships can influence the quality of collaborative practices, with consequences for patient safety outcomes. This article reports findings of an adapted relationship scale comprising six different relationship types, ranging from hostile to collegial, between seven health-care professions: physicians, nurses, dietici...
Article
Background and objectives: While family medicine has been one of the first specialties to implement competency-based medical education (CBME) in residency, the nature and level of its integration with continuing professional development (CPD) is neither well understood nor well studied. The purpose of this review was to examine the current state o...
Article
Background Definitions of nursing certification are lacking in the research literature and research on certification in nursing is remarkably limited. Methods A six-stage scoping review framework was used to identify the nature, extent, and range of certification within the nursing literature. Findings Thirty-six articles were included in this sc...
Article
Background Cluster randomized control trials (cRCTs) have unique challenges compared to single site trials with regards to conduct of the trial, and it is important to understand these barriers. The aim of this scoping review was to describe the current literature surrounding the implementation of the cRCTs in hospitals. Methods The search strateg...
Article
Purpose: To examine the extent, range, and nature of how competency-based medical education (CBME) implementation terminology is used (i.e., the conceptualization of CBME-related terms) within the family medicine postgraduate medical education (PGME) and continuing professional development (CPD) literature. Method: This scoping review's methodol...
Article
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Introduction In Canada, deceased organ donation provides over 80% of transplanted organs. At the time of death, families, friends or others assume responsibility as substitute decision-makers (SDMs) to consent to organ donation. Despite their central role in this process, little is known about what barriers, enablers and beliefs influence decision-...
Article
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Introduction Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are widely viewed to generate the most reliable medical knowledge. However, RCTs are not always scientifically necessary and therefore not always ethical. Unfortunately, it is not clear when an RCT is not necessary or how this should be established. This study seeks to systematically catalogue justif...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Despite the fact that millions of scars affect individuals annually, little is known about their psychosocial impact and overall quality of life (QOL) on individuals. Scars from multiple aetiologies may cause psychiatric and emotional disturbances, can limit physical functioning and increase costs to the healthcare system. The purpose...
Article
Background: The concept of “equipoise” is often cited as a prerequisite to the conduct of ethical randomized clinical trials (RCTs). However, significant difficulties persist in determining when it exists around a specific clinical question. This issue has arisen around recent stroke RCTs such as ESCAPE and SWIFT DIRECT. We sought to capture how st...
Article
Objective: To construct a sensitizing definition of certification in nursing for research purposes that can provide a foundation from which to further develop a coherent research program building evidence about the impact of certification on healthcare outcomes. Background: The lack of a single definition of certification in nursing makes it diffi...
Article
OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to construct a sensitizing definition of certification in nursing for research purposes that can provide a foundation from which to further develop a coherent research program building evidence about the impact of certification on healthcare outcomes. BACKGROUND:The lack of a single definition of certification in...
Chapter
Physicians' professional development and lifelong learning model has shifted to a broader model of Continuing Professional Development (CPD), which encompasses diverse activities, addresses diverse aspects of physicians' competency, and includes diverse professionals, highlighting the importance of team‐based interprofessional education. Recently,...
Article
Introduction: There have been initial efforts to link continuing medical education (CME), quality improvement (QI), and patient safety in North America. However, limited empirical research has been performed to characterize the relationship and integration between CME and QI/patient safety in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). To explore health car...
Article
Context Buildings and learning spaces contribute in crucial ways to people's experiences of these spaces. However, this aspect of context has been under‐researched in medical education. We addressed this gap in knowledge by using the conceptual notions of space and place as heuristic lenses through which to explore the impact of a new medical schoo...
Article
Full-text available
The National Collaborative for Improving the Clinical Learning Environment (NCICLE) is a growing group of over 40 organizations representing a variety of health professions. NCICLE is beginning a discussion of issues related to culture in health care, specifically how the current culture inhibits optimal outcomes, and the discordance between curren...
Presentation
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Background: Certification is instrumental to the integrity of medical specialty care. Certification can be defined as a designation that signifies an individual has achieved/demonstrated the knowledge, skills, judgment and competencies to be deemed a specialist in a field of medical practice. However, the lack of consistency in descriptions of cert...
Article
The Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC) has been adopted in operating rooms (OR) worldwide to reduce medical errors, increase patient safety and improve interprofessional communication. Despite often high compliance rates, recent studies suggested the SSC has not been associated with significant reductions in operative mortality or complications. This...
Article
Collaboration among nurses and other healthcare professionals is needed for effective hospital discharge planning. However, interprofessional interactions and practices related to discharge vary within and across hospitals. These interactions are influenced by the ways in which healthcare professionals’ roles are being shaped by hospital discharge...
Article
Objective: To identify how certification is defined, conceptualized, and discussed in the nursing literature. Background: Although it is hypothesized that credentialing is associated with better patient outcomes, the evidence is relatively limited. Some authors have suggested that the lack of consistency used to define certification in nursing l...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This scoping review explored the barriers and facilitators that influence engagement in and implementation of self-directed learning (SDL) in continuing professional development (CPD) for physicians in Canada. Method: This review followed the six-stage scoping review framework of Arksey and O'Malley and of Daudt et al. In 2015, the auth...
Article
Purpose: Expectations of certainty and confidence in surgical culture are a source of internal conflict for surgeons and learners, with surgeons describing a pressure to project an image that is, at times, inconsistent with how they feel internally. The authors explored surgical residents' perceptions of "impression management" and its effects on...
Article
Interprofessional collaboration is recognised as an important factor in improving patient care in intensive care units (ICUs). Competency frameworks, and more specifically interprofessional competency frameworks, are a key strategy being used to support the development of attitudes, knowledge, skills, and behaviours needed for an interprofessional...
Article
Context: The tension between service and training in pressured health care environments can have a detrimental impact on training quality and job satisfaction. Yet the management literature proposes that competing demands are inherent in organisational settings: it is not the demands as such that lead to negative outcomes but how people and organi...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Making substantial changes to the form and delivery of medical education is challenging. One reason for this may be misalignment between existing conceptualizations of curricula and curriculum reform in medical education, with the former perceived as 'complex' yet the latter as linear. Reframing curriculum reform as a process-driven,...
Article
Background: Ambiguity in understanding what “professionalism” means, and uncertainty in how best to teach it, remains. This study aimed to explore experiences of senior faculty in their endeavor to develop and include professionalism within a curriculum reform (CR), and illuminate challenges encountered. Methods: Using a qualitative case study appr...
Article
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This article reports a realist evaluation undertaken to identify factors that facilitated or hindered the successful implementation of interprofessional clinical training for undergraduate students in an emergency department. A realist evaluation provides a framework for understanding how the context and underlying mechanisms affect the outcome pat...
Article
This paper presents an exploratory case study of clinician-patient communications in a specific clinical environment. It describes how intensive care unit (ICU) clinicians' technical and social categorizations of patients and families shape the flow of communication in these acute care settings. Drawing on evidence from a year-long ethnographic stu...
Article
The purpose of this scoping review is to examine the nature of the interprofessional education (IPE) discussion that the Canadian nursing profession is having within the Canadian peer-reviewed nursing literature. An electronic database search of CINAHL was conducted using a modified Arksey & O’Malley scoping review framework. Peer-reviewed, English...
Article
Patient discharge is a key concern in hospitals, particularly in acute care, given the multifaceted and challenging nature of patients' healthcare needs. Policies on discharge have identified the importance of interprofessional collaboration, yet research has described its limitations in this clinical context. This study aimed to extend our underst...
Article
Objectives: To identify the impact of a full suite of health information technology (HIT) on the relationships that support safety and quality among intensive care unit (ICU) clinicians. Data sources: A year-long comparative ethnographic study of three academic ICUs was carried out. A total of 446 hours of observational data was collected in the...
Article
Full-text available
Background Despite international bodies calling for increased patient and family involvement, these concepts remain poorly defined within literature on critical and intensive care settings.Objective This scoping review investigates the extent and range of literature on patient and family involvement in critical and intensive care settings. Methodol...
Article
The Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education commissioned a study to clarify and, if possible, to standardize the terminology for a set of important educational interventions. In the form of a guideline, this article describes one such intervention, performance measurement and feedback, which is a common intervention in health professions...