Simon Bélanger

Simon Bélanger
Université du Québec à Rimouski UQAR | uqar · Département de Biologie, Chimie et Géographie

PhD

About

141
Publications
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Publications

Publications (141)
Article
Full-text available
Intertidal vegetation provides important ecological functions, such as food and shelter for wildlife and ecological services with increased coastline protection from erosion. In cold temperate and subarctic environments, the short growing season has a significant impact on the phenological response of the different vegetation types, which must be c...
Article
Full-text available
Citation: Pan, Y.; Bélanger, S.; Huot, Y. Evaluation of Atmospheric Correction Algorithms over Lakes for High-Resolution Multispectral Imagery: Implications of Adjacency Effect.
Preprint
Full-text available
Climate warming and related drivers of soil thermal change in the Arctic are expected to modify the distribution and dynamics of carbon contained in perennially frozen grounds. Thawing of permafrost in the Mackenzie Delta region of northwestern Canada, coupled with increases in river discharge and coastal erosion, trigger the release of terrestrial...
Article
Full-text available
The particulate absorption coefficient is one of the fundamental inherent optical properties describing interactions of light with material in water. Its spectral properties contain important information about chemical and biological constituents. It is often partitioned into algal and non‐algal fractions which provide useful information describing...
Preprint
Full-text available
A global in-situ data set for validation of ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI) is presented. This version of the compilation, starting in 1997, now extends to 2021, which is important for the validation of the most recent satellite optical sensors such as Sentinel 3B OLCI and NOAA-20 VIIRS. The data s...
Article
Full-text available
Ports play a central role in our society, but they entail potential environmental risks and stressors that may cause detrimental impacts to both neighboring natural ecosystems and human health. Port managers face multiple challenges to mitigate risks and avoid ecosystem impacts and should recognize that ports are embedded in the wider regional coas...
Article
Full-text available
In most coastal waters, riverine inputs of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) are the primary optically active constituents. Moderate- and high-resolution satellite optical sensors, such as the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat-8 and the MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) on Sentinel-2, offer a synopti...
Preprint
The Green Edge project was designed to investigate the onset, life and fate of a phytoplankton spring bloom (PSB) in the Arctic Ocean. The lengthening of the ice-free period and the warming of seawater, amongst other factors, have induced major changes in arctic ocean biology over the last decades. Because the PSB is at the base of the Arctic Ocean...
Article
Full-text available
Water quality deterioration is expected to worsen the light conditions in shallow coastal waters with increasing human activities. Temperate seagrasses are known to tolerate a highly fluctuating light environment. However, depending on their ability to adjust to some decline in light conditions, decreases in daily light quantity and quality could a...
Article
The inherent optical properties and the optically significant constituents in nearshore zones of the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence (EGSL), eastern Canada, were systematically investigated. Dry-mass concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), phytoplankton pigments, and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were determined together with the ab...
Article
Full-text available
We present a three-step inverse model (3SAA) for estimating the inherent optical properties (IOPs) of surface waters from the remote sensing reflectance spectra, Rrs(λ). The derived IOPs include the total (a(λ)), phytoplankton (aphy(λ)), and colored detrital matter (acdm(λ)), absorption coefficients, and the total (bb(λ)) and particulate (bbp(λ)) b...
Article
Greenland extends from 60˚ to 83˚ N, with 80% of its land mass covered by the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). This extensive latitudinal gradient is associated with concomitant environmental gradients that impact the biogeochemical properties of its coastal waters. Although the Greenland fjords have been the subject of intense study, less is known of t...
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic atmosphere–surface system transmits visible light from the Sun to the ocean, determining the annual cycle of light available to microalgae. This light is referred to as photosynthetically available radiation (PAR). A known consequence of Arctic warming is the change at the atmosphere–ocean interface (longer ice-free season, younger ice),...
Article
Full-text available
Pertinent environmental factors influencing the microalgal bloom during sea-ice breakup in Hudson Bay were investigated in June 2018, producing the first observations of late spring primary production in the offshore waters of this vast inland sea. Phytoplankton production was found to commence at the onset of ice melt, with surface nutrient deplet...
Article
Full-text available
The MALINA oceanographic campaign was conducted during summer 2009 to investigate the carbon stocks and the processes controlling the carbon fluxes in the Mackenzie River estuary and the Beaufort Sea. During the campaign, an extensive suite of physical, chemical and biological variables were measured across seven shelf–basin transects (south–north)...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric correction over inland and coastal waters is one of the major remaining challenges in aquatic remote sensing, often hindering the quantitative retrieval of biogeochemical variables and analysis of their spatial and temporal variability within aquatic environments. The Atmospheric Correction Intercomparison Exercise (ACIX-Aqua), a joint...
Chapter
Full-text available
Coastal waters are among the most productive regions in the Arctic (Leu et al. 2015; Smola et al. 2017; Ardyna et al. 2020). In these areas, a strong coupling exists between the sea and the land, and the shallow depths create a tight pelagic-benthic coupling (McGovern et al. 2020). These regions are also critical breeding and foraging grounds for m...
Article
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The Hudson Bay System (HBS), the world’s largest inland sea, has experienced disproportionate atmospheric warming and sea-ice decline relative to the whole Arctic Ocean during the last few decades. The establishment of almost continuous positive atmospheric air temperature anomalies since the late 1990s impacted its primary productivity and, conseq...
Poster
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Hudson Bay has so far received little attention during the spring peak of microalgal growth, although it holds 10% of the seasonal ice cover found in the Arctic Ocean and provides a habitat for large populations of migratory birds and marine mammals. Furthermore, Hudson Bay is expected to undergo rapid changes in the timing and distribution of the...
Poster
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Algae are farmed or foraged to be used directly as food or other industrial applications such as production of biofuels, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, etc. Floating algae acts as rafts to transport invertebrates, thereby maintaining biodiversity. It also play a potentially significant role in the organic carbon export from the coastal to the deep oce...
Article
Diverse prokaryotic communities consume and transform a broad suite of molecules in the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool, which controls major biogeochemical cycles. Despite methodological advancements that provide increasingly more detailed information on the diversity of both prokaryotic communities and DOM components, understanding how these...
Article
Full-text available
The MALINA oceanographic campaign was conducted during summer 2009 to investigate the carbon stocks and the processes controlling the carbon Fluxes in the Mackenzie River estuary and the Beaufort Sea. During the campaign, an extensive suite of physical, chemical and biological variables was measured across seven shelf–basin transects (south-north)...
Article
Climate changes in the Arctic may weaken the currently tight pelagic-benthic coupling. In response to decreasing sea ice cover, arctic marine systems are expected to shift from a ‘sea-ice algae–benthos' to a ‘phytoplankton-zooplankton’ dominance. We used mollusc shells as bioarchives and fatty acid trophic markers to estimate the effects of the red...
Presentation
Satellite remote sensing offers a unique opportunity to gain insight into seasonally and spatially dynamic processes in Arctic coastal ecosystems. It can be used to estimate key water quality parameters, including suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration with a higher temporal resolution and synoptic coverage. The present study aims to...
Article
Full-text available
The St. Lawrence is a vast and complex socio-ecological system providing a wealth of services that sustain numerous economic sectors. This ecosystem is subject to significant human pressures that overlap and potentially interact with climate-driven environmental changes. Our objective in this paper was to systematically characterize the distributio...
Poster
Full-text available
The Greenland sector of the Arctic has large permanently open water areas and therefore, has the highest total annual phytoplankton production in the pan-Arctic (above 66°N) 1. However, the Greenland Sea located in this sector is also exposed to major Arctic sea ice export. What are the impacts of the exported Arctic Sea ice on the regional ocean d...
Article
Full-text available
Climate model projections suggest a substantial decrease of sea ice export into the outflow areas of the Arctic Ocean over the 21st century. Fram Strait, located in the Greenland Sea sector, is the principal gateway for ice export from the Arctic Ocean. The consequences of lower sea ice flux through Fram Strait on ocean dynamics and primary product...
Conference Paper
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Advances in Earth Observation technologies, particularly hyperspectral remote sensing, can fill important gaps in the information needed about shallow coastal habitats, which are among the most productive ecosystems of the world oceans (e.g. eelgrass meadows, kelp forests, etc). The main objectives of this project were 1) to test the new WaterSAT I...
Poster
Full-text available
Recent advances in Earth Observation technologies are promising in bring traditional ocean-color capabilities to coastal zones. However, the biogeochemical and optical complexity that are usually found in such environments commonly hinders the retrieval of geophysical variables using generic inversion algorithms. This is particularly critical for p...
Chapter
In this chapter remote sensing techniques as applied to studies of Arctic aerosol are surveyed. They include the analysis of ground and shipborne observations of atmospheric aerosol using sunphotometers and also airborne/satellite observations using optical instrumentation (lidars, imagers, radiometers).
Article
Full-text available
The Green Edge initiative was developed to investigate the processes controlling the primary productivity and fate of organic matter produced during the Arctic phytoplankton spring bloom (PSB) and to determine its role in the ecosystem. Two field campaigns were conducted in 2015 and 2016 at an ice camp located on landfast sea ice southeast of Qikiq...
Chapter
Full-text available
At the base of the marine and coastal food webs throughout the Greater Hudson Bay Marine Region are the photosynthetic organisms including phytoplankton (microscopic free-drifting algae), ice algae, macro-algae such as kelp, and coastal seagrasses (eelgrass). The production of organic matter by these various photosynthetic organisms – also called ‘...
Poster
Full-text available
Semi-analytical Radiative Transfer Model for shallow water under development
Article
Full-text available
The Green Edge initiative was developed to investigate the processes controlling the primary productivity and the fate of organic matter produced during the Arctic phytoplankton spring bloom (PSB) and to determine its role in the ecosystem. Two field campaigns were conducted in 2015 and 2016 at an ice camp located on landfast sea ice southeast of Q...
Article
Full-text available
The distribution and quality of water resources vary dramatically across Canada, and human impacts such as land-use and climate changes are exacerbating uncertainties in water supply and security. At the national level, Canada has no enforceable standards for safe drinking water and no comprehensive water-monitoring program to provide detailed, tim...
Article
Full-text available
A global compilation of in situ data is useful to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite data records. Here we describe the data compiled for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired from several sources (including, inter alia, MOBY, BOUSSOLE, AERONET-OC...
Article
The annual phytoplankton bloom is an important marine event and its inter-annual variability can be used to monitor changes in the pelagic ecosystem. In this context, the use of a bio-regionalization analysis to objectively identify ocean areas that differ in their biological characteristics and environmental conditions may be useful to disentangle...
Research
Full-text available
This report describes the scientific priorities set by the Canadian Network on Coastal, Oceans and Lake Optics Remote Sensing (NetCOLOR) that aquatic visible remote sensing can address.
Article
Full-text available
A global compilation of in situ data is useful to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite data records. Here we describe the data compiled for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired from several sources (including, inter alia, MOBY, BOUSSOLE, AERONET-OC...
Chapter
Full-text available
Arctic marine ecosystems provide numerous benefits and services of economic, societal and ecological value, including the provision of food resources, the conservation of biodiversity, carbon storage and nutrient recycling, among others. The Arc3Bio project combines the multidisciplinary skills of several experts to evaluate how climate variability...
Chapter
Full-text available
Arctic marine ecosystems provide numerous benefits and services of economic, societal and ecological value, including the provision of food resources, the conservation of biodiversity, carbon storage and nutrient recycling, among others. The Arc3Bio project combines the multidisciplinary skills of several experts to evaluate how climate variability...
Chapter
Full-text available
The marine ecosystem of the Eastern Canadian Arctic is shaped by a combination of remote and regional processes that affect freshwater loading, nutrient supply and ratios, acidification, and ice dynamics. Remote drivers include the inflow of waters from the Pacific Ocean and rivers, as well as their transformations in transit toward eastern Baffin...
Chapter
Full-text available
Living, harvestable resources in the upper Arctic Ocean ultimately depend on the production of marine microalgae. Microalgal production also mitigates global warming by fixing the greenhouse gas CO2 into biomass, of which a portion sinks to the seafloor. This process, called the ‘biological CO2 pump’, supplies food to the benthic organisms living a...
Poster
Full-text available
A regional assessment of cumulative impacts is required for the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence to facilitate ecosystem based management supported by evidence. The only currently available assessment was performed at the global scale using 19 drivers of anthropogenic stressors such as fisheries and pollution. While valuable, certain datasets inclu...
Article
In this study, we report on the performance of satellite-based photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) algorithms used in published oceanic primary production models. The performance of these algorithms was evaluated using buoy observations under clear and cloudy skies, and for the particular case of low sun angles typically encountered at hig...
Article
Full-text available
Quantification of surface water storage in extensive floodplains and their dynamics are crucial for a better understanding of global hydrological and biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we present estimates of both surface water extent and storage combining multi-mission remotely sensed observations and their temporal evolution over more than 15...
Article
Rivers’ damming disrupts the seasonal cycle of freshwater and nutrient inputs into the marine system, which can lead to changes in coastal plankton dynamics. Here we use a 3-D 5-km resolution coupled biophysical model and downscale it to a 400-m resolution to simulate the effect of damming the Romaine River in Québec, Canada, which discharges on av...
Article
Full-text available
We introduce a new method to determine the anisotropy of reflectance of sea ice and snow at spatial scales from 1 m2 to 80 m2 using a multispectral circular fish-eye radiance camera (CE600). The CE600 allows measuring radiance simultaneously in all directions of a hemisphere at a 1°angular resolution. The spectral characteristics of the reflectance...
Article
Full-text available
Determining how environmental conditions interact with individual intrinsic properties is important for unravelling the underlying mechanisms that drive variation in reproductive decisions among migratory species. We investigated the influence of sea ice conditions and body condition at arrival on the breeding propensity, i.e. the decision to repro...
Article
Full-text available
The rapid physical changes affecting the Arctic Ocean alter the growth conditions of primary producers. In this context, a crucial question is whether these changes will affect the composition of phytoplankton communities, augment their productivity, and eventually enhance food webs. We combined satellite and model products with in situ datasets co...
Poster
Full-text available
Gathering data for large scale, systematic research initiatives such as regional multi-stressor analyses can be a very challenging - not to say painful - process. On one hand, there is an overwhelming wealth of data available, while on the other hand, some required data remain largely unavailable or inaccessible. Coupled with political intricacies,...
Article
Full-text available
Marine ecological indicators can be used to assess the condition of the pelagic ecosystems. The bloom onset provides a warning bell for possible changes in trophic interactions and biogeochemical processes. However, depicting the phenology of phytoplankton blooms at high latitudes, where long-term observations are sparse or unavailable, is not a st...
Article
Full-text available
Quantification of surface water storage in extensive floodplains and their dynamics are crucial for a better understanding of global hydrological and biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we present estimates of both surface water extent and storage combining multi-missions remotely-sensed observations and their temporal evolution over more than 15...