Silvia Vendetti

Silvia Vendetti
Istituto Superiore di Sanità | ISS · Department of Infectious, Parasitic and Immune-mediated Diseases

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47
Publications
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2,273
Citations

Publications

Publications (47)
Article
Full-text available
Most microbes invading through mucosal surfaces cause disease and therefore strategies to induce mucosal immune responses are strongly needed. Vitamin A metabolites, such as retinoic acid (RA), play crucial roles in programming T and B cells to home to mucosal compartments, therefore we evaluated the capacity of RA to elicit mucosal immune response...
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We have shown that cholera toxin (CT) and other cyclic AMP (cAMP)-elevating agents induce upregulation of the inhibitory molecule CTLA-4 in human resting CD4+ T lymphocytes, which following the treatment acquired suppressive functions. In this study, we evaluated the effect of cAMP-elevating agents on human CD4+CD25+ T cells, which include the T re...
Article
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Salmonella Typhimurium has been shown to be highly effective as antitumor agent. The aim of this study was to investigate the tumor targeting efficacy and the mechanism of action of a specific attenuated mutant strain of Salmonella Typhimurium (STM) devoid of the whole operon coding for the high-affinity zinc transporter ZnuABC, which is required f...
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In this study, we test the hypothesis that cAMP, acting as an extracellular mediator, affects the physiology and function of human myeloid cells. The cAMP is a second messenger recognized as a universal regulator of several cellular functions in different organisms. Many studies have shown that extracellular cAMP exerts regulatory functions, acting...
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Cholera toxin (CT) is a potent adjuvant for mucosal vaccination; however, its mechanism of action has not been clarified completely. It is well established that peripheral monocytes differentiate into dendritic cells (DCs) both in vitro and in vivo and that monocytes are the in vivo precursors of mucosal CD103− proinflammatory DCs. In this study, w...
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The efficacy of vaccines can be greatly improved by adjuvants that enhance and modify the magnitude and the duration of the immune response. Several approaches to design rational adjuvants are based on the suppression of regulatory T-cell (Treg) function. Here, we evaluated whether removal or addition of Treg at the time of vaccination with tetanus...
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Antigen-specific IFN-gamma producing CD4(+) T cells are the main mediators of protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection both under natural conditions and following vaccination. However these cells are responsible for lung damage and poor vaccine efficacy when not tightly controlled. Discovering new tools to control nonprotective antig...
Article
The development of mucosal vaccines for prevention of infectious diseases caused by pathogens entering through the mucosal surfaces is an important and challenging objective. To this purpose, we evaluated the efficacy and durability of immune response induced by sublingual immunization with tetanus toxoid (TT) as an antigen in the presence of mucos...
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CD8+ T cells are an essential component of an effective host immune response to tumors and viral infections. Genetic immunization is particularly suitable for inducing CTL responses, because the encoded proteins enter the MHC class I processing pathway through either transgene expression or cross-presentation. In order to compare the efficiency and...
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by abnormal accumulation of amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) into extracellular fibrillar deposits, paralleled by chronic neuroinflammatory processes. Although Abeta seems to be causative in AD brain damage, the role of the immune system and its mechanisms still remain to be clarified. We have recently shown th...
Article
Brucellosis is one of the most common bacterial zoonoses worldwide. Infection is usually chronic and sometimes lifelong. Different mechanisms can be postulated as to the basis for the induction of the chronic status of brucellosis, but a comprehensive knowledge is still lacking. Here, we carried out a series of experiments in order to assess if the...
Article
The power of cholera toxin (CT) as an effective mucosal adjuvant is well established. Because of the high toxicity of CT, its clinical use is unlikely. Therefore, the need to identify effective and non toxic mucosal adjuvants for human use is important. For this purpose, CT is largely used as a reference molecule for testing the efficacy of new can...
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B lymphocytes play an important role in the immune response induced by mucosal adjuvants. In this study we investigated the in vitro antigen-presenting cell (APC) properties of human B cells upon treatment with cholera toxin (CT) and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and nontoxic counterparts of these toxins, such as the B subunit of CT...
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3-(2-ethylphenyl)-5-(3-methoxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole (ST1959) has shown therapeutic effects in several animal models of autoimmune diseases. In this study the effects of ST1959 were further investigated in a murine model of colitis. The evidence obtained indicates that the beneficial effects exerted by ST1959 rely upon a decreased local immunolo...
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Cholera toxin (CT) is known to inhibit the proliferation of murine and human T lymphocytes. In this study we have analysed the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of CT on subpopulations of human CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. We show that CT dramatically prevents the activation of resting T lymphocytes, whereas it has a minor effect on cells...
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Monocyte differentiation into dendritic cells (DCs) depends on microenvironmental conditions. In this study, the capacity of human monocytes to differentiate into mature DCs and their ability to induce an antiviral immune response was investigated in HIV-infected patients. In healthy subjects, monocytes differentiate into CD1a+ DCs in the presence...
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We evaluated the ability of an integrase (IN)-defective self-inactivating lentiviral vector (sinLV) for the delivery of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) envelope sequences in mice to elicit specific immune responses. BALB/c mice were immunized with a single intramuscular injection of the IN-defective sinLV expressing the codon optimized HIV-1...
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We have previously shown that cholera toxin (CT) and other cAMP-elevating agents induce up-regulation of the inhibitory molecule CTLA-4 on human resting T lymphocytes. In this study, we evaluated the function of these cells. We found that purified human CD4(+) T lymphocytes pretreated with CT were able to inhibit proliferation of autologous PBMC in...
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Interleukin (IL)-2 plays an important role in the control of the immune responses, and it is released in a variety of tissues in response to inflammatory stimuli. As monocytes and mature dendritic cells (DCs) express CD25, the high-affinity subunit of IL-2 receptor, we examined the effect of exogenous IL-2 on the in vitro generation and maturation...
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Human monocytes can differentiate into dendritic cells (DC) according to the nature of environmental signals. Pathogenic mycobacteria have been demonstrated interfere with this process to generate a not fully competent DC population. This mechanism is not common to non-pathogenic mycobacteria and could be correlated with bacterial virulence. Howeve...
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Mycobacterium smegmatis infects human monocytes that can be precursors of dendritic cells. We tested whether the interaction of M. smegmatis with monocytes modulated their differentiation into dendritic cells. We found that M. smegmatis-infected monocytes differentiated into CD1a-CCR7+ dendritic cells in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4 and acquired...
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Recognition of self is essential for repertoire selection, immune regulation, and autoimmunity and may be a consequence of infection. Self-induced recognition may represent the escape mechanism adopted by pathogens but may also incite autoimmune diseases. Here, we show that bacterial infection may promote activation of T cells reactive to self-glyc...
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Human monocytes can differentiate into dendritic cells (DCs) according to the nature of environmental signals. We tested here whether the infection with the live tuberculosis vaccine bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), which is known to be limited in preventing pulmonary tuberculosis, modulates monocyte and DC differentiation. We found that monocytes i...
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The CTLA-4 (CD152) molecule is up-regulated upon T cell activation and proliferation, and plays a critical role in the inhibition of immune responses. We show in this study that cAMP induces up-regulation of CD152 in human CD4(+) T lymphocytes. This effect occurs in the absence of the up-regulation of CD69 and CD25 activation markers and T cell pro...
Article
Cholera toxin (CT) is a potent mucosal adjuvant. When administered through the mucosal route CT amplifies B and T lymphocyte responses to co-administered antigens. Since the discovery of CT as a mucosal adjuvant, other bacterial enterotoxins have been found to have this property. These molecules or their detoxified derivatives are all important for...
Article
In human pancreatic carcinoma cells (HPC-4), a hyperthermic treatment at 43 degrees C for 30 min resulted in the vigorous induction of Hsp72, along with a less pronounced increase in the rate of synthesis of Hsp90, Hsp60 and Hsp 27. Biotinylation of surface-exposed proteins, followed by isolation of biotin-tagged proteins by affinity chromatography...
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Two apparently contradictory observations have been made concerning peripheral T cell tolerance; costimulation-deficient Ag presentation leads to unresponsiveness, and CTLA4 (CD152) ligation is required for unresponsiveness to be induced. This issue was addressed using a CD80- CD86low B cell line to present Ag to DO.11.10 naive CD4+ T cells. Prolif...
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The phenomena of infectious tolerance and linked-suppression are well established, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely defined. Anergic T cells can inhibit responsive T cells in vitro and prolong skin allograft survival in vivo. In this study the mechanisms underlying these events were explored. Allospecific mouse T cell clones rendered un...
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Surface adhesion molecules play an important, but still not completely clarified, role in tumor metastasization. In this research, FACS analysis was employed to analyze surface expression of CD44H, CD44v5, CD44v6, ICAM-1 and HSP60 in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells growing in vitro or collected ex vivo from primary tumors and lung metastases...
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Thymic atrophy is a prominent feature of malnutrition. Forty-eight hours' starvation of normal mice reduced the total thymocyte count to 13% of that observed in freely fed controls, predominantly because of a diminution in the cortical CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocyte subpopulation. Prevention of the fasting-induced fall in the level of the adipocyte-derived...
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The influence of costimulation on the activation of naive CD8+ T cells and thymocytes was studied in vitro using H-Y-specific TCR-transgenic mice and H-Y antigenic peptide. Using a variety of physiological APC types, the activation of naive CD8+ T cells depended strictly on costimulation, which could not be substituted by high epitope density. T ce...
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Elevated levels of circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 have been detected in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection. The overproduction of these cytokines could contribute to AIDS pathogenesis. Thus, the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in human macrophages infected with HIV-1 was investigated. HIV-1 infection,...
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The potential suppressive effects of allospecific anergic T cells were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Allospecific T cells were rendered unresponsive in vitro using immobilized anti-CD3 mAb. These anergic T cells profoundly inhibited proliferation of responsive T cells in an antigen-specific manner. The observed inhibition did not appear t...
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The present study analyses the ability of HIV-1 to modulate IL-10 production in cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage cultured in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Both monocytes and macrophages spontaneously produced low amount of IL-10. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a strong IL-10 response in fresh monocytes and in M...
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In the present study it was found that the synthesis of the 78 kD glucose-regulated protein (GRP 78 or BIP) is vigorously induced in human rabdomiosarcoma cells (TE 671/RD) following both short-term (1 h) and prolonged (18 h) exposure to 100 nM thapsigargin (Tg). Flow cytometric analysis with a specific anti-GRP 78 polyclonal antibody showed that T...
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Viral, bacterial, protozoal, and cancer-associated Ags elicit strong responses in human gammadelta T lymphocytes. The majority of these cells in the peripheral blood express the Vgamma9Vdelta2-encoded TCR and recognize nonpeptidic phosphoantigens without an apparent MHC restriction. We have shown that Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells express the inhibitory C...
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Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major health problem, both as a single disease entity and as a cofactor in AIDS. The interaction between macrophage and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a critical step in the establishment of an early chronic infection. This study analyses the capacity of MTB to induce apoptosis in cells obtained by broncho-alveolar...
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Ptak and Askenase showed that both alphabeta and gammadelta cells are required for transfer of contact sensitivity (CS). This study confirms that day 4 immune cells depleted of gammadelta cells fail to transfer CS to trinitrochlorobenzene (TNP-Cl) systemically and demonstrates that administration of anti-gammadelta monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in vi...
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Full-text available
Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major health problem, both as a single disease entity and as a cofactor in AIDS. The interaction between macrophage and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a critical step in the establishment of an early chronic infection. This study analyses the capacity of MTB to induce apoptosis in cells obtained by broncho-alveolar...
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Heat-shock proteins (hsp) represent a highly conserved family of proteins, normally localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus, whose expression is induced in situations involving cell stress. This paper reports the unusual translocation of hsp to the cell membrane of T cells undergoing apoptosis. We observed that glucocorticosteroid-induced thymocyte...
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The presence of heat shock proteins (HSPs) on the surface of tumor cells suggested the possibility of using stress proteins as immunological target for specific immunotoxins (ITs). Flow cytometry analysis showed that U937 cells constitutively express both 28 and 60 kDa HSP in vitro, while the HPC-4 cells only express surface HSPs when grown in vivo...
Article
The CD44 molecule and CD44 isoforms are expressed on some malignant tumours and it has been suggested that their expression may correlate with tumour spread. Human pancreatic carcinoma cell line (HPC-4) expressing CD44 was established from a patient with adenocarcinoma of pancreas. This line showed a rapid growth in vitro, several chromosome abnorm...

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