Silvia Fiore

Silvia Fiore
Politecnico di Torino | polito · DIATI - Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructure Engineering

PhD Environmental Eng., MSc Analytical Chemistry

About

110
Publications
23,374
Reads
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1,977
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2006 - September 2014
Politecnico di Torino
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
November 2002 - September 2006
Politecnico di Torino
Position
  • Research Assistant
March 1998 - October 1999
Politecnico di Torino
Position
  • Researcher
Education
November 1999 - March 2003
Politecnico di Torino
Field of study
  • Environmental Geoengineering
November 1991 - December 1997
Università degli Studi di Torino
Field of study
  • Analytical Chemistry

Publications

Publications (110)
Article
Full-text available
This study introduces to a one-step process for the fermentative production of L(+)-lactic acid from mixed restaurant food waste. Food waste was used as carbon and nitrogen source in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Lactobacillus sp. or Streptococcus sp. strains for L(+)-lactic acid production. Waste consisted of (w/w) 33....
Article
This work proposes a semi-pilot scale procedure for the evaluation of biogas production potential and the employment of its results for the scale-up of the process. AD tests were performed at 35 °C in 6 L reactors, feeding 3–6% w/w TS in a fed-batch mode. Several substrates, generated by food-processing industries, were considered in the study. Ass...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates how the environmental performances of biodegradable waste (e.g., organic fraction of municipal solid waste, green waste, agro-industrial waste) treatment plants are reported and how their improvement is planned by the managing companies, and assesses current key quantitative data versus the Best Available Techniques associat...
Article
This work presents a systematic characterisation of 100 waste mobile phones (73 feature phones and 23 smartphones) produced between 1989 and 2016. All items were inventoried and the evolvement of the relative abundances of their macro-components (mechanic and electro-mechanic parts, electronics and others) and materials was investigated. The averag...
Article
Despite the economic and environmental significance of recovering plastics from e-waste, the presence of contaminants (in the form of chemical substances) strongly limits the recycling of this waste stream. Some chemical substances are controlled by international or European guidelines and policies, which are continuously updated to control new sub...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
ERA-MIN 2 ist das größte paneuropäische Netzwerk öffentlicher Forschungsförderorganisationen im Bereich Rohstoffe. Es handelt sich um eine öffentlich-öffentliche Partnerschaft von 21 Partnern aus 18 Ländern/Regionen aus der EU und von anderen Kontinenten (Argentinien, Brasilien, Chile und Südafrika). Im Rahmen des Projekts wurde 1) eine vollständig...
Article
Full-text available
Lanthanum and cobalt are Critical Raw Materials and components of Solid Oxide Cells— SOCs electrodes. This review analyses lanthanum and cobalt leaching from waste materials (e-waste, batteries, spent catalysts), aiming to provide a starting point for SOC recycling, not yet investigated. The literature was surveyed with a specific interest for leac...
Article
Full-text available
es (C.B.A.); mbespia@iqn.upv.es (M.A.B.-P.); jamendoz@iqn.upv.es (J.A.M.-R.) Abstract: Full-scale wastewater treatment facilities are not able to prevent microplastics (MPs) from discharging into natural waters and they are also associated with the land application of the sludge. This study evaluates the distribution of microfibers (MFs) in a lab-s...
Chapter
Sustainable development and sustainability are challenging problems and difficult to achieve due to their economic, social, and environmental dimensions; scientific research contributions of the various fields and disciplines; considering also the different management, legislation, governance frameworks at regional/national/international scale. The...
Chapter
Petrochemical plastics are threatening the environment, human health, and economy. Biodegradable plastics produced from renewable sources like polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are a promising alternative to solve this crisis. However, the fact that a material is biodegradable or renewable does not automatically make it environmentally friendly, so a val...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored the performances of waste polyurethane foam (PUF) derived from the shredding of end-of-life refrigerators as an adsorbent for wastewater treatment. The waste PUF underwent a basic pre-treatment (e.g., sieving and washing) prior the adsorption tests. Three target pollutants were considered: methylene blue, phenol, and mercury. Ad...
Article
According to the European Research and Innovation Policy Agenda, nature-based solutions (NBSs) are key technologies to improve the sustainability of urban areas. Among NBSs, green walls have been recently studied for several applications, among the others the treatment of lowly polluted wastewater flows as greywater (GW, e.g. domestic wastewater ex...
Article
Full-text available
This work is aimed at exploring the recovery of heavy metals from the fine fraction of solid waste incineration bottom ash. For this study, wet-discharged bottom ash fine-fraction samples from full-scale treatment plants in Germany and Sweden were analyzed. The potential for the recovery of heavy metal compounds was investigated through wet density...
Article
Full-text available
The shredding of end-of-life refrigerators produces every year in Italy 15,000 tons of waste polyurethane foam (PUF), usually destined for energy recovery. This work presents the results of the investigation of the oil sorption potential of waste PUF according to ASTM F726–17 standard. Three oils (diesel fuel and two commercial motor oils) having d...
Article
Full-text available
Biochar (BC) recently gained attention as an additive for anaerobic digestion (AD). This work aims at a critical analysis of the effect of six BCs, with different physical and chemical properties, on the AD of mixed wastewater sludge at 37 °C, comparing their influence on methane production and AD kinetics. AD batch tests were performed at the labo...
Article
This study assessed the anaerobic digestion (AD) of wastes deriving from cosmetics production: sludge from onsite wastewater treatment plant (sWWTP), residues of shampoo/conditioner (RSC) and sludge from mascara production (MS), considered as single substrates and as mixture according to the produced amounts (54 %-wt sWWTP, 31 %-wt RSC, 13 %-wt MS,...
Article
This work describes the impacts of biochar (BC) addition to the anaerobic digestion (AD) of waste activated sludge (WAS). Three BCs, produced by pyrolysis at 550 °C of different waste biomasses (soft wood, sewage sludge and rice husk), then physically activated at 900 °C with CO2, were investigated as additives. AD tests were performed in batch mod...
Article
In 2018 municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in Europe produced nearly 19 Mt of bottom ash (BA); only 46 %-wt. was treated, often in poorly performing plants, leaving behind 10 Mt of untreated and unrecovered BA, destined to landfill. This work was based on the inventory of BA across Europe, and on the hypothesis to achieve complete BA valorisa...
Article
This work analysed the effects of biochar (BC) addition to the Anaerobic digestion (AD) of wastewater Mixed sludge (MS) in semi-continuous mode. A 3 L digester was operated at 37 °C for 100 days, feeding MS collected every three weeks in the same wastewater treatment plant, and 10 g L⁻¹ of BC. The average performance of MS digestion (biogas 188 NmL...
Article
Full-text available
The main obstacle to bottom ash (BA) being used as a recycling aggregate is the content of salts and potential toxic elements (PTEs), concentrated in a layer that coats BA particles. This work presents a dry treatment for the removal of salts and PTEs from BA particles. Two pilot-scale abrasion units (with/without the removal of the fine particles)...
Article
Waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) became an important waste stream due to its recycling potential and negative effects on the social, economic and environmental aspects. Currently, the evaluation of WEEE management systems focus on specific parts of their lifecycle (mostly on recycling options), providing information on environmental i...
Article
Full-text available
Graywater (GW), i.e., the portion of household wastewater that excludes toilet flushes, is an interesting wastewater type because it requires only mild treatment. Green walls have been proposed as example of a nature-based solution for GW treatment due to low energy requirement and high ecological/societal benefits; however, indications about their...
Article
Full-text available
In 2018, the production of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in EU-28 reached 250.6 Mt, with the adoption of different management strategies, involving recycling (48 wt %), incineration and thermal valorization (29 wt %) and landfilling (23 wt %). This work was based on the analysis of the baseline situation of MSW management in EU-28 in 2018, considerin...
Article
Full-text available
Wine lees have a great potential to obtain clean energy in the form of biogas through anaerobic digestion due to their high organic load. However, wine lees are a complex substrate and may likely give rise to instabilities leading to failure of the biological process. This work analysed the digestion of wine lees using two different approaches. Fir...
Article
This study presents a sequential three-steps methodology for the technical, economic and environmental assessment (TEEA) of bioethanol production from waste biomass. In EU the most abundant waste biomasses produced in 2018 could be ascribed to three main categories: lignocellulosic (329.41 Mt), starch (160 Mt) and sugar-based (58.56 Mt). The techni...
Article
The occurrence of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) is related both to drinking water treatment (DWT) processes and to raw water’s characteristics. Emerging pollutants typically occur in low concentrations and are not removed by conventional DWT processes. Emerging DBPs appear within the DWT or in the distribution system due to the combination of disi...
Article
The occurrence of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) is related both to drinking water treatment (DWT) processes and to raw water’s characteristics. Emerging pollutants typically occur in low concentrations and are not removed by conventional DWT processes. Emerging DBPs appear within the DWT or in the distribution system due to the combination of disi...
Article
Anaerobic digestion (AD) could be considered as a mature technology and nowadays it can still play a pivot role because of the urgent need to provide renewable energy sources and efficiently manage the continuously growing amount of organic waste. Biochar (BC) is an extremely versatile material, which could be produced by carbonization of organic m...
Chapter
In integrated biorefineries, physical and mechanical, thermochemical, chemical as well as biotechnological processes are applied in order to simultaneously obtain various products belonging to the classes: Food, feed, materials, chemicals, and energy, from various biogenic feedstocks. The focus on the production of more than one product is also exp...
Article
Full-text available
Recognizing greywater as a relevant secondary source of water and nutrients represents an important chance for the sustainable management of water resource. In the last two decades, many studies analysed the environmental, economic, and energetic benefits of the reuse of greywater treated by nature-based solutions (NBS). This work reviews existing...
Article
This work has two aims. Firstly, to validate the ability of experimental models derived through near infrared spectroscopy for acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polyethylene ter-ephthalate (PET), and polypropylene (PP) in predicting polymers' aging; focusing on the degree of oxidation. Secondly, to assess the r...
Conference Paper
Municipal solid waste (MSW) production in EU concerned around 250 Mio. Mg in 2017, with the adoption of different management strategies within the member states. Waste framework directive and current Circular Economy strategy forced the acknowledgement of sustainable waste management as a main priority from the economic, social and environmental vi...
Conference Paper
In the contemporary society, with increased levels of production and consumption to ensure better living standards, waste generation is an inevitable and undesired outcome throughout a product or a service life cycle stages. The circular economy concept, the newest package focused on waste-as a resource at European level, is directed towards waste...
Article
This work analyzed the feasibility of pre-treatments to improve the anaerobic digestion (AD) of waste activated sludge (WAS) at 20 °C. We investigated different physicochemical pre-treatments (thermal at 115 °C, thermo-alkaline at pH 10 and 70 °C and ozonation at 190 mg-O3 L⁻¹) by comparing their performances about COD solubilization and sludge dis...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this work is the development of a methodology for the technical and environmental assessment of biowaste valorization in 2G biorefineries. Italy was chosen as case study, considering years 2016–2017. Approach: the Italian context was evaluated through the following key parameters: Gross domestic power, climate, demography, and population...
Article
Full-text available
Municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWWTPs) are essential infrastructures in any urban context, but they may be considered as a potential source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and should be coherent with European Union (EU) policy on energy e�ciency. This study presents a sustainability evaluation of four Italian and Romanian MWWTPs in terms...
Article
Full-text available
In this study antimony concentration was analyzed in 30 plastic items (from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and e-waste) directly by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) spectroscopy. PET samples were digested in a microwave oven with aqua regia. The plastic components deriving from e-waste followed three parallel routes: 1. microwave dig...
Article
The aim of this research is a preliminary assessment of antimony concentration in plastic fractions deriving from different e-waste. We considered microwave ovens, desktop computers, laptops, mobile phones, a TV case, a PC monitor and LED lamps (63 items in total). The plastic fraction ranged from 8%-wt in computers and microwave ovens, up to 40%-w...
Article
Non-sterile lactic acid (LA) fermentation of highly viscous food waste was demonstrated in batch and continuous flow fermentations. With Streptococcus sp., an indigenous consortium, and/or applied glucoamylase, food waste was fermented without addition of external carbon or nitrogen sources. Experimental results were used for economic and energy ev...
Conference Paper
This study had as main objective to promote bioenergy integration in energy systems and to support the use of waste biomasses in biorefinery systems. The adopted approach consisted in a sequential technical-economic-environmental assessment (TEEA) of the sustainability of bioethanol production from waste biomasses. In details, the technical assessm...
Article
Full-text available
Drinking water treatment aims to avoid or minimize some risks to human health and to provide adequate water quality by removing physical, chemical and biological contaminants. However, treatment processes require increasing efforts in terms of technology, chemicals and energy inputs, which generate increased secondary environmental impacts and adde...
Article
Thiswork has asmain objective the analysis of waste from electric and electronic equipment (WEEE or e-waste) management through material flow analysis and life cycle assessment of a full-scale Italian facility that is significant about the e-waste flows treated (9900 t/y) and representative of a developed EU country about the industrial process out...
Article
In this work three biomasses, two ligneous (rubberwood and eucalyptus) and one herbaceous (Phragmites aus-tralis), were fed to three different pyrolysis reactors: the Jiggled Bed Reactor (JBR) and a Mechanically Fluidized Reactor (MFR), working in slow batch pyrolysis mode, and a Bubbling Bed Reactor (BBR) operating as a continuous fast pyrolysis p...
Article
Plastic waste is a relevant challenge for waste management sector and further technological means have to be urgently researched. The evaluation of plastic waste quality through non-destructive, cost-effective and mature technologies could be without any doubt a key issue. This study is aimed at the assessment of Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy fo...
Article
Full-text available
WEEE is a fast-growing waste stream that includes potentially hazardous substances, but also valuable secondary raw materials, which can be recovered by adequate recycling and recovery treatment. In the last years, the research interest has moved from the conventional recycling (recovery of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, plastic, glass and other "...
Article
This work investigated physic-chemical pre-treatments aimed at improving anaerobic digestion (AD) of cosmetic industrial waste produced by a plant belonging to L'Oréal Group. A mixture designed according to relative abundances of waste was considered: sludge from internal wastewater treatment plant (54%-wt), residues of shampoo/conditioner (31%-wt)...
Article
This work presents the economic assessment of an integrated biorefinery process for sequential fermentative production of lactic acid and biogas from food waste. The integrated biorefinery process was compared to single processes for either lactic acid or biogas production. The economic assessment, considering catchment areas from 2000 to 1 million...
Article
The presence of emerging pollutants in the aquatic environment in relatively small concentrations and the fact that they cannot be removed by conventional water/wastewater treatment processes bring new challenges in terms of adequate selection of technologies from the technical, economical and environmental points of view. Generally, literature dis...
Article
The assessment of waste management systems for electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) from developed economies (Germany, Sweden and Italy) and developing countries (Romania and Bulgaria), is discussed covering the period 2007–2014. The WEEE management systems profiles are depicted by indicators correlated to WEEE life cycle stages: collection,...
Article
Depending on the source, the composition of organic waste can be heterogeneous. A mixture of organic waste and food waste appearing in urban areas was estimated to contain in average 550 kg t-1 carbohydrates (including 400 kg t-1 starch), 119.1 kg t-1 lipids and 54 kg t-1 proteins. Contrarily, the organic waste produced by fruits and vegetables pro...
Article
This work concerns the investigation of the sequential production of lactic acid (LA) and biogas from food waste (FW). LA was produced from FW using a Streptococcus sp. strain via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), and separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). Via SHF a yield of 0.33 gLA/gFW (productivity 3.38 gLA/L.h...
Conference Paper
The extensive consumption of fossil fuels, the inflation of crude petroleum price and the environmental-political pressure drive industrial world towards green fuel, such as biomass and waste, and imply noteworthy environmental and social advantages. This study is focused on anaerobic digestion (AD) of the waste (300 t/y in 2015) generated by a L’O...
Conference Paper
The accelerated development of technology, the attractiveness of electric and electronic equipment (EEE) due to smart functions, as well as the pleasant design and human necessities to improve the living standards are the main causes of increasing rates of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste or WEEE). In the European Union, generated...
Conference Paper
The main goal of water treatment is to avoid human health risks and to provide sufficient and good quality water for drinking, industrial purposes, and other economic activities by removing chemical and biological contaminants through water treatment processes. However, these processes require increasing efforts in terms of technology, chemicals an...
Conference Paper
Nowadays, the concept of sustainable production and consumption is a key lever towards bio-based economy, which has biomass conversion into bio-products and bio-energy production as essential elements. In this study, a two-step bio-refinery process fed with kitchen waste was investigated for the sequential fermentative production of two added-value...
Conference Paper
In the world about 30-50 Mt/y of WEEE is disposed and often improperly managed, leading to potential negative environmental impacts and to a loss of secondary raw resources. The aim of this paper is the assessment of WEEE management systems in Germany and Italy, as representative examples of EU countries. A specific comparison was made between Hamb...
Conference Paper
Arsenic is a toxic metalloid highly diffused in groundwater because of natural and anthropogenic factors (mainly deriving from mining activities and pesticides). Inorganic arsenic compounds are classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Group I (proven carcinogen). Groundwater concentration of As may vary from 0.5 to 50...
Conference Paper
Pyrolysis is a thermochemical process involving the thermolysis of carbon-based materials in absence of an oxidizing agent. Adjusting the operating conditions, in order to maximize the gaseous, liquid or solid products, may optimize pyrolysis process. This work investigates the performances of three laboratory-scale reactors on the grounds of the q...
Conference Paper
Anaerobic digestion (AD) implemented in an industrial context may be a key opportunity for a firm to fulfill the zero-waste concept and to enhance the sustainability of the overall productive process. This research is aimed at the investigation of the technical feasibility of AD of different wastes coming out from a plant of L'Oréal Group located i...
Conference Paper
As plastic waste is still remaining a challenge for the waste management sector further technological means have to be researched. In order to achieve set political and global goals, the recycling of plastic material has to be improved. In this study the degradation in Polyethylene and Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene was assessed. With the use of i...
Article
Urban water cycle, managing water supply, distribution, potabilization and wastewater treatment, comprehensively involve a considerable consumption of chemicals and energy. This study proposes an overview of the factors contributing to the environmental impact of Water Treatment (WT) process. The approach is based on the evaluation of Carbon Footpr...
Conference Paper
In the present work food waste was studied as nutrient source in fermentative lactic acid (LA) production and in biogas generation. LA was generated through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with only microorganisms, no enzymes and external nutrient sources were added. SSF was carried out in 2L-scale fermenters for investigation...
Article
Chlorine-based disinfection agents are known to favor the production of disinfection by-products (DBPs), whose concentrations are restricted by international guidelines to ensure a safe consumption of drinking water. Hence, it is important to understand the behavior of DBPs within water distribution networks (WDNs) to avoid users’ exposure to conce...