Silvano Gallus

Silvano Gallus
Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Mario Negri · Department of Epidemiology

About

397
Publications
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14,332
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Publications

Publications (397)
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Using data from the TackSHS survey, we aim to provide updated estimates on the prevalence and determinants of overweight and obesity in Europe. Methods: A face-to-face survey was conducted in 2017-2018 in 12 European countries (Bulgaria, England, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, and Spain)...
Article
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Purpose Benefits of national-level stay-at-home order imposed in Italy to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission need to be carefully weighed against its impact on citizens’ health. In a country with a strong familial culture and where welfare relies on households, confinement drastically decreased support provided by elder relatives, which may have resul...
Article
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Healthcare delivery reorganization during the COVID-19 emergency may have had a significant impact on access to care for older adults with chronic conditions. We investigated such impact among all adults with chronic conditions aged ≥ 65 years, identified through the electronic health databases of two local health agencies—ATS Brianza and ATS Berga...
Article
Background Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome (AWS) is characterized by different phases (acute, early and protracted). Protracted alcohol withdrawal (PAW) presents some symptoms, which may persist for several weeks, months or even years after drinking cessation. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature in major scientific databases on...
Article
Introduction Cytisine, a partial agonist binding nicotine acetylcholine receptor, is a promising cessation intervention. We conducted a single-centre randomized controlled trial (RCT) in Italy to assess the efficacy and tolerability of cytisine as a smoking cessation therapy among lung cancer screening participants. Methods From July 2019 to March...
Article
Background and aims: Representative data on e-cigarette use among European adolescents is scanty. This study reports current vaping and tobacco smoking individual and country-specific correlates among European students. Design: 2019 cross-sectional survey European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) collecting data on risk b...
Article
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Investigating pediatric overweight and physical activity correlates is essential to design effective preventive programs. We used regional data (Lombardy, northern Italy) from the 2019 survey “OKKio alla Salute” (3093 children aged 8–9 years with measured anthropometric data), and from the 2018 wave of the “Health Behaviour in School-aged Children”...
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Background Evidence showed that mental health problems have risen markedly during COVID-19. It is unclear if part of the mental sufferings relates to the climate of uncertainty and confusion originated by rough communication by health officials and politicians. Here we test the impact of unanticipated policy announcements of lockdown policies on me...
Article
Background: European countries differ considerably in the scope and the extent of their policies to protect people from the harms of secondhand smoke exposure. Public opinion may have a substantial influence on several stages of policy development, implementation, and compliance. For this reason, we aimed to evaluate the population level of support...
Article
Little is known on potential socioeconomic and gender disparities in dietary changes during the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a telephone-based survey during fall 2020 on 4400 participants representative of the population aged 65-99 years living in Lombardy, Italy. Changes in a Mediterranean lifestyle were assessed retrospectively by scoring modi...
Article
Background: Heated tobacco products (HTP) are new forms of tobacco consumption with limited information available on their use among the general population. Our objective was to analyze the prevalence and associations of use of HTP across 11 countries in Europe. Methods: Within the TackSHS Project, in 2017-2018 we conducted a cross-sectional study...
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Introduction: Under the European Union (EU) Tobacco Products Directive (2014/40/EU) (TPD), manufacturers and importers of tobacco products are required to report information to the European Commission (EC) and Member States (MS) on products intended to be placed on the market. We describe the distribution of notifications to the EU Common Entry Ga...
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Background Disability and mortality burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have risen worldwide; however, the NCD burden among adolescents remains poorly described in the EU. Methods Estimates were retrieved from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019. Causes of NCDs were analysed at three different levels o...
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Background: Although a direct relationship between tinnitus or hearing difficulties and COVID-19 has been suggested, current literature provides inconsistent results, and no research has been undertaken in older adults. Methods: In November 2020, we conducted the LOST in Lombardia survey, a telephone-based cross-sectional study on a sample of 4,...
Preprint
Most COVID-19-related fatalities occurred among older adults, however to date, evidence on determinants of SARS-CoV-2 infection in this population is limited and mostly based on case series without a comparison group. A telephone-based cross-sectional study was conducted in November 2020 on a representative sample of 4,400 Italians aged ≥65 years r...
Article
Background & Aims COVID-19 containment measures significantly impacted lifestyle of the general population, including physical activity. Although the older adults are particularly susceptible to the potential consequences of sedentary lifestyle and inactivity, few studies investigated pandemic effects in this segment of the population. We aimed to...
Article
Background The importance of trait impulsivity in development, continuation and escalation of addictive behaviors has long been recognized. Methods A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted during the COVID-19 lockdown on 6003 Italian adults aged 18-74 years, representative of the Italian general population, to investigate the relati...
Article
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Only a few studies investigated changes in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) and heated tobacco product (HTP) use during pandemic restrictions. We conducted a web-based cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 6,003 Italian adults during the strictest phase of the Covid-19 lockdown (April–May 2020). Participants were asked to report cha...
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Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are widely used in preclinical models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Results are promising in terms of neurological improvement but are hampered by wide variability in treatment responses. We made a systematic review and meta-analysis: (1) to assess the quality of evidence for MSC treatment in TBI rodent models; (...
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Background: Limited data on electronic cigarette prevalence, patterns and settings of use are available from several European countries. Methods: Within the TackSHS project, a face-to-face survey was conducted in 2017-2018 in 12 European countries (Bulgaria, England, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania and Spa...
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Background: To explore how sexual activity was impacted by COVID-19 lockdown measures in the general adult population. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 6,003 Italian adults aged 18-74 years, representative of the Italian general population. Study subjects were recruited at the time of the Nation-wide stay-at-home order (from Ap...
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Background Prevention, control, and treatment of respiratory tract cancers are important steps towards achieving target 3.4 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)—a one-third reduction in premature mortality due to non-communicable diseases by 2030. We aimed to provide global, regional, and national estimates of the burden of tracheal, bron...
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Background and aims: Few preliminary studies have shown an impact of COVID-19 confinement on gambling habits. We aim to evaluate short-term effects of lockdown restrictions on gambling behaviors in Italy. Methods: Within the project Lost in Italy, a web-based cross-sectional study was conducted on a representative sample of 6,003 Italians aged 1...
Article
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Tinnitus disability is a heterogeneous and complex condition, affecting more than 10% and compromising the quality of life of 2% of the population, with multiple contributors, often unknown, and enigmatic pathophysiology. The available treatment options are unsatisfactory, as they can, at best, reduce tinnitus severity, but not eliminate its percep...
Article
Background The potential benefits of the COVID-19 lockdown need to be carefully weighed versus the possible impact on people's daily life and negative mental health effects.We aimed to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety, insomnia and quality of life before and during the COVID-19 lockdown,identifying subgroups at higher risk of mental dis...
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Background & Aims Longevity also carries its dark side of age-related chronic diseases, dementia being one of the worst and the most prevalent. Since dementia lacks effective treatments, preventing or delaying it is highly desirable. Dietary habits and nutrition have been found to be important modifiable risk factors for many chronic diseases, but...
Article
Objective Due to partial or poorly enforced restrictions secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is still present in outdoor hospitality venues in many European countries. This study aimed to assess SHS concentrations in outdoor hospitality venues across Europe and identify contextual exposure determinants. Methods Cross-sectional study. We measured airbor...
Article
The design of e-cigarettes (e-cigs) is constantly evolving and the latest models can aerosolize using high-power sub-ohm resistance and hence may produce specific particle concentrations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the aerosol characteristics generated by two different types of electronic cigarette in real-world conditions, such as a sit...
Article
The design of e-cigarettes (e-cigs) is constantly evolving and the latest models can aerosolize using high-power sub-ohm resistance and hence may produce specific particle concentrations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the aerosol characteristics generated by two different types of electronic cigarette in real-world conditions, such as a sit...
Article
The design of e-cigarettes (e-cigs) is constantly evolving and the latest models can aerosolize using high-power sub-ohm resistance and hence may produce specific particle concentrations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the aerosol characteristics generated by two different types of electronic cigarette in real-world conditions, such as a sit...
Article
Objectives Italy is one of the first countries that imposed a nationwide stay-at-home order during the COVID-19 outbreak, inevitably resulting in changes in lifestyles and addictive behaviours. The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of lockdown restrictions on smoking habits using data collected within the Lost in Italy project. Methods...
Article
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Background Hearing loss affects access to spoken language, which can affect cognition and development, and can negatively affect social wellbeing. We present updated estimates from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study on the prevalence of hearing loss in 2019, as well as the condition's associated disability. Methods We did systematic reviews...
Article
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Background Hearing loss affects access to spoken language, which can affect cognition and development, and can negatively affect social wellbeing. We present updated estimates from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study on the prevalence of hearing loss in 2019, as well as the condition's associated disability. Methods We did systematic reviews...
Article
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In Italy, electronic cigarettes have spread since 2010 and heated tobacco products (HTP) since 2016. We investigated their public health consequences on conventional cigarette smoking, taking advantage of a series of cross-sectional studies annually conducted between 2001 and 2019 in Italy. Every year, the sample, including around 3000 individuals,...
Article
Exposure to secondhand aerosol from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may pose harms to bystanders, but they are used in many indoor settings. Less evidence exists on e-cigarette use in outdoor settings. This study aims to assess the use of e-cigarettes in outdoor settings in Europe. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the entrances of prim...
Chapter
As for hypertension, chronic pain, epilepsy and other disorders with particular symptoms, a commonly accepted and unambiguous definition provides a common ground for researchers and clinicians to study and treat the problem. The WHO's ICD11 definition only mentions tinnitus as a nonspecific symptom of a hearing disorder, but not as a clinical entit...
Article
Introduction: Exposure to secondhand aerosol from e-cigarette (SHA) may pose harmful effects to bystanders. This study aims to investigate the prevalence, duration and determinants of SHA exposure in various indoor settings in 12 European countries. Methods: In 2017-2018, we conducted a cross-sectional study, the TackSHS survey, on a representativ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Secondhand smoke (SHS) causes morbidity and mortality among non-smokers. Objectives To investigate SHS presence in outdoor areas from 12 European countries and its association with country-level characteristics. Methods Cross-sectional study performed in 2017-2018 within the TackSHS project. We conducted a face-to-face survey on a re...
Article
Background Heated tobacco products (HTP) are new forms of tobacco consumption with limited information available on their use among the general population. Our objective is to analyse the prevalence and associations of use of HTP across 11 countries in Europe. Methods Within the TackSHS Project, in 2017-2018 we conducted a cross-sectional study wit...
Article
Background Heated tobacco products (HTP) are new forms of tobacco consumption with limited information available on their use among the general population. Our objective is to analyse the prevalence and associations of use of HTP across 11 countries in Europe. Methods Within the TackSHS Project, in 2017-2018 we conducted a cross-sectional study w...
Article
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to secondhand aerosol from e-cigarette (SHA) may pose harmful effects to bystanders. This study aims to investigate the prevalence, duration and determinants of SHA exposure in various indoor settings in 12 European countries. METHODS: In 2017-2018, we conducted a cross-sectional study, the TackSHS survey, on a representativ...
Article
As for hypertension, chronic pain, epilepsy and other disorders with particular symptoms, a commonly accepted and unambiguous definition provides a common ground for researchers and clinicians to study and treat the problem. The WHO's ICD11 definition only mentions tinnitus as a nonspecific symptom of a hearing disorder, but not as a clinical entit...
Chapter
Introduction: Tinnitus is a symptom and not a disease in its own right. A number of medical conditions are known to increase the risk of developing tinnitus. Most known risk factors are otological or neurological, but general health and lifestyle can also precipitate the condition. Understanding these modifiable risk factors can help to identify vu...
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Few studies have reported on polonium-210, a decay breakdown product of radon-222 and lead-210, in human lungs and there has been no study in patients with suspected lung cancer. The main aim of this “Polonium in vivo” study was to evaluate polonium-210 radioactivity in bronchopulmonary systems of smoker, ex-smoker and never smoker patients with su...
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We monitored the burden of cancer in Italy and its trends over the last three decades, providing estimates of cancer incidence, mortality, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), for cancer overall and 30 cancer sites using data from the Global Burden of Disease study 2017. An overview of mortali...
Article
Smoke-free legislation reduced second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in public places, and indirectly promoted private smoke-free settings. Nevertheless, a large proportion of adults is still exposed to SHS at home. The aim of this paper is to quantify the burden of disease due to home SHS exposure among adults in the 28-European Union (EU) countries fo...
Article
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Twin and adoption studies point towards a genetic contribution to tinnitus; however, how the genetic risk applies to different forms of tinnitus is poorly understood. Here, we perform a familial aggregation study and determine the relative recurrence risk for tinnitus in siblings (λs). Four different Swedish studies (N = 186,598) were used to estim...
Article
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Introduction: Tobacco presence in outdoor children's playgrounds is concerning not only because it leads to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, but also cigarette butt pollution and tobacco normalization. Objectives: This study aimed to assess SHS exposure in children's playgrounds, according to area-level socioeconomic status (SES), smoke-free reg...
Article
Objective Previous studies from European countries noted that food products promoted on TV for children did not comply with international guidelines, including the World Health Organization European Nutrient Profile Model (WHO-ENPM) and the EU Pledge Nutrition Criteria (EU-PNC, an initiative developed by leading food companies). We aim to provide n...
Article
Background Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home and fetal SHS exposure during pregnancy are a major cause of disease among children. The aim of this study is quantifying the burden of disease due to SHS exposure in children and in pregnancy in 2006–2017 for the 28 European Union (EU) countries. Methods Exposure to SHS was estimated using a mult...
Article
Background: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home and fetal SHS exposure during pregnancy are a major cause of disease among children. The aim of this study is quantifying the burden of disease due to SHS exposure in children and in pregnancy in 2006-2017 for the 28 European Union (EU) countries. Methods: Exposure to SHS was estimated using a...
Article
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To investigate the prevalence and possible determinants of sleep quality and quantity, we used data from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2019 on a sample of 3120 subjects, representative of the general Italian adult population. Sleep dissatisfaction was reported by 14.2% and insufficient sleep (duration) by 29.5% of adults. Sleep dissatisfacti...
Article
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Aspirin has been associated to a reduced risk of colorectal and other selected digestive tract cancers, but the evidence other neoplasms is still controversial. In order to provide an up-to-date quantification of the role of aspirin on lung, breast, endometrium, ovary, prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer, we conducted a systematic review and meta-...
Article
Background: With increased use of electronic-nicotine delivery devices (e-cigarettes) and non-cigarettes tobacco products (heated tobacco products, shisha, moist snuff/snus) among adolescents, the percentage of Italian students who use nicotine products is at its highest level of the past ten years, even though prevention and anti-smoking policies...
Article
Objectives: to evaluate smoking prevalence in adolescents by Italian region from the Health Behaviour Study in School-aged Children (HBSC) of 2014 and to correlate it with the presence, in the 2014-2018 Regional Prevention Plans (PRPs), of school-based smoking prevention interventions. Setting and participants: the 2014 HBSC surveillance system pr...
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The emergency caused by Covid-19 pandemic raised interest in studying lifestyles and comorbidities as important determinants of poor Covid-19 prognosis. Data on tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and obesity are still limited, while no data are available on the role of e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products (HTP). To clarify the role of tobacco...
Article
Introduction: The aim of this study was to provide the most comprehensive and up-to-date evidence on the association between cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies on the association between cigarette smoking and CRC risk published up to September...