Sila Kiliccote

Sila Kiliccote
SLAC · Applied Program

B.S. in E.E., Master of Building Science

About

101
Publications
17,452
Reads
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2,617
Citations
Introduction
Additional affiliations
February 2012 - present
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (101)
Article
To accelerate adoption of non-residential charging for electric vehicles, sites must maximize utilization of existing electrical infrastructure. In this study we model electric vehicle charging at a workplace using real charging data and evaluate the lifetime of the site’s transformer as the number of charging stations is incrementally increased. W...
Article
A large number of mechanisms are proposed to manage potential problems in distribution networks caused by the participation of distributed energy resources (DERs) in the wholesale markets. In this paper, we first introduce a practical and straightforward mechanism, based on capacity limits, which avoids conflicts between the transmission system ope...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of demand response (DR) technologies, including standards and end uses, in the United States and describes resource characteristics and the attributes of 14 specific DR resources in the US commercial, residential, and industrial sectors. The attributes reviewed for the end uses being considered are response frequen...
Preprint
Full-text available
We propose an emission-oriented charging scheme to evaluate the emissions of electric vehicle (EV) charging from the electricity sector at the region of Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). We investigate both day- and night-charging scenarios combined with realistic system load demand under the emission-oriented vs direct charging scheme...
Conference Paper
Real-time photovoltaic (PV) generation information is crucial for distribution system operations such as switching, state-estimation, and voltage management. However, most behind-the-meter solar installations are not monitored. Typically, the only information available to the distribution system operator is the installed capacity of solar behind ea...
Article
Full-text available
The demand for vehicle charging will require large investments in power distribution, transmission, and generation. However this demand is often also flexible in time, and can be actively managed to reduce the needed investments, and to better integrate renewable electricity. Harnessing this flexibility requires forecasting and controlling electric...
Conference Paper
Thermal-sensitive electricity usage accounts for the majority of residential electricity use worldwide. Moreover, it has substantial impacts on the power system and the society during the extreme weathers. We propose a novel data-driven method to identify the thermal-sensitive electricity usage and quantify the associated thermal sensitivity direct...
Article
Full-text available
Enabling deep penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) requires comprehensive monitoring and control of the distribution network. Increasing observability beyond the substation and extending it to the edge of the grid is required to achieve this goal. The growing availability of data from measurements from inverters, smart meters, EV char...
Conference Paper
When wholesale prices are high and/or when the electricity system reliability is jeopardized, utilities have programs that encourage their customers to shed loads; these programs are called demand response (DR). Most large energy consumers, for example the buildings comprising Google's Mountain View, CA campus, have some ability to control, and the...
Conference Paper
Real-time PV generation information is crucial for distribution system operations, in particular for switching operations, state-estimation, and management of the voltage at the point of provision. However, most behind-the-meter solar installations are not monitored. Typically, the only information available to the distribution system operator is t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We propose Powernet as an end-to-end open source technology for economically efficient, scalable and secure coordination of grid resources. It offers integrated hardware and software solutions that are judiciously divided between local embedded sensing, computing and control, which are networked with cloud-based high-level coordination for real-tim...
Article
Supermarket refrigeration systems consume 4% of the total commercial energy consumption in the United States. Improving their energy efficiency contributes to the sustainability of global energy systems and the supermarket business sector. This paper proposes a new control method that can save the energy consumption of multi-case supermarket refrig...
Article
This study analyzes the performance of power-line communications for sending open automated demand response (OpenADR) signals. In particular, we study main channel disturbances that can affect end-to-end communications and which have not been previously studied in detail. Our analysis takes into account physical phenomena, such as background and im...
Article
This paper describes a step-by-step procedure for using measured end-use energy data from a campus building to calibrate a simulation model developed in EnergyPlus. This process included identification of key input parameters for reducing uncertainties in the model. Building thermal zones were modeled to match the actual heating ventilation and air...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The distribution grid is changing to become an active resource with complex modeling needs. The new active distribution grid will, within the next ten years, contain a complex mix of load, generation, storage and automated resources all operating with different objectives on different time scales from each other and requiring detailed analysis. Ele...
Conference Paper
This paper proposes a multi-agent model and strategy for aggregator-based residential demand response, and details how elements in the system interact to solve an issue requiring load to be temporarily decreased. The system uses assets such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, air conditioning units, and electric water heaters to achieve this goal....
Article
The goal of this study is to provide an overview of demand response (DR) technologies, including standards and end uses, in the United States and describe resource characteristics and the attributes of 14 specific DR resources in the U.S. commercial, residential, and industrial sectors. The attributes reviewed for the end uses being considered are...
Article
Full-text available
Co-simulation platforms are necessary to study the interactions of complex systems integrated in future smart grids. The Virtual Grid Integration Laboratory (VirGIL) is a modular co-simulation platform designed to study interactions between demand response strategies, building comfort, communication networks, and power system operation. This paper...
Article
Electric vehicles (EVs) enable improved vehicle efficiency and zero emissions in population centers, however the large loads from EV charging can stress grid systems during periods of peak demand. We apply detailed physics-based models of EVs with data on how drivers use their cars to quantify the ability for EVs to reduce their charging during per...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we use data collected from over 2000 non-residential electric vehicle supply equipments (EVSEs) located in Northern California for the year of 2013 to estimate the potential benefits of smart electric vehicle (EV) charging. We develop a smart charging framework to identify the benefits of non-residential EV charging to the load aggre...
Chapter
Electricity transmission and distribution (T&D) networks carry electricity from generation sites to demand sites. With the increasing penetration of decentralised and renewable energy systems, in particular variable power sources such as wind turbines, and the rise in demand-side technologies, the importance of innovative products has never been gr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Power systems are undergoing a paradigm shift due to the influx of variable renewable generation to the supply side. The resulting increased uncertainty has system operators looking to new resources, enabled by smart grid technologies, on the demand side to maintain the balance between supply and demand. This study uses a unique data set to estimat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The need for and concepts behind demand response are evolving. As the electric system changes with more intermittent renewable electric supply systems, there is a need to allow buildings to provide more flexible demand. This paper presents results from field studies and pilots, as well as engineering estimates of the potential capabilities of fast...
Chapter
Low-cost automation and communication smart grid systems will be critical to the success of demand-response (DR) programs. The efforts at formal standardization of DR and distributed energy resources signals produced a set of communication specifications that is known as OpenADR 2.0. OpenADR 2.0 uses different terminology for clients and servers th...
Conference Paper
Automated demand response (Auto-DR) is expected to close the loop between buildings and the grid by providing machine-to-machine communications to curtail loads without the need for human intervention. Hence, it can offer more reliable and repeatable demand response results to the grid than the manual approach and make demand response participation...
Article
Full-text available
The future distribution grid has complex analysis needs, which may not be met with the existing processes and tools. In addition there is a growing number of measured and grid model data sources becoming available. For these sources to be useful they must be accurate, and interpreted correctly. Data accuracy is a key barrier to the growth of the fu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes challenges for integrating high fidelity data with utility distribution operations. Two research projects are described microsynchrophasors (µPMU) and OpenPMU and explore the applications of data for electric power distribution systems.
Conference Paper
An understanding of the capacity value of demand response, which represents the contribution it could make to power system adequacy, could provide an indication of its potential economic value and allow for comparison with other resources. This paper presents a preliminary methodology for estimating the capacity value of demand response utilizing d...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The software that the utility industry currently uses may be insufficient to analyze the distribution grid as it rapidly modernizes to include active resources such as distributed generation, switch and voltage control, automation, and increasingly complex loads. Although planners and operators have traditionally viewed the distribution grid as a p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Advances in communications and control technology, the strengthening of the Internet, and the growing appreciation of the urgency to reduce demand side energy use are motivating the development of improvements in both energy efficiency and demand response (DR) systems. This paper provides a framework linking continuous energy management and continu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) is conducting a pilot program to investigate the technical feasibility of bidding certain demand response (DR) resources into the California Independent System Operator's (CAISO) day-ahead market for ancillary services nonspinning reserve. Three facilities, a retail store, a local government office buildi...
Data
Full-text available
This paper describes the concept for and lessons from the development and field-testing of an open, interoperable communications infrastructure to support automating demand response (DR). Automating DR allows greater levels of participation and improved reliability and repeatability of the demand response and customer facilities. Automated DR syste...
Article
Full-text available
The performance of buildings participating in demand response (DR) programs is usually evaluated with baseline models, which predict what electric demand would have been if a DR event had not been called. Different baseline models produce different results. Moreover, modelers implementing the same baseline model often make different model implement...
Article
Many demand response resources are technically capable of providing ancillary services. In some cases, they can provide superior response to generators, as the curtailment of load is typically much faster than ramping thermal and hydropower plants. Analysis and quantification of demand response resources providing ancillary services is necessary to...
Article
Full-text available
There are growing strains on the electric grid as cooling peaks grow and equipment ages. Increased penetration of renewables on the grid is also straining electricity supply systems and the need for flexible demand is growing. This paper summarizes results of a series of field test of automated demand response systems in large buildings in the Paci...
Conference Paper
Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR), an XML-based information exchange model, is used to facilitate continuous price-responsive operation and demand response participation for large commercial buildings in New York who are subject to the default day-ahead hourly pricing. We summarize the existing demand response programs in New York and discus...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report details the operations of the Demand to Grid Laboratory (D2G Lab) demonstrations at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) since 2011, or Phase 1. Its purpose is to list the D2G Lab demonstration activities and results, and identify next steps to advance grid-integrated technologies and demand response research.
Article
Smart grids have become a topic of intensive research, development, and deployment across the world over the last few years. The engagement of consumer sectors—residential, commercial, and industrial—is widely acknowledged as a key requirement for the projected benefits of smart grids to be realized. Although the industrial sector has traditionally...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Accurate evaluation of the performance of buildings participating in Demand Response (DR) programs is critical to the adoption and improvement of these programs. Typically, we calculate load sheds during DR events by comparing observed electric load against counterfactual predictions made using statistical baseline models. Many baseline models exis...
Article
An overview of research on intelligent energy information and control systems is discussed. New tools can organize data into actionable information and automated control, enabling a continuum of integrated energy efficiency and demand response (DR). As the speed of DR increases with better controls and telemetry, the value of the DR is higher for r...
Technical Report
In New York State, the default electricity pricing for large customers is Mandatoryurly Pricing (MHP), which is charged based on zonal day-ahead market price for energy. With MHP, retail customers can adjust their building load to an economically optimal level according to hourly electricity prices. Yet, many customers seek alternative pricing opti...
Article
Full-text available
In 2009, a pilot program was conducted to investigate the technical feasibility of bidding non-residential demand response (DR) resources into the California Independent System Operator's (CAISO) day-ahead ancillary services market as non-spinning reserves product. Three facilities, a retail store, a local government office building, and a bakery,...
Article
Changes in the electricity consumption of commercial buildings and industrial facilities (C&I facilities) during Demand Response (DR) events are usually estimated using counterfactual baseline models. Model error makes it difficult to precisely quantify these changes in consumption and understand if C&I facilities exhibit event-to-event variability...
Conference Paper
Controlling electric loads to deliver power system services presents a number of interesting challenges. For example, changes in electricity consumption of Commercial and Industrial (C&I) facilities are usually estimated using counterfactual baseline models, and model uncertainty makes it difficult to precisely quantify control responsiveness. More...
Article
Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed an information-exchange specification, Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR), which enables fully automated DR. OpenADR uses utility-provided price, reliability, or DR-event signals to trigger preprogrammed energy-management strategies automatically. Op...
Article
Full-text available
We present methods for analyzing commercial and industrial facility 15-minute-interval electric load data. These methods allow building managers to better understand their facility's electricity consumption over time and to compare it to other buildings, helping them to ask the right questions to discover opportunities for demand response, energy e...
Article
Small and medium commercial customers in California make up about 20-25% of electric peak load in California. With the roll out of smart meters to this customer group, which enable granular measurement of electricity consumption, the investor-owned utilities will offer dynamic prices as default tariffs by the end of 2011. Pacific Gas and Electric C...
Chapter
Full-text available
Advances in communications and control technology, the strengthening of the Internet, and the growing appreciation of the urgency to reduce demand side energy use are motivating the development of improvements in both energy efficiency and demand response (DR) systems in buildings. This paper provides a framework linking continuous energy managemen...
Article
Residential customers in California's Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) territory have seen several electricity rate structure changes in the past decade. A relatively simple two-tiered pricing system (charges by usage under/over baseline for the home's climate zone) was replaced in the summer of 2001 by a more complicated five-tiered system (usage b...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study examines the use of the OpenADR communications specification version 1.0 (OpenADR v1.0), related data models, technologies, and strategies to send dynamic prices such as real-time prices and peak prices and time-of-use rates to commercial and industrial electricity customers. OpenADR v1.0 is a Web services-based flexible, open informatio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
California is a leader in automating demand response (DR) to promote low-cost, consistent, and predictable electric grid management tools. Over 250 commercial and industrial facilities in California participate in fully-automated programs providing over 60 MW of peak DR savings. This paper presents a summary of Open Automated DR (OpenADR) implement...
Conference Paper
We describe a method to generate statistical models of electricity demand from Commercial and Industrial (C&I) facilities including their response to dynamic pricing signals. Models are built with historical electricity demand data. A facility model is the sum of a baseline demand model and a residual demand model; the latter quantifies deviations...
Article
This paper discusses how to optimize pre-cooling strategies for buildings in a hot California climate zone with the Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool (DRQAT), a building energy simulation tool. This paper outlines the procedure used to develop and calibrate DRQAT simulation models, and applies this procedure to eleven field test buildings. The...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Auto-DR is an automation-based communications infrastructure that provides demand response (DR) program participants electronic, internet-based price and reliability signals that are linked to the facility energy management control systems (EMCS) or related building and automated process control systems. Auto-DR price and reliability signals trigge...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper provides new regression models for demand reduction of Demand Response programs for the purpose of ex ante evaluation of the programs and screening for recruiting customer enrollment into the programs. The proposed regression models employ load sensitivity to outside air temperature and representative load pattern derived from cluster an...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the concept for and lessons from the development and field-testing of an open, interoperable communications infrastructure to support automated demand response (auto-DR). Automating DR allows greater levels of participation, improved reliability, and repeatability of the DR in participating facilities. This paper also presents...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the concept for and lessons from the development and field-testing of an open, interoperable communications infrastructure to support automated demand response (auto-DR). Automating DR allows greater levels of participation, improved reliability, and repeatability of the DR in participating facilities. This paper also presents...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The development of the Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification, also known as OpenADR or Open Auto-DR, began in 2002 following the California electricity crisis. The work has been carried out by the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC), which is managed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This specification describes an...
Article
Policymakers are encouraging the development of standardized and consistent methods to quantify the electric load impacts of demand response programs. For load impacts, an essential part of the analysis is the estimation of the baseline load profile. In this paper, we present a statistical evaluation of the performance of several different models u...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In 2006 the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) formed an Industrial Demand Response Team to investigate opportunities and barriers to implementation of Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) systems in California industries. Auto-DR is an open, interoperable communications and technology platform designed to: Provide customers with automated, elec...
Article
This report summarizes San Diego Gas& Electric Company?s collaboration with the Demand Response Research Center to develop and test automation capability for the Capacity Bidding Program in 2007. The report describes the Open Automated Demand Response architecture, summarizes the history of technology development and pilot studies. It also outlines...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the concept for and lessons from the development and field-testing of an open, interoperable communications infrastructure to support automating demand response (DR). Automating DR allows greater levels of participation and improved reliability and repeatability of the demand response and customer facilities. Automated DR syste...
Article
There are 3 appendices listed: (A) DR strategies for HVAC systems; (B) Summary of DR strategies; and (C) Case study of advanced demand response.