Sigrid Norris

Sigrid Norris
Auckland University of Technology | AUT · School of Communications Studies

PhD

About

114
Publications
37,524
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2,244
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Introduction
Sigrid Norris is Professor of Multimodal (Inter)action and Director of the AUT Multimodal Research Centre at Auckland University of Technology in New Zealand. She is author of ‘Analyzing Multimodal Interaction,' ‘Identity in (Inter)action’ and 'Systematically Working with Multimodal Data: Research Methods in Multimodal Discourse Analysis.' She also edits extensively with ‘4 Volumes on Multimodality’ in the Routledge Critical Concepts in Linguistics Series as the latest one; and is editor of the international journal ‘Multimodal Communication’.

Publications

Publications (114)
Book
A guide that offers a step-by-step process to data-driven qualitative multimodal discourse analysis Systematically Working with Multimodal Data is a hands-on guide that is theoretically grounded and offers a step-by-step process to clearly show how to do a data-driven qualitative Multimodal Discourse Analysis (MDA). This full-color introductory te...
Book
This concise guide outlines core theoretical and methodological developments of the growing field of Multimodal (Inter)action Analysis. The volume unpacks the foundational relationship between multimodality and language and the key concepts which underpin the analysis of multimodal action and interaction and the study of multimodal identity. A foc...
Article
FULL TEXT HERE: https://rfmv.fr/numeros/5/articles/11-visual-transcription/ The communication and language sciences have decidedly taken a multimodal turn and a proliferation of work in previously language-dominated fields is focusing on the contribution of non-verbal communicative modes in social interaction. While this has proven empirically and...
Chapter
Multimodal (inter)action analysis (Norris 2011) is a methodology to analyze identity production in everyday life. This methodology has strong theoretical foundations in mediated discourse analysis (Scollon 1998, 2001; Norris & Jones 2005), interactional sociolinguistics (Goffman 1956, 1974; Gumperz 1982; Tannen 1984) and social semiotics (Kress & V...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a concise introduction to Multimodal (inter)action analysis (MIA), which began to be developed in the early 2000s in tandem with technological advances for visual qualitative research. By now, MIA has grown into a fully-fledged research framework, including multimodal philosophy, theory, method and methodology for the study of h...
Chapter
This chapter showcases 12 theoretical and analytical tools that can be used to conduct a multimodal (inter)action analysis, explicating for each concept the history and the theory that is embedded, explaining how each concept is used as an analytical tool and giving brief practical example(s) as well as pointing out some analytical capabilities of...
Chapter
This chapter showcases how multimodal (inter)action analysis sits in the larger field of linguistics, consisting of an overview, a detailed background and the explication of some important theoretical and analytical concepts such as (inter)action, (inter)actional attention, mediation and mode.
Chapter
This chapter showcases 16 theoretical and analytical tools to study multimodal identity production; explicating for each concept the history and the theory that is embedded; explaining how each concept is used as an analytical tool and giving brief practical example(s); as well as pointing out some analytical capabilities of each concept.
Chapter
This concise encyclopaedia entry summarizes the theoretical and analytical framework of multimodal interaction analysis and highlights to most current developments in the field.
Chapter
Full-text available
This article problematizes the notion of selecting micro-data pieces to shed light upon the focus of participants. The issue presented is two-fold: 1. The article shows that selecting micro-analytical data pieces does not allow a researcher to determine the focus of a participant; and 2. The article demonstrates that language use of a participant d...
Chapter
In order to study the multimodality of social action, we are not well advised to prioritise one mode such as language, just as we would not be well advised to only study verbs if we wanted to study how people speak. For this reason, I would advise you not to transcribe all of your verbal data in hopes of getting the gist of what is going on before...
Chapter
We begin Phase III by re-phrasing our research questions that encircle our data into a mediated action. By doing this, we make sure that we continue to work in a theoretically founded way. Once we have re-written our data-encircling research question, the statement (the mediated action) guides us when demarcating higher-level mediated actions. Here...
Chapter
In Phase III, we systematically work through all of the data that we have collected. Working in a data-driven manner, we demarcate higher-level actions and through our analysis we arrive at selecting particular data pieces for further micro-analysis.
Chapter
When working with large data sets, a systematic way of working ensures replicability of our study and reliability of our findings. This chapter demonstrates the steps of data collection for working with large data sets. It illustrates the steps with an example of a relatively large study on family videoconferencing (inter)actions conducted at the M...
Chapter
In Phase III, we begin to make deeper sense of our entire data set. Here, we conduct a crucial analysis of all data pieces that we have collected. The analysis of all data pieces (Phase III) is crucial in order to be able to systematically select data pieces for microanalysis. Only when all data has gone through Analysis-Phase III, can we determine...
Chapter
In Phase V we learn to utilize analytical tools to conduct detailed micro analyses and to put our analyses into perspective in regards to the intermediate- and macro level of (inter)action. Theoretically founded analytical tools allow us to work in a reliable and replicable manner. In this chapter, you learn to choose from seven analytical tools fo...
Chapter
Video data usually is the prerequisite for conducting a multimodal discourse analysis. However, video data may not be the only data that you will want to collect. This chapter discusses the steps for data collection and exemplifies each step by various examples. It begins with developing a research theme or topic and a research question. It critica...
Chapter
Data sets vary greatly in research. You may be looking at a data set which consists of data that you yourself or a team of researchers have collected such as the dyadic teamwork study presented in Chapter 3.2 and continued in this chapter. You may also be in a position where you can use some of the data of such an experimental study already collect...
Chapter
This chapter shows how to delineate the data when working on a video ethnographic project, which (usually) comprises a large and diverse data set. The first important step is to identify your entire data set; and the Phase ends by clearly acknowledging how you are working in a data-driven manner from here on.
Chapter
This chapter exemplifies Phase I of Systematically Working with Multimodal Data based on a Dyadic Teamwork via Skype Project, an experimental study. This kind of study may be particularly useful for small research teams with upper-level students working in liaison, so that BA and MA theses result from various aspects of the data as well as publishe...
Chapter
This chapter is dedicated to the conventions that we use in order to understand particular excerpts in our data in great detail. The conventions described here are the same for any kind of video data, hence conventions. The reason we adhere to transcription conventions (using our units of analysis, the lower-level, higher-level, and frozen actions...
Chapter
This chapter traces some of Scollon's theoretical thinking as he developed Mediated Discourse Analysis, the framework that allowed the development of Multimodal (Inter)action Analysis. The chapter delves into the ways in which Scollon referenced both Vygotsky and Nishida, it traces some philosophical thoughts in Nishida's writing and demonstrates h...
Chapter
A strong coherence between philosophical, theoretical and analytical framework ensures reliability of the research that is being conducted. Quite often, philosophical foundations of theories that underpin analytical frameworks are not made evident. Or, in some cases, a philosophical underpinning is explicitly referred to, but no clear theoretical b...
Chapter
This chapter exemplifies the five steps of Phase II with a YouTube video and also illustrates the relationship between viewer, computer/laptop/screen, and clip. A very important person for a YouTube clip is the viewer. Without a viewer, nobody watches the clip, and the clip does not communicate to anyone.
Chapter
This chapter exemplifies the steps of data pieces selection for microanalysis with a YouTube video to guide in how to analyze an entire data set.
Chapter
This chapter offers a glimpse of research conducted in multimodal discourse analysis and related fields relevant for multimodal discourse analysis. It briefly introduces the reader to frameworks relevant to or related to multimodal discourse analysis and showcases some literature to indicate the vastness of the field on the one hand and to frame th...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the five most prominent approaches to multimodal data analysis: Multimodal (Inter)action Analysis, Mediated Discourse Analysis, Systemic Functional Multimodal Discourse Analysis, Social Semiotics, and Multimodal Conversation Analysis. The chapter begins by discussing the origin of each approach, methods of data collection an...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we examined three Serbian-English bilingual, two English only, and a mixed dyad in an English lingua franca setting working on tasks together via Skype. Using multimodal (inter)action analysis (Norris, 2004, 2009, 2011, 2013a, b, 2019) as our theoretical and analytical framework, we illustrated through the concept of modal configurat...
Chapter
Dieser Aufsatz ist in erster Linie ein theoretischer Beitrag, der mein Verständnis von Rhythmus anhand einer internationalen Videokonferenz über eine sequenzielle Rekonstruktion des von den Beteiligten im zeitlichen Verlauf konstituierten Moments hinweg erlaubt. Basierend auf den soziokulturellen Theorien der mediatisierten Diskursanalyse (Scollon...
Article
This article takes a multimodal approach to examine how two young men communicate knowledge, shift attention, and negotiate a disagreement via videoconferencing technology. The data for the study comes from a larger ongoing project of participants engaging in various tasks together. Linking micro, intermediate and macro analyses through the various...
Article
This article develops a new methodological tool, called scales of action, which allows the empirical investigation of ubiquitous actions such as driving on the one hand, and the highly complex relationships between (for example) drives and other actions in everyday life on the other hand. Through empirical analysis of ethnographic data of drives pe...
Conference Paper
Differences in knowledge about events, states, situations and so forth are central to interaction (Kastberg, 2007; Schiffrin; 1986, Heritage, 2012). Social actors develop their understanding of what they expect others to know, how certain they are about knowledge, and how relevant particular information is in a given interaction. Markers of knowled...
Conference Paper
This paper takes multimodal (inter)action analysis (Norris, 2004, 2011a, 2013a, 3013b, 2013c) as its theoretical/methodological framework to investigate attention in multiparty family videoconferences; and demonstrates how adult family members pay attention to multiple (inter)actions at the same time. The data comes from a relatively large scale pr...
Chapter
This chapter illustrates how language builds one system with all other modes in interaction. Elucidating this point, the chapter examines language and modal configurations in multimodal actions in a small art school in Germany. First, the historical development of multimodal (inter)action analysis is outlined. Then, relevant theoretical concepts ar...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents theoretical concepts and methodological tools from multimodal (inter)action analysis that allow the reader to gain new insight into the study of discourse and interaction. The data for this article comes from a video ethnographic study (with emphasis on the video data) of 17 New Zealand families (inter)acting with family membe...
Conference Paper
This paper takes a multimodal perspective (Norris, 2004, 2011a, 2012a, 2013a, 2013b, 2013c, 2015; Geenen, 2013a. 2013b, forthcoming; Geenen, Norris & Makboon, 2015; Makboon, 2015; Pirini,2014, 2015, 2016), building upon mediated discourse analysis (Scollon, 1998, 2001; Norris and Jones, 2005a, b) to examine how identities are produced in family vid...
Conference Paper
This presentation investigates videoconferences between family members of different generations and illustrates how multimodal (inter)action analysis (Norris, 2004, 2011, 2013a, 2013 b, 2014, 2015) allows us to gain new insight into language and interaction. The methodology originates from sociolinguistics and takes the mediated action as unit of a...
Book
The poems offered in Love and Separation, just as the poems in rosarot und schwarz (2008, Deutscher Lyrik Verlag), originated from my ethnographic fieldwork on identity that I conducted in Germany and the USA. Love and separation are topics that everyone grapples with; and thus, these topics often came up when I conducted my ethnographic fieldwork...
Chapter
This general introduction presents a historical overview of the areas of thought as they arose in Europe, the UK, North America, and Austral-Asia beginning from the 1930s which developed into what today is called Multimodality. Then, the chapter offers a historical account of the evolving primary strands of Multimodality, explicating two particular...
Chapter
This introductory chapter explicates how and where Multimodality developed from the 1950s to the 1990s. Divided into two parts, the chapter showcases some forerunners and the early days of multimodality: First, the chapter demonstrates that already in the 1950s an interest in image-text relations, verbal-nonverbal relations, and thus an interest in...
Chapter
This introductory chapter is divided into four parts; and throughout, the chapter illuminates research into Text, Image, Interaction, Object, Music, and Colour. First, the chapter discusses a call for multimodal theory positioned in the year 2000. Subsequently, the chapter explicates immediate developments in multimodality between the years 2000 an...
Chapter
This article identifies some limitations of discourse analysis by analyzing interactions between five boys in which the TV and the computer are featured as mediational means. The incorporation of several modalities into transcripts and a shift in focus from primarily language to human action facilitate a better understanding of the multi-modal inte...
Chapter
This chapter introduces a multimodal framework for discourse analysis that moves toward an explication of the multiplicity of (inter)actions that a social actor engages in simultaneously, allowing for the analysis of large parts of what has been termed context in traditional discourse analysis. The conceptual framework presented here permits the in...
Chapter
This chapter discusses how multimodality became more established during the years 2006 to 2011; it explicates not only who published ground-breaking research during these fruitful years, but also, and for this chapter more importantly, scrutinises which publishers and which academic journals published work in the blossoming area of multimodality. A...
Chapter
Social actors often are involved in more than one higher-level action. A father watches his toddler and converses with a client on the phone. A business woman has her child playing in the office and engages in computer mediated interactions with colleagues. A student is sending an SMS at a bus stop while conversing in person with a fellow student....
Chapter
Taking the action, rather than the utterance or the text, as the unit of analysis, this article isolates different modes, investigating the interdependent relationships, illustrating that the visual mode of gestures can take up a hierarchically equal or a super-ordinate position in addition to the commonly understood sub-ordinate position in relati...
Chapter
This chapter exemplifies how multimodality swept the world. During the fast-moving years between 2012 and 2014, multimodality is taken up across America, Australia, Austria, China, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Hong-Kong, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland, and many other countries. As multimodality gains currency, a n...
Chapter
Moving towards multimodal mediated theory, I propose to define a mode as a system of mediated action that comes about through concrete lower-level actions that social actors take in the world. In order to explain exactly how a mode is a system of mediated action, I turn to a perfume blog and use one blog entry as my starting point. The mode that I...
Book
Full-text available
Multimodality is a fast growing area of inquiry as the interest in modes beyond, but always also including language, such as layout, gesture, gaze, or body posture is increasing. A conglomeration of research from various fields interested in examining language as it is embedded in a vast array of other modes, rather than a coherent field of inquiry...
Book
Multimodality is a fast-growing interdisciplinary approach that aims to analyze the interplay of multiple modes such as gaze, gesture or spoken language that are utilized in interaction, and to examine the multimodal production and consumption of communicated messages. This Reader provides a comprehensive text of current research into multimodality...
Article
In this article, we take a multimodal (inter)action analytical approach, showing how objects in everyday life are identity telling. As social actors surround themselves with objects, multiple actions from producing the objects to acquiring and placing them in the environment are embedded within. Here, we investigate examples from two different ethn...
Chapter
Multimodal discourse analysis is an emergent field that began around the verge of the millennium with books such as Reading Images: A Grammar of Visual Design (Kress & van Leeuwen, 1996/2006), Mediated Discourse as Social Interaction (Scollon, 1998), Multimodal Discourse (Kress & van Leeuwen, 2001), and Analyzing Multimodal Interaction: A Methodolo...
Article
Building on the argument that practices between teacher and learners in classrooms may differ (Scollon and Scollon, 1981; Brice Heath, 1983 [1996]; Street, 1984; Gee, 1996; Barton and Hamilton, 1998), I look at how literacy focused school classroom teaching/learning practices instilled into an individual have a long-term effect. Using a multimodal...
Article
Full-text available
article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/). Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of WCLTA 2013. Abstract This article examines tacit participation in an adult art class. Drawing on video excerpts from an extensive 4 month video ethnographic study of an art school,...
Book
Aims and Scope Multimodality is a fast-growing interdisciplinary approach that aims to analyze the interplay of multiple modes such as gaze, gesture or spoken language that are utilized in interaction, and to examine the multimodal production and consumption of communicated messages. This Reader provides a comprehensive text of current research in...
Chapter
In this chapter, we discuss three different projects and three different types of researcher roles when collecting video data. The chapter is a discussion of the roles that we have taken up in actual research projects. We describe some how-to notions from camera positioning to interacting with participants and some of the problems that we found
Chapter
We live in a country, in which ethical review boards have stringent expectations of what they believe ethical research is. While we certainly have a critical stance towards review boards’ notions of ethics, as researchers, we are firmly grounded in research ethics. Applying for, and receiving, ethical approval for research projects can be a challen...
Chapter
Social actors often are involved in more than one higher-level action. A father watches his toddler and converses with a client on the phone. A business woman has her child playing in the office and engages in computer mediated interactions with colleagues. A student is sending an SMS at a bus stop while conversing in person with a fellow student....
Chapter
In diesem kurzen Beitrag wird die sozio-kulturelle Theorie/Methodik der mediatisierten Diskursanalyse beschrieben.
Chapter
Der kurze Beitrag beschreibt die Geosemiotik: Ein interdisziplinärer Ansatz zur Erforschung des semiotischen Zusammenhangs von Interaktion und visueller Semiotik von Schildern, Bildern und Texten in ihrer konkreten physischen Platzierung in der Umwelt.
Conference Paper
This article examines tacit participation in an adult art class. Drawing on video excerpts from an extensive 4 month video ethnographic study of an art school, I elucidate how a new student tacitly learns to participate in the group dynamics of the art school. Through video analysis, and using a mediated discourse theoretical (Scollon, 1998, 2011)...
Chapter
This article is an introduction to the theoretical and methodological backgrounds of multimodal (inter)action theory. The aim of this theory is to explain the complexities of (inter)action, connecting micro- and macro levels of analysis, focusing on the social actor. The most important theoretical antecedent, mediated discourse analysis (see Scollo...
Chapter
In this chapter, I discuss the methodology called multimodal (inter)action analysis (Norris, 2004, 2011). First, I give an overview of the origin, the units of analyses and heuristic tools of the methodology. Then, I illustrate the methodology with one novel example in which a usually lower-level action of reading a number balloons into a higher-le...
Article
Moving towards multimodal mediated theory, I propose to define a mode as a system of mediated action that comes about through concrete lower-level actions that social actors take in the world. In order to explain exactly how a mode is a system of mediated action, I turn to a perfume blog and use one blog entry as my starting point. The mode that I...
Chapter
Multimodal interaction analysis (Norris, 2004) is a holistic methodological framework that allows the analyst to integrate the verbal with the nonverbal, and to integrate these with material objects and the environment as they are being used by individuals acting and interacting in the world.Keywords:discourse analysis;pragmatics;research methods i...
Chapter
There is an increasing interest among academics, professionals and students in the role of image, gesture, gaze and posture, and the use of space in representation and communication—in other words, multimodality. (Jewitt, 2009, p. 1)Keywords:discourse analysis;research methods in applied linguistics;identity
Chapter
Multimodal interaction analysis (Norris, 2004) is a holistic methodological framework that allows the analyst to integrate the verbal with the nonverbal, and to integrate these with material objects and the environment as they are being used by individuals acting and interacting in the world. In short, multimodal interaction analysis allows a resea...
Chapter
The study of multimodal communication is relatively young…The developing area of study is vast and cuts across many fields from multimodal discourse analysis and multimodal teaching and learning to multimodal literacy, multimodal text analysis, and multimodality and systemic functional analysis. Multimodal communication looks at language within and...
Chapter
Discourse analysis is widely recognized as one of the most vast, but also as one of the least defined, areas in linguistics (e.g. Stubbs, 1983, p. 12; Tannen, 1989, pp. 6?8)? (Schiffrin, 1994, p. 5).
Book
In this wide-ranging collection, leading scholars, researchers, and emergent researchers from around the world come together and present examples of multimodal discourse analysis in practice. The book illustrates new theoretical, methodological and empirical research into new technologies such as the internet, software, CD-ROM, video, and older tec...
Chapter
I have conducted a good number of ethnographic studies of social actors acting in their everyday life in the last ten years and have found that many social actors paint, write poetry, or dance, but only few of them are considered community artists, poets, or dancers. How is it, I am asking in this chapter, that some actions are actions that produce...
Chapter
Generally speaking, visual modes have received much more attention than many other modes in current research into multimodality. For this reason, I begin this book by looking at a mode that has received very little attention, but a mode that we all utilize: the mode of touch. In Chapter 2, I investigate horseback-riding/horse-training lessons. The...
Chapter
“Discourse analysis is widely recognized as one of the most vast, but also as one of the least defined, areas in linguistics (e.g. Stubbs, 1983, p. 12; Tannen, 1989, pp. 6–8)” (Schiffrin, 1994, p. 5). As the quote suggests, discourse analysis encompasses a range of investigations...
Book
In this monograph, the author offers a new way of examining the much discussed notion of identity through the theoretical and methodological approach called multimodal interaction analysis. Moving beyond a traditional discourse analysis focus on spoken language, this book expands our understanding of identity construction by looking both at languag...
Article
Taking the action, rather than the utterance or the text, as the unit of analysis, this article isolates different modes, investigating the interdependent relationships, illustrating that the visual mode of gestures can take up a hierarchically equal or a super-ordinate position in addition to the commonly understood sub-ordinate position in relati...
Article
In this article, I investigate the practice-based research project called the poetry-to-painting project that the independent German artist, Andrea Brandt, who has also been a participant in two of my ethnographic studies on identity production, and I are involved in. ‘Divorce: A visual essay’ (Norris and Brandt, 2011) illustrates Andrea’s early to...
Article
This article builds on Scollon’s work on rhythm in ordinary talk (1981, 1982) and mediated discourse analysis (primarily 1998 and 2001) extending his work by utilizing multimodal interaction analysis (MIA) (Norris 2004) as the methodological framework. With multimodal transcripts of everyday interactions from grooming a horse to a workplace interac...
Chapter
Multimodality is an innovative approach to representation, communication and interaction which looks beyond language to investigate the multitude of ways we communicate: through images, sound and music to gestures, body posture and the use of space. The Routledge Handbook of Multimodal Analysis is the first comprehensive ‘research tool kit’ for mu...
Article
This contribution is a reflection on Ron Scollon's highly influential book that first developed Mediated Discourse Analysis as a theoretical/methodological framework.
Chapter
Identity construction is a widely covered topic in studies of discourse and a topic that has interested me for some time (Norris 2002, 2004, forthcoming). As in my other chapters, my focus in this chapter is a methodological one that allows the investigation of identity construction from a slightly new perspective. In this chapter, I take up the to...
Article
This article uncovers explicit simultaneous identity construction by applying Scollon and Scollon's (2001) notion of Discourse System and Multimodal Interaction Analysis (Norris, 2004a, 2004b). As a contribution to the theoretical discussion, this article investigates the micropolitics of personal national and ethnicity identity construction of His...
Article
This article investigates a multiparty interaction in an accounting office by applying a multimodal approach to discourse (Norris, 2004a). This approach allows the incorporation of all relevant communicative modes and is based on the following three notions: 1) the notion of mediated action; 2) the notion of modal density; and 3) the notion of a fo...
Book
Full-text available
From emails relating to adoption over the Internet to discussions in the airline cockpit, the spoken or written texts we produce can have significant social consequences. The area of mediated discourse analysis considers the actions individuals take with texts – and the consequences of those actions. Discourse in Action brings together leading scho...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
In this project we examine how social actors produce (for example) their personal, ethnic, national, or gender identity elements and how practices and discourses shape the identities.
Archived project
In this ethnographic Study we are interested in examining how family members interact via video conferencing technology.
Project
Since Microsoft bought Skype in late 2011, Skype has been implemented in many office computers, creating the possibility of easy access to video conferencing technology for teams at work. At this time however, we have little understanding of how teams negotiate their work via video conferencing technology. This study aims to fill this gap by examining how dyadic teams accomplish tasks via Skype.