Signe Normand

Signe Normand
Aarhus University | AU · Department of Bioscience

PhD

About

112
Publications
47,209
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8,046
Citations
Citations since 2016
66 Research Items
5998 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,200
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,200

Publications

Publications (112)
Article
Full-text available
Background The Arctic tundra is subject to the greatest climate change-induced temperature rises of any biome. Both terrestrial and freshwater biota are responding to recent climate warming through variability in their distribution, abundance, and richness. However, uncertainty arises within models of future change when considering processes that o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Climate change is leading to a species redistributions. In the tundra biome, many shrub species are expanding into new areas, a process known as shrubification. However, not all tundra shrub species will benefit from warming. Winner and loser species (those projected to expand and contract their ranges, and/or those that have increased or decreased...
Article
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Climate warming is inducing widespread vegetation changes in Arctic tundra ecosystems, with the potential to alter carbon and nutrient dynamics between vegetation and soils. Yet, we lack a detailed understanding of how variation in vegetation and topography influences fine‐scale temperatures (‘microclimate’) that mediate these dynamics, and at what...
Article
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Spatial variation in plant chemical defence towards herbivores can help us understand variation in herbivore top–down control of shrubs in the Arctic and possibly also shrub responses to global warming. Less defended, non‐resinous shrubs could be more influenced by herbivores than more defended, resinous shrubs. However, sparse field measurements l...
Article
Rapid climate change has been driving changes in Arctic vegetation in recent decades, with increased shrub dominance in many tundra ecosystems. Dendroecological observations of tundra shrubs can provide insight into current and past growth and recruitment patterns, both key components for understanding and predicting ongoing and future Arctic shrub...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Improving species distribution models (SDMs) and species abundance models (SAMs) of woody shrubs is critical for predicting biodiversity changes in the Arctic, which is experiencing especially high warming rates. Yet, it remains relatively unexplored if SDMs and SAMs can explain local scale patterns. We aim to identify predictor differences for...
Article
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The cover image relates to the Research Article https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.13498 “High resolution species distribution and abundance models cannot predict separate shrub datasets in adjacent Arctic fjords” by Chardon et al. The Nuup Kangerlua fjord in Southwest Greenland is topographically complex, with sparse to dense shrub species cover, making...
Article
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The combined effects of climate change and nutrient availability on Arctic vegetation growth are poorly understood. Archaeological sites in the Arctic could represent unique nutrient hotspots for studying the long-term effect of nutrient enrichment. In this study, we analysed a time-series of ring widths of Salix glauca L. collected at nine archaeo...
Article
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Biodiversity studies could strongly benefit from three-dimensional data on ecosystem structure derived from contemporary remote sensing technologies, such as light detection and ranging (lidar). Despite the increasing availability of such data at regional and national scales, the average ecologist has been limited in accessing them due to high requ...
Preprint
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Biodiversity studies could strongly benefit from three-dimensional data on ecosystem structure derived from contemporary remote sensing technologies, such as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). Despite the increasing availability of such data at regional and national scales, the average ecologist has been limited in accessing them due to high requ...
Preprint
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High resolution, downscaled climate model data are used in a wide variety of applications in environmental sciences. Here we present the CHELSA-TraCE21k downscaling algorithm to create global monthly climatologies for temperature and precipitation at 30 arcsec spatial resolution in 100 year time steps for the last 21,000 years. Paleo orography at h...
Article
Insect defoliations are a major natural disturbance in high-latitude ecosystems and are expected to increase in frequency and severity due to current climatic change. Defoliations cause severe reductions in biomass and carbon investments that affect the functioning and productivity of tundra ecosystems. Here we combined dendro-anatomical analysis w...
Article
Questions Shrub vegetation has been expanding across much of the rapidly changing Arctic. Yet, there is still uncertainty about the underlying drivers of shrub community composition. Here, we use extensive vegetation surveys and a trait‐based approach to answer the following questions: which abiotic and biotic factors explain abundance of shrub spe...
Article
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• Shrub encroachment in seminatural grasslands threatens local biodiversity unless management is applied to reduce shrub density. Dense vegetation of Cytisus scoparius homogenizes the landscape negatively affecting local plant diversity. Detecting structural change (e.g., biomass) is essential for assessing negative impacts of encroachment. Hence,...
Article
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The majority of variation in six traits critical to the growth, survival and reproduction of plant species is thought to be organised along just two dimensions, corresponding to strategies of plant size and resource acquisition. However, it is unknown whether global plant trait relationships extend to climatic extremes, and if these interspecific r...
Article
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Nitrogen availability in Arctic ecosystems is a key driver for biological activity including plant growth and thereby directly linked to the greening of the Arctic. Here, we quantify the redistribution of melt water following spring snow melt as well as the accumulation of melt water and dissolved nutrients at a landscape scale. By combining snow m...
Article
As the Arctic warms, vegetation is responding, and satellite measures indicate widespread greening at high latitudes. This ‘greening of the Arctic’ is among the world’s most important large-scale ecological responses to global climate change. However, a consensus is emerging that the underlying causes and future dynamics of so-called Arctic greenin...
Article
Theory suggests that increasing productivity and climate stability towards the tropics favours specialization, thus contributing to the latitudinal richness gradient. A positive relationship between species richness and specialization should therefore emerge as a fundamental biogeographical pattern. However, land‐use and climate changes disproporti...
Article
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Recent years have seen an exponential increase in the amount of data available in all sciences and application domains. Macroecology is part of this "Big Data" trend, with a strong rise in the volume of data that we are using for our research. Here, we summarize the most recent developments in macroecology in the age of Big Data that were presented...
Article
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Mapping changes in vegetation cover is essential for understanding the consequences of climate change on Arctic ecosystems. Classification of ultra-high spatial-resolution (UHR, < 1 cm) imagery can provide estimates of vegetation cover across space and time. The challenge of this approach is to assure comparability of classification across many ima...
Article
Phylogenetic endemism describes the extent to which unique phylogenetic lineages are constrained to restricted geographic areas. Previous studies indicate that species endemism is related to both past and modern climate, but studies of phylogenetic endemism are relatively rare and mainly focused on smaller regions. Here, we provide the first assess...
Article
Tundra ecosystems are highly vulnerable to climate change, and climate–growth responses of Arctic shrubs are variable and altered by microsite environmental conditions and biotic factors. With warming and drought during the growing season, insect‐driven defoliation is expected to increase in frequency and severity with potential broad‐scale impacts...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aim Theory suggests that increasing productivity and climate stability toward the tropics can explain the latitudinal richness gradient by favouring specialization. A positive relationship between species richness and specialization should thus emerge as a fundamental biogeographic pattern. However, land use and climate change disproportionally inc...
Preprint
The “greening of the Arctic” is among the world’s most significant large scale ecological responses to global climate change1. The Arctic has warmed at twice the rate of the rest of the planet on average in recent decades2 and satellite-derived vegetation indices have indicated widespread increases in productivity (termed “greening”) at high latitu...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Plant functional groups are widely used in community ecology and earth system modelling to describe trait variation within and across plant communities. However, this approach rests on the assumption that functional groups explain a large proportion of trait variation among species. We test whether four commonly used plant functional groups rep...
Article
Changes in Arctic vegetation can have important implications for trophic interactions and ecosystem functioning leading to climate feedbacks. Plot-based vegetation surveys provide detailed insight into vegetation changes at sites around the Arctic and improve our ability to predict the impacts of environmental change on tundra ecosystems. Here, we...
Article
The disproportionate warming in the Arctic and the resulting adverse ecosystem changes underline the importance of continued monitoring of these ecosystems. Land-cover classification maps of the Arctic regions are essential for monitoring and change detection purposes, as well as upscaling of various ecosystem processes. However, large-scale land c...
Article
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Motivation: The Tundra Trait Team (TTT) database includes field‐based measurements of key traits related to plant form and function at multiple sites across the tundra biome. This dataset can be used to address theoretical questions about plant strategy and trade‐offs, trait–environment relationships and environmental filtering, and trait variation...
Article
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The tundra is warming more rapidly than any other biome on Earth, and the potential ramifications are far-reaching because of global feedback effects between vegetation and climate. A better understanding of how environmental factors shape plant structure and function is crucial for predicting the consequences of environmental change for ecosystem...
Article
The satellite record has revealed substantial land surface "greening" in the northern hemisphere over recent decades. Process-based Earth system models (ESMs) attribute enhanced vegetation productivity (greening) to CO2 fertilisation. However, the models poorly reproduce observed spatial patterns of greening, suggesting that they ignore crucial pro...
Article
Full-text available
The above mentioned article was originally scheduled for publication in the special issue on Ecology of Tundra Arthropods with guest editors Toke T. Høye . Lauren E. Culler. Erroneously, the article was published in Polar Biology, Volume 40, Issue 11, November, 2017. The publisher sincerely apologizes to the guest editors and the authors for the in...
Article
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Globally accelerating trends in societal development and human environmental impacts since the mid-twentieth century1-7are known as the Great Acceleration and have been discussed as a key indicator of the onset of the Anthropocene epoch6. While reports on ecological responses (for example, changes in species range or local extinctions) to the Great...
Article
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Chronic, low intensity herbivory by invertebrates, termed background herbivory, has been understudied in tundra, yet its impacts are likely to increase in a warmer Arctic. The magnitude of these changes is however hard to predict as we know little about the drivers of current levels of invertebrate herbivory in tundra. We assessed the intensity of...
Article
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Arctic plant communities are altered by climate changes. The magnitude of these alterations depends on whether species distributions are determined by macroclimatic conditions, by factors related to local topography, or by biotic interactions. Our current understanding of the relative importance of these conditions is limited due to the scarcity of...
Article
Recent changes in arctic vegetation might not be driven by climate change alone. Legacies of human activities have received little attention as a contributing factor. We examine the extent to which traditional human activities (hunting, herding, fire, wood extraction, and agriculture) have had lasting effects on arctic woody plant communities and t...
Article
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Climate change has been reported to affect shrub growth positively at several sites at high northern latitudes, including several arctic environments. The observed growth rates are, however, not uniform in space and time, and the mechanistic drivers of these patterns remain poorly understood. Here we investigated spatio-temporal interactions betwee...
Article
Aims Long-term climate stability is hypothesized to drive the emergence of species assemblages with large species age differences due to the accumulation of relict species and relatively newly arisen species via reduced extinction and increased speciation. Few studies have addressed these predictions and so far no study has done so for plants acro...
Article
Whether non-arctic species persisted in northern Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is highly debated. Until now, the debate has mostly focused on plants, with little consideration for other groups of organ- isms, e.g. the numerous plant-dependent insect species. Here, we study the late-Quaternary evolution of the European range of a bore...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Mapping the distribution and diversity of plant functional traits is critical for projecting future changes to vegetation under global change. Maps of plant functional traits, however, are scarce due very sparse global trait data matrices. A potential solution to this data limitation is to utilize the known levels of phylogenetic signal in tra...
Article
Full-text available
Arthropods form a major part of the terrestrial species diversity in the Arctic, and are particularly sensitive to temporal changes in the abiotic environment. It is assumed that most Arctic arthropods are habitat generalists and that their diversity patterns exhibit low spatial variation. The empirical basis for this assumption, however, is weak....
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic is warming at twice the rate of the rest of the world. This impacts Arctic species both directly, through increased temperatures, and indirectly, through structural changes in their habitats. Species are expected to exhibit idiosyncratic responses to structural change, which calls for detailed investigations at the species and community...
Data
Supplemental Figure 1. Plot of the best fitted latent variable model for plant species showing the mean of the latent variable in two dimensions with a negative binomial distribution. The different colours indicate different habitat types.
Data
Supplemental Figure 2. Boxplot showing how the variables are distributed among habitats.
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic is warming at twice the rate of the rest of the world. This impacts Arctic species both directly, through increased temperatures, and indirectly, through structural changes in their habitats. Species are expected to exhibit idiosyncratic responses to structural change, which calls for detailed investigations at the species and community...
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic is warming at twice the rate of the rest of the world. This impacts Arctic species both directly, through increased temperatures, and indirectly, through structural changes in their habitats. Species are expected to exhibit idiosyncratic responses to structural change, which calls for detailed investigations at the species and community...