Siegfried Leung

Siegfried Leung
Circle Pharma

PhD

About

19
Publications
2,876
Reads
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1,281
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2014 - present
Circle Pharma
Position
  • Senior Computational Scientist
August 2009 - June 2014
University of California, San Francisco
Position
  • PostDoc Position
September 2004 - June 2009
Yale University
Position
  • PhD Student
Education
August 2003 - June 2009
Yale University
Field of study
  • Chemistry
August 1998 - December 2002
University of San Francisco
Field of study
  • Chemistry

Publications

Publications (19)
Article
The chemokine receptor CXCR7 is an attractive target for a variety of diseases. While several small molecule modulators of CXCR7 have been reported, peptidic macrocycles may provide advantages in terms of potency, selectivity, and reduced off-target activity. We produced a series of peptidic macrocycles that incorporate an N-linked peptoid function...
Article
We investigate the relationship between passive permeability and molecular size, in the context of solubility-diffusion theory, using a diverse compound set with molecular weights ranging from 151 to 828, which have all been characterized in a consistent manner using the RRCK cell monolayer assay. Computationally, each compound was subjected to ext...
Article
The effect of peptide-to-peptoid substitutions on the passive membrane permeability of an N-methylated cyclic hexapeptide is examined. In general, substitutions maintained permeability but increased conformational heterogeneity. Diversification with nonproteinogenic side chains increased permeability up to 3-fold. Additionally, the conformational i...
Article
Drug design efforts are turning to a new generation of therapeutic targets, such as protein-protein interactions (PPIs), that had previously been considered "undruggable" by typical small molecules. There is an emerging view that accessing these targets will require molecules that are larger and more complex than typical small molecule drugs. Here,...
Article
Full-text available
Inhibition of the Trypanosoma cruzi cysteine protease cruzain has been proposed as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of Chagas' disease. Among the best-studied cruzain inhibitors to date is the vinylsulfone K777 (1), which has proven effective in animal models of Chagas' disease. Recent structure-activity studies aimed at addressing potentia...
Article
Full-text available
A series of cyclic peptides were designed and prepared to investigate the physicochemical properties that affect oral bioavailabilty of this chemotype in rats. In particular, the ionization state of the peptide was examined by the incorporation of naturally occurring amino acid residues that are charged in differing regions of the gut. In addition,...
Article
Full-text available
The biophysical basis of passive membrane permeability is well-understood, but most methods for predicting membrane permeability in the context of drug design are based on statistical relationships that indirectly capture the key physical aspects. Here, we investigate molecular mechanics-based models of passive membrane permeability and evaluate th...
Article
The effects of addition of a methyl group to a lead compound on biological activity are examined. A literature analysis of >2000 cases reveals that an activity boost of a factor of 10 or more is found with an 8% frequency, and a 100-fold boost is a 1 in 200 event. Four cases in the latter category are analyzed in depth to elucidate any unusual aspe...
Article
Full-text available
Backbone N-methylation is common among peptide natural products and has a substantial impact on both the physical properties and the conformational states of cyclic peptides. However, the specific impact of N-methylation on passive membrane diffusion in cyclic peptides has not been investigated systematically. Here we report a method for the select...
Article
A select series of methyl ether derivatives of vancomcyin aglycon were prepared and examined for antimicrobial activity against vancomycin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci faecalis as well as their binding affinity for D-Ala-D-Ala and D-Ala-D-Lac. The intent of the study was to elucidate the role selected key met...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Chagas Disease is the leading cause of heart failure in Latin America. Current drug therapy is limited by issues of both efficacy and severe side effects. Trypansoma cruzi, the protozoan agent of Chagas Disease, is closely related to two other major global pathogens, Leishmania spp., responsible for leishmaniasis, and Trypansoma brucei...
Article
Full-text available
Chagas’ disease, the leading cause of heart failure in Latin America, is caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The sterols of T. cruzi resemble those of fungi, both in composition and in biosynthesis. Azole inhibitors of sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) successfully treat fungal infections in humans, and efforts to adapt the succes...
Article
In order to seek vancomycin analogs with improved performance against VanA and VanB resistant bacterial strains, extensive computational investigations have been performed to examine the effects of side-chain and backbone modifications. Changes in binding affinities for tripeptide cell-wall precursor mimics, Ac(2)-l-Lys-d-Ala-d-Ala (3) and Ac(2)-l-...
Article
To seek vancomycin analogs with broader antibacterial activity, effects of backbone modifications for the agylcon 2 on binding with D-Ala-D-Ala- and D-Ala-D-Lac-containing peptides were investigated by Monte Carlo/free energy perturbation (MC/FEP) calculations. The experimental trend in binding affinities for 2 with three tripeptides was well repro...
Article
This paper introduces a self-consistent computational protocol for modeling protein electrostatic potentials according to static point-charge model distributions. The protocol involves a simple space-domain decomposition scheme where individual molecular domains are modeled as Quantum-Mechanical (QM) layers embedded in the otherwise classical Molec...

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