Siegfried Foessel

Siegfried Foessel
Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS | IIS · Department of Moving Picture Technologies

PhD

About

85
Publications
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Introduction
Siegfried Foessel currently works at the Department of Moving Picture Technologies, Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS. Siegfried does research in Computer Engineering, Telecommunications Engineering and Electronic Engineering. His current project is 'JPEG Pleno' and 'JPEG XS'.

Publications

Publications (85)
Article
This is an updated report of the work of the JPEG Committee formed by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), known as the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) . A detailed introduction to JPEG’s work was already presented...
Preprint
JPEG XS is a new International Standard from the JPEG Committee (formally known as ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG1). It defines an interoperable, visually lossless low-latency lightweight image coding that can be used for mezzanine compression within any AV market. Among the targeted use cases, one can cite video transport over professional video links (SDI,...
Article
While traditional image compression algorithms take a full three-component color representation of an image as input, capturing of such images is done in many applications with Bayer CFA pattern sensors that provide only a single color information per sensor element and position. In order to avoid additional complexity at the encoder side, such CFA...
Poster
Full-text available
EN 17650 is a proposed new European Standard for the digital preservation of cinematographic works. It allows organizing of content in a systematic way, the so called Cinema Preservation Package (CPP). The CPP uses existing XML schemes, in particular METS, EBUCore and PREMIS to store structural, descriptive, technical and provenance metadata. The M...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
EN 17650 is a proposed new European Standard for the digital preservation of cinematographic works. It allows organizing of content in a systematic way, the so called Cinema Preservation Package (CPP). The standard defines methods to store content in physical and logical structures and describes relationships and metadata for its components. The CP...
Article
Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) XS is a new International Standard from the JPEG Committee (formally known as ISO/International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) JTC1/SC29/WG1). It defines an interoperable, visually lossless low-latency lightweight image coding that can be used for mezzanine compression within any AV market. Among the targe...
Patent
Concepts are presented herein how to efficiently create a suitable palette for low complexity image and video coding. A combination of the palette coding with transform coding is feasible.
Patent
Transform block coding is performed very efficiently in terms of computational complexity and compression ratio, by coding the magnitude bits of the transform coefficients distributed in a matrix, in which the magnitude bits of the spectral coefficients are arranged column-wise with the spectral coefficients of the transform block ordered along a r...
Conference Paper
We developed a JPEG-XS codec-based video transmission system corresponding to 8K UHDTV. JPEG XS has attracted attention as a mezzanine compression technology for IP interfaces such as SMPTE ST 2110-22. JPEG-XS is known for its high compression efficiency, picture quality, and very low latency, but there have not been any products adapted to 8K form...
Article
The International Standardization Committee ISO/IEC JTC1 SC29 WG1, better known as the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), has a long tradition in the creation of image coding standards. More than 27 years after the release of the first JPEG standard ISO/IEC 10918, the JPEG format stands as a synonym for digital pictures.
Patent
A coding efficiency improvement is achieved by performing bit-plane coding in a manner so that coefficient groups for which the set of coded bit-planes is predictively signaled in the datastream, are grouped in two group sets and if a signal is spent in the datastream which signals, for a group set, whether the set of coded bit-planes of all coeffi...
Patent
The invention relates to a raw image encoder for encoding a raw image of a predetermined color pattern according to which the raw image is partitioned into pixel cell blocks, each pixel cell block comprising four pixels, each pixel being associated with one of three base colors so that each pixel cell block comprises, for each ofthe three base colo...
Article
More and higher quality ultrahigh-definition (UHD) content is arriving in the production environment, requiring additional bandwidth for data transmission and exchange. In parallel, a more flexible infrastructure based on the well-known Internet Protocol (IP) stack is very desirable. Adding mezzanine compression in the production workflow can reduc...
Article
Full-text available
Heutige Kameras bilden die Erfassungsmöglichkeiten des menschlichen Auges an einer Ortsposition nach. Dies wird in Zukunft nicht mehr ausreichen. Zusätzliche kreative Möglichkeiten nach der Bildaufnahme und Informationen über das weitere 3D-Umfeld sind gefragt. Dies gelingt im optischen Bereich nur über die vollständige oder teilweise Berechnung de...
Presentation
Full-text available
This presentation on JPEG XS is done during the SMTE ATC conference 2017 in Hollywood.
Article
New distribution channels for video content arise almost daily. Although generating appropriate media formats for such channels, intensive quality control (QC) is applied. Both workflow-compositing and verification require plenty of undesirable human interaction. Thanks to the Interoperable Master Format (IMF), there is already a solution for defin...
Article
Full-text available
Current image coding standards provide limited support for privacy and security features. An exception is the JPSEC standard, which defines security extensions in JPEG 2000 specifications (part 8). Notwithstanding this shortcoming, the JPEG committee is currently defining a new JPEG Systems standard, which envisages privacy and security support acr...
Article
JPEG is starting with a new work item called JPEG Pleno. Plenoptic imaging is providing not only information about a pixel in a planar image, but even more how the light representation within a scene changes with the observation point.
Conference Paper
The JPEG committee (formally, ISO/IEC SC 29 WG 01) is currently investigating a new work item on near lossless low complexity coding for IP streaming of moving images. This article discusses the requirements and use cases of this work item, gives some insight into the anchors that are used for the purpose of standardization, and provides a short up...
Technical Report
Full-text available
To capture physical environments human beings have sensors like eyes and ears. Whereas ears are acoustic omni-directional sensors, the eye is a directional visual sensor, which collects light-rays from one direction (head and eyeball position and rotation) and focus to a specific distance (lens). The visual dynamic range in real world is so high, t...
Article
This paper introduces a concept for file delivery using the features of scalable (or hierarchical) media like the Joint Photographic Experts Group 2000 (JPEG 2000) image coding system. The innovation of this concept is that, due to the scalability feature, the recipient may start to work with the transmitted content even before completion of the tr...
Conference Paper
Post-production technologies like visual effects (VFX) or digital grading are essential for visual storytelling in today's movie production. Tremendous efforts are made to seamlessly integrate computer generated (CG) elements into live action plates, to refine looks and to provide various delivery formats such as Stereo 3D (S3D). Thus, additional t...
Patent
Full-text available
A device for caching a scalable original file having a first structure which has a header and a plurality of information packets for different information levels has a cache memory configured to cache a proxy file and/or information packets of the proxy file and a proxy file generator configured to generate a proxy file such that the latter is tran...
Article
Traditional film and broadcast cameras capture the scene from a single viewpoint, while important creative parameters such as the camera position and orientation, the depth of field, and the three-dimensional (3D) parallax when using a 3D camera rig are burned into the footage during acquisition. To realize artistic effects such as the matrix or th...
Article
Temporal bracketing can create images with higher dynamic range than the underlying sensor. Unfortunately, moving objects cause disturbing artifacts. Moreover, the combination with high frame rates is almost unachiev­ able since a single video frame requires multiple sensor readouts. The combination of multiple synchronized side-by-side cameras equ...
Conference Paper
Creating movies using stop-motion technology remains a fascinating method of storytelling, even in the era of digital cinema. The huge number of professional and semi-professional clips produced as fan-art, which can be watched on the internet, serve as testimony to the great interest in unleashing the creative potential of this art-form. However,...
Chapter
Jedes Objekt im Raum emittiert und/oder reflektiert Licht. Alle so im Raum befindlichen Lichtstrahlen zusammen bilden ein Lichtfeld, wobei jeder Lichtstrahl mathematisch durch Richtung und Intensität beschrieben werden kann. Bei herkömmlichen Kameras wird eine Vielzahl von Lichtstrahlen gebündelt, sodass nur bestimmte Tiefenschärfen und Abbildungsr...
Conference Paper
With traditional film cameras, important creative parameters such as the depth of field and the viewpoint are burned into the footage after acquisition without the possibility to change them in post-production. In consequence, special attention is required on set to frame the scene and to pull the focus. Against this background, we propose a light-...
Article
Compared with traditional video acquisition, high dynamic range video increases the visual experience, enhances opportunities in post-production and simplifies studio lighting. However, existing techniques for high dynamic range video capture are too expensive for low and medium budget cameras. Furthermore, they are not suitable for handling the mo...
Conference Paper
This paper gives an introduction on the current challenges when storing and accessing movies in a very high quality, e.g. in the field of digital cinema or digital archiving. In contrast to the existing RAID configurations for performance improvements of disk drives, adaptive RAID approaches to be used with scalable media such as JPEG 2000 are intr...
Conference Paper
In professionel movie post-production, various components are pushed to their performance limits. Former processors for example were not able to playback the JPEG 2000 compressed image-sequences which are used for distribution in Digital Cinema as well as long term storage in digital archiving - in real time. While today's processors are able to de...
Conference Paper
Traditional film and broadcast cameras capture the scene from a single view point or in the case of 3D cameras from two slightly shifted viewpoints. Important creative parameters such as the camera position and orientation, the depth of field, and the amount of 3D parallax are burned into the footage during acquisition. To realize artistic effects...
Article
Although there is steady progress in sensor technology, imaging with a high dynamic range (HDR) is still difficult for motion imaging with high image quality. This paper presents our new approach for video acquisition with high dynamic range. The principle is based on optical attenuation of some of the pixels of an existing image sensor. This well...
Conference Paper
Traditional film and broadcast cameras capture the scene from a single view point while important creative parameters such as the camera position and orientation, the depth of field, and the 3D parallax when using a 3D camera rig, are burned into the footage during acquisition. To realize artistic effects such as the Matrixor the Vertigo-effect wit...
Chapter
Obwohl die Theorie der Lichtfeldtechnik bzw. der plenoptischen Kameras bereits hundert Jahre alt ist, wurden weitergehende praktische Implementierungen erst mit der zunehmenden Integration von Bildsensoren und den erweiterten Möglichkeiten der Datenverarbeitung realisiert. Vorreiter dazu waren die Arbeiten an der Universität Stanford. Grundprinzip...
Article
Although we observe a steady progress in the development of High Dynamic Range Video (HDRV) technology, current image sensors are still lacking achievable dynamic range for high image quality applications. We propose a new imaging principle that is based on a spatial variation of optical Neutral Density (ND) filters on top of some pixels. In existi...
Conference Paper
We present a new method for capturing high dynamic range video (HDRV). Our method is based on spatially varying exposures, where individual pixels are covered with filters for different optical attenuation. For preventing the loss in resolution we use a new non-regular arrangement of the attenuation pattern. Subsequent image reconstruction based on...
Conference Paper
This document gives an introduction to scalable media formats and describes the motivation for the development of special caching strategies in order to exploit scalability on file system level. A set of eviction strategies especially designed for the file format JPEG 2000 will be presented. These packet-based strategies allow for better cache hit...
Article
Professional movie distribution and mastering formats use high quality, intra-frame compression formats like JPEG 2000, a codec allowing for scalability in resolution and quality. Latest processor types, either CPUs or high-end GPUs, can decode digital cinema-compliant JPEG 2000 image sequences in real-time. This brings out a new bottleneck during...
Article
Image sensors for digital cameras are built with ever decreasing pixel sizes. The size of the pixels seems to be limited by technology only. However, there is also a hard theoretical limit for classical video camera systems: During a certain exposure time only a certain number of photons will reach the sensor. The resulting shot noise thus limits t...
Article
The image processing pipeline of a traditional digital camera is often limited by processing power. A better image quality could be generated only if more complexity was allowed. In a raw data workflow most algorithms are executed off-camera. This allows the use of more sophisticated algorithms for increasing image quality while reducing camera com...
Chapter
Traditionally, image and video processing algorithms start from an RGB image. However, current image sensors deliver camera raw data that needs additional processing and interpolation for conversion into an RGB representation. While recent research delivers important improvements in image quality for processing and reconstruction of raw images, the...
Conference Paper
Up to now, an increase in camera resolution required image sensors with more and more pixels. However, acquisition systems are limited in their pixels per second throughput given as power and complexity constraints. Simply capturing more pixels in a given system is often not possible. We propose a new non-regular imaging architecture that samples o...
Conference Paper
In typical image sensors the spectral sensitivity of color channels is fixed. The illumination spectrum in natural scenes can vary to a great extent. This leads to an unbalanced response in color channels and hence a reduction in dynamic range. We propose a new method to adjust the relative sensitivity of color channels based on multi-exposure fram...
Patent
Full-text available
Conference Paper
In high quality imaging even tiny distortions as small as a single pixel are visible and can not be accepted. Although the production quality of CMOS image sensors is very high, for reasonable yields we still need to accept some defect pixels and clusters of defects in large image sensors. In this paper we will compare compensation algorithms for r...
Article
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) jointly with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) recently added new profiles for broadcast video contribution and distribution to the JPEG 2000 standard with the publishing of ISO/IEC 15444–1:2004 Amd.3:2010 and Rec. ITU-T T...
Chapter
THE EDCF GUIDE TO 3D CINEMA has been created by the EDCF Technical Support Group, chairman Peter Wilson. The aim of the Guide is to provide a tutorial, preliminary information and guidelines for those who need to understand the techniques and processes involved. This Guide has been a long time in the making and during this time improvements have be...
Conference Paper
This document gives an overview about scalable media formats and describes the motivation for special administration strategies. Furthermore, a proposal for a virtual file system architecture will be presented. This architecture allows for granting user rights to certain parts of a scalable file. This feature will be used for administrating scalabl...
Article
As with any sampling process, image acquisition is subject to spatial domain aliasing. Many designs of optical filters have been proposed that reduce the amount of aliasing in image acquisition. Still, the most common systems are based on birefringent optical materials. Unfortunately, these filters are expensive and the actual filter response curve...
Conference Paper
A digital camera samples the continuous real world. As with any sampling process, questions of aliasing for certain sampling frequencies and the prevention thereof arise. In this paper we will discuss the spatial domain sampling and prevention of aliasing in digital cameras. We focus on the widely used birefringent anti alias filters that are often...
Conference Paper
In CMOS image sensors tiny semiconductor variations cause a distortion of the image known as fixed pattern noise (FPN). With a good FPN compensation CMOS sensors can deliver very good image quality. Compensation algorithms differ in complexity, maximum frame rate, and compensation quality with thermal drift. This paper analyzes existing approaches...
Article
A method for detecting scene changes from JPEG 2000 compressed images is presented. Change information and localisation is derived from changes in the local data rate. They can be extracted by analysing the code streams only. The computationally expensive decoding of image data is eliminated.
Conference Paper
Typical image sensors in digital cameras have a fixed sensitivity, and the amount of captured light energy is often controlled by adjusting exposure time and lens aperture. For high end motion imaging these settings are not available as they are used to set motion blur and depth of field, respectively. In many cases a proper exposure is achieved wi...
Conference Paper
In this paper an approach to digital archiving of digital cinema and television content is described. The development system and solution is based on the use of open standards for data formats, namely JPEG 2000 and MXF. The basic principles are described, followed by the introduction of a system prototype. The efforts in international standardizati...
Chapter
The JPEG 2000 Suite provides a comprehensive overview of the baseline JPEG 2000 standard and its extensions. The first part of the book sets out the core coding system, additions to the standard and reference software. The second part discusses the successful deployment of JPEG 2000 in application domains such as video surveillance, digital cinema,...
Conference Paper
CMOS image sensors are used in most of the camera sys- tems today. For achieving a high image quality it is essen- tial to compensate for fixed pattern noise. Compensation can be carried out by subtracting an estimated noise value per pixel, either directly on the sensor or in the digital proces s- ing. Unfortunately these values are different for...
Article
Digital technologies have entered movie production and distribution and become more and more important for archives. Key factors in digital film archiving are the data formats that are used to store images, sound, and metadata. These formats must be carefully chosen to ensure that future generations will be able to view the movies of today. This ar...
Chapter
Die Film-Branche sieht sich gegenwärtig mit einem tief greifenden Wandel konfrontiert. Dieser Veränderungsprozess birgt vielfältige Potenziale und Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten in sich. Daraus resultieren gleichermaßen Chancen und Risiken für Film- und Fernsehproduktionen beispielsweise aus der fortschreitenden Digitalisierung, aus der Einführung des De...
Article
Moving image film archives can store their original films in their original image and sound quality for hundreds of years without decay, provided the temperature and humidity is controlled. However, film is inconvenient as a universal access medium and expected to be replaced even in the cinema, whereas digital versions are widely and increasingly...
Article
Motion-JPEG2000 (ISO15444-3) is a new intraframe-based video compression standard, which preserves best image quality after compression for use in high quality video systems like HDTV-cameras, medical imaging cameras or digital cinema cameras. This paper describes the advantages of the new standard in comparison to other standards, lists typical ap...
Presentation
Full-text available
Presentation from early days of Digital Cinema
Presentation
Full-text available
This presentations was created in the early days of Digital Cinema. It shows the benefits of using JPEG2000 for Digital Cinema. At this time Motion JPEG2000 was still a candidate, but later only the JPEG2000 core coding systems 15444-1 was used in the DCI specification.
Patent
Full-text available

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Projects (4)
Archived project
Project
JPEG XS is a new mezzanine codec mainly for video over IP. It is targeting compression ratios of 2:1 to 10:1 and has very low computational resource consumptions and is developed for ultra-low latency requirements. It will be standardized in the ISO/IEC JTC1 SC29 WG1 (JPEG) committee.