Shôn Lewis

Shôn Lewis
The University of Manchester · Institute of Brain, Behaviour and Mental Health

BSc MD FMedSci

About

454
Publications
75,932
Reads
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26,594
Citations
Citations since 2016
78 Research Items
8166 Citations
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (454)
Article
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Objectives This prospective cohort study tested for associations between baseline cognitive performance in individuals early within their first episode and antipsychotic treatment of psychosis. We hypothesised that poorer cognitive functioning at the initial assessment would be associated with poorer antipsychotic response following the subsequent...
Article
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Background Using digital health technologies (DHTs) to deliver and augment healthcare is an innovative way to solve common challenges that the mental healthcare setting faces. Despite China's rapid development of DHT, a comprehensive understanding of staff views of DHTs is lacking, which limited the evidence to support implementation strategies. In...
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Impaired cognition is associated with lower quality of life and poor outcomes in schizophrenia. Brain glutamate may contribute to both clinical outcomes and cognition, but these relationships are not well-understood. We studied a multicentre cohort of 85 participants with non-affective psychosis using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Glutama...
Preprint
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Elevated brain glutamate has been implicated in non-response to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia. Biomarkers that can accurately predict antipsychotic non-response from the first episode of psychosis (FEP) could allow stratification of patients; for example, patients predicted not to respond to standard antipsychotics could be fast-tracked...
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Objective To understand the acceptability of (a) reducing sedentary-behaviour in people with psychosis using ‘if-then’ plans and (b) the proposed app content. Design Qualitative acceptability study. Method Three structured focus-groups and an interview were conducted with eight participants who had experience of a psychotic episode. They discusse...
Article
Background Early warning signs monitoring by service users with schizophrenia has shown promise in preventing relapse but the quality of evidence is low. We aimed to establish the feasibility of undertaking a definitive randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of a blended digital intervention for relapse prevention in schizophren...
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Background Depression during the postnatal year is prevalent in mothers (17%) and fathers (9%), and suicide is the leading cause of maternal death in this period. Lifelong costs and consequences of untreated postnatal depression (PND) are high due to impacts on infants as well as parents. We aimed to improve access to PND treatment using digital sc...
Article
Background Relapse is a major determinant of outcome for people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Early warning signs frequently precede relapse. A recent Cochrane Review found low-quality evidence to suggest a positive effect of early warning signs interventions on hospitalisation and relapse. Objective How feasible is a study to investigate the...
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Background Evidence suggests that cognitive subtypes exist in schizophrenia that may reflect different neurobiological trajectories. We aimed to identify whether IQ-derived cognitive subtypes are present in early-phase schizophrenia-spectrum disorder and examine their relationship with brain structure and markers of neuroinflammation. Method 161 p...
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Background 70%–84% of individuals with antipsychotic treatment resistance show non-response from the first episode. Emerging cross-sectional evidence comparing cognitive profiles in treatment resistant schizophrenia to treatment-responsive schizophrenia has indicated that verbal memory and language functions may be more impaired in treatment resist...
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Mental health problems are highly prevalent in China; however, China's mental health services lack resources to deliver high-quality care to people in need. Digital mental health is a promising solution to this short-fall in view of the population's digital literacy. In this review, we aim to: (i) investigate the effectiveness, acceptability, usabi...
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Psychosis is a major mental illness with first onset in young adults. The prognosis is poor in around half of the people affected, and difficult to predict. The few tools available to predict prognosis have major weaknesses which limit their use in clinical practice. We aimed to develop and validate a risk prediction model of symptom non-remission...
Article
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Aims Psychosis is a major mental illness with first onset in young adults. The prognosis is poor in around half of the people affected, and difficult to predict. The few tools available to predict prognosis have major weaknesses which limit their use in clinical practice. We aimed to develop and validate a risk prediction model of symptom non-remis...
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Background Patients with a First-Episode of Psychosis (FEP) exhibit low-grade inflammation as demonstrated by elevated levels of C reactive protein (CRP) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Aims The primary goal of this study was to investigate the association between pro-inflammatory biomarkers and clinical outcomes in unmedicated FEP patients. Meth...
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Background: Peripheral immune markers have previously been linked to a poor response to antipsychotic medication and more severe negative symptoms at the onset of psychosis. The present study investigated the association of blood cytokines and complement markers with the presence of antipsychotic non-response and symptom severity in patients with...
Article
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Background: Actissist is a smartphone app designed to deliver an intervention grounded in cognitive behavior therapy for early psychosis. Actissist was developed by a multidisciplinary team of academics, clinicians, experts by experience and software engineers. Actissist has been tested in two trials, the first a proof-of-concept trial where Actiss...
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Introduction: Pandemics are known to affect mental health of the general population and various at-risk groups like healthcare workers, students and people with chronic medical diseases. However, not much is known of the mental health of people with pre-existing mental illness during a pandemic. This systematic review and metaanalysis investigates,...
Article
Background Immune dysfunction has been implicated in negative symptoms of schizophrenia and also in depression. These disorders are frequently co-morbid, with some symptoms such as anhedonia and apathy common to both. The anti-inflammatory agent minocycline may be ineffective in schizophrenia, but more positive effects have been seen in depression....
Article
Wearable and mobile technology provides new opportunities to manage health conditions remotely and unobtrusively. For example, healthcare providers can repeatedly sample a person's condition to monitor progression of symptoms and intervene if necessary. There is usually a utility-tolerability trade-off between collecting information at sufficient f...
Article
Individuals with psychoses have brain alterations, particularly in frontal and temporal cortices, that may be particularly prominent, already at illness onset, in those more likely to have poorer symptom remission following treatment with the first antipsychotic. The identification of strong neuroanatomical markers of symptom remission could thus f...
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The variability in the response to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia may reflect between-patient differences in neurobiology. Recent cross-sectional neuroimaging studies suggest that a poorer therapeutic response is associated with relatively normal striatal dopamine synthesis capacity but elevated anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) glutamate...
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Background Delayed treatment for first episodes of psychosis predicts worse outcomes. We hypothesised that delaying treatment makes all symptoms more refractory, with harm worsening first quickly, then more slowly. We also hypothesised that although delay impairs treatment response, worse symptoms hasten treatment, which at presentation mitigates t...
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We discuss the preliminary safety analysis of a smartphone-based intervention for early detection of psychotic relapse. We briefly describe how we identified patient safety hazards associated with the system and how measures were defined to mitigate these hazards.
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Collecting NHS patient experience data is critical to ensure the delivery of high-quality services. Data are obtained from multiple sources, including service-specific surveys and widely used generic surveys. There are concerns about the timeliness of feedback, that some groups of patients and carers do not give feedback and that free-text feedback...
Article
Background Relapse in schizophrenia is a major cause of distress and disability and is predicted by changes in symptoms such as anxiety, depression, and suspiciousness (early warning signs [EWSs]). These can be used as the basis for timely interventions to prevent relapse. However, there is considerable uncertainty regarding the implementation of E...
Article
These updated guidelines from the British Association for Psychopharmacology replace the original version published in 2011. They address the scope and targets of pharmacological treatment for schizophrenia. A consensus meeting was held in 2017, involving experts in schizophrenia and its treatment. They were asked to review key areas and consider t...
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Neuroimaging studies in schizophrenia have linked elevated glutamate metabolite levels to non-remission following antipsychotic treatment, and also indicate that antipsychotics can reduce glutamate metabolite levels. However, the relationship between symptomatic reduction and change in glutamate during initial antipsychotic treatment is unclear. He...
Article
Cognitive impairment is a major unmet need in the treatment of schizophrenia. Over the last decade, the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) has been used to assess the effects of novel treatments for cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. However, other cognitive-neuroscience-based cognitive batteries, such as the Cambridge Neuropsychologica...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Improving recovery from acute symptoms and preventing relapse are two major challenges in serious mental illness. We developed a smartphone-based personalised technology to monitor symptoms in real time with good acceptability, reliability and validity. OBJECTIVE To assess (i) acceptability of continuous monitoring to SMI patients and h...
Article
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Background: Improving recovery from acute symptoms and preventing relapse are two significant challenges in severe mental illness. We developed a personalized smartphone-based app to monitor symptoms in real time and validated its acceptance, reliability, and validity. Objective: To assess (i) acceptability of continuous monitoring to SMI patien...
Article
The dysfunctional cognitive and reasoning biases which underpin psychotic symptoms are likely to present prior to the onset of a diagnosable disorder and should therefore be detectable along the psychosis continuum in individuals with schizotypal traits. Two reasoning biases, Bias Against Disconfirmatory Evidence (BADE) and Jumping to Conclusions (...
Article
There is an important gap in scaling up psychosocial interventions for people with severe mental health problems so that these interventions are not only widely available but also delivered in a timely manner. We examined the feasability of adapting a psychological intervention traditionally delivered face-to-face onto a digital platform. We report...
Article
Background In a previous trial we reported that the neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory antibiotic minocycline lessened the negative symptoms of schizophrenia compared with placebo over 1 year. The BeneMin study aimed to replicate this benefit and to determine whether or not there was associated preservation of grey matter, reduction in circulating...
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The original Article did not feature the list of collaborators. This has now been corrected in the PDF and HTML versions of this Article.
Preprint
BACKGROUND Relapse in schizophrenia is a major cause of distress and disability and is predicted by changes in symptoms such as anxiety, depression, and suspiciousness (early warning signs [EWSs]). These can be used as the basis for timely interventions to prevent relapse. However, there is considerable uncertainty regarding the implementation of E...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Digital health products designed to help people with severe mental health problems appear to be feasible, acceptable, and efficacious. The challenge facing the digital mental health field is implementing digital tools in routine service delivery. To date, there has been a paucity of qualitative research exploring staff views of digital...
Article
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Objective: The study sought to explore to what extent geolocation data has been used to study serious mental illness (SMI). SMIs such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are characterized by fluctuating symptoms and sudden relapse. Currently, monitoring of people with an SMI is largely done through face-to-face visits. Smartphone-based geolocati...
Article
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Background Cognitive impairment is a major unmet need in the treatment of schizophrenia. Over the last decade, the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and the cognitive-neuroscience-based Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) have been used to assess the effects of novel treatments for cognitive impairment in schizophr...
Article
Full-text available
Background Neuroimaging studies in schizophrenia have linked elevated glutamate metabolite levels to non-remission following antipsychotic treatment and have also indicated that antipsychotics can reduce glutamate metabolite levels. However, the relationship between symptomatic reduction and change in glutamate during initial antipsychotic treatmen...
Article
Full-text available
Background Early response to first-line antipsychotics is associated with positive long-term symptomatic outcome in psychosis. Unfortunately, attempts to identify reliable predictors of treatment response in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients have not yet been successful. One reason for this could be that FEP patients are heterogeneous in terms...
Article
Aims Psychotic symptoms fluctuate over time and effective and regular monitoring may contribute to relapse prevention and improve long‐term outcomes. In this proof‐of‐concept study we test the feasibility, acceptability and potential usefulness of a novel digital method assessing the association between physiological signals and psychotic symptom d...
Article
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Early response to first-line antipsychotic treatments is strongly associated with positive long-term symptomatic and functional outcome in psychosis. Unfortunately, attempts to identify reliable predictors of treatment response in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients have not yet been successful. One reason for this could be that FEP patients are...
Article
Full-text available
Background The antibiotic minocycline has neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties that could prevent or reverse progressive neuropathic changes implicated in recent-onset schizophrenia. In the BeneMin study, we aimed to replicate the benefit of minocycline on negative symptoms reported in previous pilot studies, and to understand the mecha...
Article
Background: No established treatment algorithm exists for patients with schizophrenia. Whether switching antipsychotics or early use of clozapine improves outcome in (first-episode) schizophrenia is unknown. Methods: This three-phase study was done in 27 centres, consisting of general hospitals and psychiatric specialty clinics, in 14 European c...
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Objectives To explore service user experiences of a 9-month cognitive behavioural therapy for command hallucinations in the context of a randomised controlled trial including their views on acceptability and tolerability of the intervention. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Setting The study took place across three sites:...
Article
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Background Negative symptoms consist of impaired quality of life, social isolation, reduced emotional responsiveness, self-neglect and anhedonia, which have been categorised into avolition-apathy and expressive deficits sub-domains. The treatment of negative symptoms remains a challenge. Depression is commonly seen in schizophrenia and previous fin...
Article
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Background We developed a smartphone-based personalised technology to monitor symptoms in real time and showed good acceptability, reliability and validity for active remote monitoring of symptoms in previous published studies (www.clintouch.com). We report a randomised trial testing its efficacy in improving psychotic symptom control, and its pote...
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Background We hypothesised that a multi-modal psychosocial intervention (PSI) after first episodes of non-affective psychosis would increase antipsychotic adherence, improve functioning and prevent readmission in a multi-centre, blind-rated, randomised controlled trial. Methods Following treatment of first episode non-affective psychosis with amis...
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Background Depending on the nature of their items factor analyses of different scales impose different structures on the underlying psychopathological dimensions, so a broader range of scale items should be more revealing. Few studies repeat analyses over successive interviews to investigate whether psychopathology has a consistent structure or evo...
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Background Variable outcomes following a first-episode of psychosis are partly attributable to heterogeneity in cognitive functioning. Previous work in first episode psychosis has identified clinically meaningful cognitive sub-types based on pre-specified differences in estimated premorbid and current cognitive functioning. We used an empirical clu...
Article
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Background: Timely access to intervention for psychosis is crucial yet problematic. As such, health care providers are forming digital strategies for addressing mental health challenges. A theory-driven digital intervention that monitors distressing experiences and provides real-time active management strategies could improve the speed and quality...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Digital technology has the potential to improve outcomes for people with psychosis. However, to date, research has largely ignored service user views on digital health interventions (DHIs). OBJECTIVE The objective of our study was to explore early psychosis service users’ subjective views on DHIs. METHODS Framework analysis was underta...
Article
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Background Acting on harmful command hallucinations is a major clinical concern. Our COMMAND CBT trial approximately halved the rate of harmful compliance (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.23–0.88, p = 0.021). The focus of the therapy was a single mechanism, the power dimensi