Shiva Nagendra SM

Shiva Nagendra SM
Indian Institute of Technology Madras | IIT Madras · Department of Civil Engineering

Ph.D in Civil Enginering (Air Quality Management)

About

190
Publications
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Introduction
Dr. Shiva Nagendra, SM is presently working as Professor in Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai India. He has more than 19 years' research experience in the field of air quality monitoring, modelling, management, control and policy implications. He has published more than 75 research publications in refereed journals, one reference book, and more than 100 papers in conferences.

Publications

Publications (190)
Article
The study aimed to analyze the long-term trend of four criteria pollutants (PM2.5 and NO2 during 2006–2019; SO2 and CO during 2000–2019) and the effect of pollution control measures in Delhi. The hourly data of PM2.5 and NO2 was taken from six air quality monitoring stations while SO2 and CO data was retrieved from MERRA reanalysis (Modern-Era Retr...
Article
Full-text available
Indoor thermal comfort levels in underground metro platforms and trains in Chennai metropolitan city are assessed in the present research study to determine the comfort perception of passengers. The field measurements were conducted in 7 underground metro stations during summer (Mar-Jun 2019) and winter seasons (Dec 2019 - Feb 2020). The thermal co...
Article
A holistic energy conservation approach that reduces the operational and embodied energy of the building is the need of the hour. A novel system that integrates the energy-efficient thermally activated building system (TABS) with the eco-friendly glass fibre reinforced gypsum (GFRG) reduces both operational and embodied energies. This system is ter...
Article
Full-text available
Poor ventilation and polluting cooking fuels in low-income homes cause high exposure, yet relevant global studies are limited. We assessed exposure to in-kitchen particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) employing similar instrumentation in 60 low-income homes across 12 cities: Dhaka (Bangladesh); Chennai (India); Nanjing (China); Medellín (Colombia); Sã...
Article
Construction and operation of buildings are responsible for about 20% of the global energy consumption. The embodied energy of conventional buildings is high due to the utilization of energy-intensive construction materials and traditional construction methodology. Higher operational energy is attributed to the usage of power-consuming conventional...
Conference Paper
Biomass burning is amongst the greatest source of atmospheric fine particulate matter and it has generated large research interest from last few decades. Satellite remote sensing technology has a great advancement in the identification of spatial and temporal variations of fine particulate matter. There is need to examine the current capabilities t...
Article
Full-text available
Chemical characterization and source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 were carried out for two different elevations (lower elevation (LE) ~ 5–10 m and higher elevation (HE) ~ 30–45 m) at four different locations representing urban background, city center, upwind, and downwind of the Delhi city during January 2017–March 2017. The 24-h average PM10 an...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examines the impact of urban attributes such as heterogeneous traffic, land use activities and meteorological factors on road dust resuspension and ambient particulate matter (PM) concentrations at urban roads. Silt load (SL) and PM emission rates from urban roads were quantified for 18 locations in Chennai and compared with 10 lo...
Article
Full-text available
Low-cost sensors (LCS) are becoming popular for air quality monitoring (AQM). They promise high spatial and temporal resolutions at low-cost. In addition, citizen science applications such as personal exposure monitoring can be implemented effortlessly. However, the reliability of the data is questionable due to various error sources involved in th...
Article
The PM10 and PM2.5 source apportionment and health risk assessment were performed for two different elevations (lower elevation (LE) ∼5–10 m and higher elevation (HE) ∼30–45 m) at four different locations of Delhi city during January 2017–March 2017. The measured 24-h average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations at different locations were found between 1...
Article
This paper presents the characteristics of ambient particulate matter (PM), resuspendable road dust and PM mass deposition in the human respiratory tract during preconstruction and construction phases. PM Emission Rates (PMER) due to resuspension and spatiotemporal distribution were estimated and compared on construction roads (CR) and non-construc...
Article
Impact of the odd–even (O/E) car rationing scheme implemented in Delhi city was assessed in this study. Traffic data, ambient air quality, vehicle speed and tailpipe emissions were measured along chosen urban corridors (UC) of the central business area (UC1), institutional area (UC2), and residential area (UC3), during and post-odd–even policy impl...
Article
This research paper presents an investigative study of airborne aerosol particles (PM2.5) and bio-aerosol particles (bacteria and fungi) inside subway metro stations and their deposition dose in the respiratory tract of exposed passengers and workers. In this study, aerosol monitoring and bio-aerosol sampling were conducted along the metro line and...
Article
In this study, researchers have explored real-world driving conditions and developed emission factors for 58 passenger cars using on-board emission measurement technique while driving on five different routes in Delhi. The measured average emission factors of CO, HC, and NO were 3.99, 0.34, and 0.54 g/km for diesel vehicles, 7.26, 0.17, and 0.62 fo...
Article
Full-text available
Car microenvironments significantly contribute to the daily pollution exposure of commuters, yet health and socioeconomic studies focused on in-car exposure are rare. This study aims to assess the relationship between air pollution levels and socioeconomic indicators (fuel prices, city-specific GDP, road density, the value of statistical life (VSL)...
Article
Full-text available
The present study explored the effect of local meteorology on the dispersion of PM2.5 from a 30-year open municipal solid waste (MSW) dumpsite in Chennai, India. The spatial monitoring was conducted in and around the dumpsite to understand the impacts of dumpsite activities on the nearby residential area. Results showed that dumpsite activities are...
Article
This research paper presents a comprehensive review of different types of air pollutants, their concentration levels, sources contributing to air pollution, health impacts of pollutants, characteristics of air pollutants, influencing factors such as thermal characteristics and subway geometry, and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) management in underground...
Article
Full-text available
Countries around the world introduced strict restrictions on movement and activities known as ‘lockdowns’ to restrict the spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) from the end of 2019. A sudden improvement in air quality was observed globally as a result of these lockdowns. To provide insight into the changes in air pollution levels in re...
Chapter
A single multiple gas sensor based on photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) technique for measurements in vehicle exhaust cylinders is reported in this work. This technique allows measurement of carbon dioxide and water vapor using a supercontinuum laser with a broad spectral output around the wavelength of 2 μm. The PAS sensor measures carbon dioxide a...
Article
Full-text available
Access to detailed comparisons of the air quality variations encountered when commuting through a city offers the urban traveller more informed choice on how to minimise personal exposure to inhalable pollutants. In this study we report on an experiment designed to compare atmospheric contaminants, in this case, PM2.5 inhaled during rickshaw, bus,...
Article
Although lockdown of the industrial and transport sector and stay at home advisories to counter the COVID-19 pandemic have shown that the air quality has improved during this time, very little is known about the role of ambient air pollutants and meteorology in facilitating its transmission. This paper presents the findings from a study that was co...
Article
When commuters move around the city they are exposed to different environmental stressors, of which air and noise pollution have an especially adverse physical and mental health impact. Most exposure research uses sensor data (stationary or wearable) or closed questionnaires to measure personal exposure. However, these methods do not give insight i...
Chapter
The seasonal air transport pathways and the potential sources contributing to air pollution in Delhi for the period March 2015 to February 2016 have been identified with the help of PM2.5 data (particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm), potential source contribution function (PSCF), cluster analysis and concentration weighted trajectory (C...
Chapter
The pollutants and its effects on human health are now a major issue around the world. The impact of traffic and the resulting vehicle emissions has come to the forefront. Particulate matter is one among six criteria pollutants and air pollution related to particulate matter is now becoming a serious problem in developing as well as developed count...
Chapter
Mathematical models are used for all aspects of air quality management, i.e., from event forecasting to long-term planning. Several approaches have been widely used in modelling of urban air pollution. These modelling approaches include deterministic, statistical, hybrid of deterministic and artificial neural networks. This chapter provides brief i...
Chapter
Over the years, changes in building design to improve energy efficiency have made modern homes, schools and workplaces more airtight than the older buildings. These improvements have led to more energy efficient buildings with less operational costs. But, the increased use of synthetic materials in the buildings has contributed to increase of a lar...
Chapter
Health risk associated with air pollution and its exposure has gained much importance in the recent years. The potential toxicity of air pollutants especially particulate matter (PM) is attributed to its chemical composition and size. Hence, it is imperative to understand the morphology, size, and chemical composition of PM for health risk assessme...
Chapter
The present study assesses short-term variation in concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) in the ambient air of Chennai city due to the use of fireworks. PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected throughout Deepawali celebration using high volume samplers. The particle size distribution of PM and mass concentrations of BC were...
Chapter
Urban air quality is a critical issue in both developed and developing countries. In the recent past, the governments in both the developed and developing countries have initiated several strategies and action plans to address the urban air quality issues. This chapter discusses the principles of air quality management, framework for air quality ma...
Chapter
Urban air quality is highly dynamic and it is largely controlled by micrometeorological conditions as well as anthropogeinic emissions. The unprecedented growth of urban centres, industries and vehicles population have resulted in serious air quality problems in several countries. In this chapter we briefly discuss urban air pollution, types of air...
Chapter
The important sources of air pollution can be identified with the installation of ambient air quality monitoring station. The sampling with monitoring station can provide current status of air quality of that particular area. This chapter describes the different measuring and analytical technique for monitoring of air quality. The different method...
Chapter
Air quality is typically registered by established systems of high-precision devices in order to monitor compliance with limit values. Nevertheless, these existing air quality measuring techniques have limitations: they cannot observe spatiotemporal variations in high resolution, provide data about target-specific monitoring, personal exposure, rea...
Article
Air conditioning is a predominant technique widely used to condition the indoor environment. Thermal comfort of occupants in an air conditioned microenvironment depends on several factors. In the present study, we have investigated the influence of indoor operative temperature, air velocity and thermal sensation of tropically acclimatized subjects...
Article
Full-text available
Cars are a commuting lifeline worldwide, despite contributing significantly to air pollution. This is the first global assessment on air pollution exposure in cars across ten cities: Dhaka (Bangladesh); Chennai (India); Guangzhou (China); Medellín (Colombia); São Paulo (Brazil); Cairo (Egypt); Sulaymaniyah (Iraq); Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); Blantyre (...
Article
Switch to energy-efficient air conditioning systems and the use of eco-friendly building materials would result in significant energy savings and reductions in CO2 emissions. Thermally activated building system (TABS) is a promising low-energy cooling technology, which provides better thermal comfort than the conventional air conditioning system. I...
Preprint
Full-text available
Air pollution is among the highest contributors to mortality worldwide, especially in urban areas. During spring 2020, many countries enacted social distancing measures in order to slow down the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic. A particularly drastic measure, the "lockdown", urged people to stay at home and thereby prevent new Covid-19 infections. In tur...
Article
This study analyses the air pollution characteristics and their relation to meteorological conditions in Chennai, India. Meteorological conditions were the primary factor determining variations in daily average pollutant concentrations. The influence of urban infrastructure on meteorology is an important prediction on air quality. Understanding of...
Article
Introduction Personal exposure to elevated vehicle exhaust and non-exhaust emissions at urban roadside leads to carcinogenic health effects, respiratory illness and nervous system disorders. In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the exhaust and non-exhaust emissions emitted from selected roads in Delhi city. Methods Based on the v...
Article
Full-text available
Human exhaled breath consists of more than 3000 volatile organic compounds, many of which are relevant biomarkers for various diseases. Although gas chromatography has been the gold standard for volatile organic compound (VOC) detection in exhaled breath, recent developments in mid-infrared (MIR) laser spectroscopy have led to the promise of compac...
Chapter
Indoor air pollution (IAP) predominantly contributed from biomass burning in rural households is a major health hazard. Cooking activities are significant sources of indoor particulate matter (PM). The present study focuses on characterising PM emissions from different cooking methods that are primarily prepared in rural areas of South India, in a...
Chapter
Traffic-related emissions are one of the major sources of ambient air pollution in many cities. Personal exposure to traffic-related air pollution is major concern in many cities of both developed and developing countries. In developing nations such as India, trade-off between urban transportation and air quality is always a hurdle considering the...
Article
Motor vehicles contribute significantly to the total emissions in a city. Several studies have attempted to quantify emissions from cars, buses, and trucks using laboratory-based or real-world emission tests. However, real-world emissions from motorcycles (or motorized two-wheelers) has not received adequate attention. Unlike developed countries wh...
Article
An off-resonance broadband photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) technique with a supercontinuum laser (SCL) in the near-infrared range is demonstrated for biogas measurements with different biomass matrices. The PAS sensor system has been calibrated with known concentrations of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O vapor), and hydrogen...
Article
Photocatalytic filters are integrated with air purifiers and ventilation systems to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from indoor air. However, the filters, generally prepared by dip or spray coating, are less stable as the deposited TiO2 NPs are prone to be blown off by treated air. In the present study, we propose a novel filter preparatio...
Article
Indoor dust is one of the key source contributing to indoor air pollution (IAP) in rural households. It acts as a media for various toxicants like heavy metal depositions and causes severe health risks. The present study deals with investigation of metal concentrations and morphological characteristics of indoor dust generated in varied fuel-types...
Article
Urban air quality is highly dynamic and influenced by micrometeorological conditions. In this paper, meteorological impact on criteria air pollutants namely sulphur dioxide (\(\hbox {SO}_{2})\), nitrogen dioxide (\(\hbox {NO}_{2})\) and particulate matter (\(\hbox {PM}_{10})\) were studied using correlation analysis at contrasting locations in the...
Chapter
Heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) has attracted much attention in indoor air purification applications. Recently, researches have focused on developing novel PCO materials for intergrating with the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems as well as portable air purifiers. A comprehensive knowledge on factors influencing...
Article
Deteriorating ambient air quality is a substantial problem of concern for many urban agglomerations throughout the world. Particulate matter (PM) is a criteria pollutant that is of high interest in urban locations. The precise characteristics of PM in a given locale depend on the source origin, which in turn is a function of economic, social and te...
Article
Full-text available
Deteriorating ambient air quality is a substantial problem of concern for many urban agglomerations throughout the world. Particulate matter (PM) is a criteria pollutant that is of high interest in urban locations. The precise characteristics of PM in a given locale depend on the source origin, which in turn is a function of economic, social and te...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the characteristics of exhaust and non-exhaust emissions measured at selected roads in Delhi city. The real-world exhaust emissions were measured in car using AVL Digest 1000 analyser. The silt load measurements were carried out as per EPA AP-42 methodology. Results indicated that the real-world exhaust emissions were higher in...
Article
The broadband photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) technique is proposed and demonstrated for measurement of CH4, CO2, and H2O vapor in the 1.6 to 2.0 μm wavelength region. The wide spectrum of a supercontinuum light source is used to cover broadband absorption bands of multiple gas species. This sensor works in the off-resonant frequency of the design...
Article
Diesel trucks contribute significantly to emissions leading to deterioration in urban air quality. Many recent studies have attempted to quantify real-world emissions from trucks in cities. However, studies on real-world emission from trucks in India are scarce. In this study, we measured real-world emissions of gaseous pollutants (CO, HC, and NO)...
Article
Floor dust particles collected from schools located in tropical urban India were analyzed for morphological characteristics, heavy metals and for assessing the associated health risks. The floor dust particles were collected twice each day (before and after teaching hours) for 12 days from each microenvironment for the analysis. The morphological c...
Article
Landfill leachate contains a high concentration of organic and inorganic compounds, toxic heavy metals (THMs), ammonia and bio-refractory compounds. Hence, the remediation of landfill leachate is a challenge for environmental scientists and practitioners. Present work aims to study the application of phycoremediation process as tertiary treatment f...
Article
Open municipal solid waste (MSW) dumpsites are nowadays looming hotspots for water, air, and land pollution. Fresh and old MSW samples collected from a dumpsite in the coastal city of India were analyzed for moisture content, volatile content, energy content, elements, and toxic heavy metals. The compositional analysis results showed that fresh MSW...
Article
Thermally activated building system (TABS) can be operated at relatively higher water temperature. Hence, it can be coupled with passive cooling systems. This paper investigates the influences of three design parameters on thermal comfort of TABS using COMSOL Multiphysics, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool. For the same inlet velocity, an i...
Conference Paper
Online measurement of CO2, CH4 and H2O in a biogas plant using a Supercontinuum laser based off-resonant broadband photoacoustic spectroscopy is realized. The system exhibits a wide dynamic range from ppbv - 100% concentration.
Article
China is in a critical stage of ambient air quality management after global attention on pollution in its cities. Industrial development and urbanization have led to alarming levels of air pollution with serious health hazards in densely populated cities. The quantification of cause-specific PM 2.5-related health impacts and corresponding economic...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Air pollution has become a significant concern in both urban and rural sectors due to its catastrophic effect on human health and the environment. Particulate matter (PM) is crucial among criteria pollutants and is well correlated with human mortality and morbidity. Based on aerodynamic size, PM is classified into coarse (PM10) and fine...
Article
Particulate matter (PM) is crucial among six criteria air pollutants, and it is frequently associated with human morbidity and mortality. According to the aerodynamic diameter, PM is classified as coarse (PM10) and fine (PM2.5). PM with these smaller sizes can easily enter and get deposited in the human airways. This deposited PM fraction commences...
Article
Particulate matter (PM) is crucial among six criteria air pollutants, and it is frequently associated with human morbidity and mortality. According to the aerodynamic diameter, PM is classified as coarse (PM10) and fine (PM2.5). PM with these smaller sizes can easily enter and get deposited in the human airways. This deposited PM fraction commences...
Article
Adverse impacts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from the landfill sites into the atmosphere is a major concern in most urban areas. There exist a limited information on the effects of VOCs emitted from open dumpsite particularly for tropical climatic conditions. The present study reviews the source, concentrations and pathways of VOCs...
Conference Paper
Background: Air pollution has become a significant concern in both urban and rural sectors due to its catastrophic effect on human health and the environment. Particulate matter (PM) is crucial among criteria pollutants and is well correlated with human mortality and morbidity. Based on aerodynamic size, PM is classified into coarse (PM10) and fine...
Article
Indoor Air Pollution (IAP) is one of the top environmental risks in developing countries including India, with more than a million deaths annually, predominantly through Particulate Matter (PM) exposure. The current study deals with the measurement of PM concentrations in rural households under varied fuel and kitchen-types, evaluation of the indoo...
Conference Paper
Exposure dose relationship helps interpret the adverse health effects of particulate matter. The aim of the present study is to estimate personal exposure to ultrafine particles in two academic work environments located in a coastal city, India. Real time PNC (10 nm to 420 nm) and PSD was measured using Nanoscan SMPS. Particulate dose deposited in...
Poster
Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) is harmful as they can penetrate deeper into the pulmonary region of the lungs. However there is limited information regarding the UFPs in environmental and health sciences. In the present study, characteristics of UFPs in an air conditioned computer laboratory located in an academic campus in Chennai, India w...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Globally, building sector consumes a large amount of energy both for construction and operation. Especially, heating, ventilation and air conditioning contributes for 40 – 50% of total building energy consumption. Thermally Activated Building System (TABS), which is an energy efficient alternative for conventional mechanical air conditioning, can r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Delhi National Capital Region (Delhi NCR) is facing serious challenges linked to worrying levels of air pollution (mainly NO2, PM10 and PM2.5). The CADTIME prject (Clean Air in Delhi through Implementation, Mitigation and Engagement) aims to understand what is required to deliver significant reductions in levels of air pollution. This paper present...
Conference Paper
The morphological and elemental characteristics of ambient particulate matter (PM) collected at two contrasting Indian cities were investigated. Single particle analysis by scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy was carried out on the PM collected at residential, commercial and industrial sites in Delhi and Chenna...
Article
Schools are one of the critical social infrastructures in a society, the first place for social activity and the most important indoor environment for children besides the home. Poor IAQ in classrooms can increase the chance of long-term and short-term health problems