Shirong Cai

Shirong Cai
National University of Singapore | NUS · Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

About

65
Publications
8,529
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
906
Citations

Publications

Publications (65)
Preprint
Both prenatal and postnatal exposure to early life adversity is associated with increased risk for psychopathology. The impacts of those adversity exposures can also persist across generations, although the mechanisms for intergenerational transmission remain unclear. Emerging evidence from non-human animal models suggests that the gut microbiome (...
Article
Full-text available
Background Integrated patterns of energy balance-related behaviours of preschool children in Asia are sparse, with few comparative analyses. Purpose Using cohorts in Singapore (GUSTO) and France (EDEN), we characterized lifestyle patterns of children and investigated their associations with family-focused contextual factors. Methods Ten behaviour...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To evaluate the associations of sleep factors with myopia, spherical equivalent (SE), and axial length (AL) in elementary school-aged children from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort. Methods This cross-sectional study included multi-ethnic children who participated in the GUSTO prospective birth coho...
Article
Importance: Despite the potential for COVID-19 infection control-related events to have an effect on child well-being, comprehensive assessments of postlockdown changes and persistent outcomes are lacking. Objective: To survey the extent of COVID-19 lockdown-related lifestyle changes, their differences by child age and family socioeconomic statu...
Article
Background: Although most studies have reported unfavorable short-term effects of breastfeeding on early-childhood sleep-wake behaviors that potentially attenuate over time, findings have remained inconsistent. Objectives: We assessed associations of breastfeeding with longitudinal day-, night-, and total-sleep trajectories and with sleep-wake b...
Article
Full-text available
Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are increasingly used, however little is known about the long-term health of ART-conceived offspring. Weak selection of comparison groups and poorly characterized mechanisms impede current understanding. In a prospective cohort (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes; GUSTO; Clinical Trials ID: NCT...
Article
Full-text available
Importance: screen-viewing in adults has been associated with greater abdominal adiposity, with the magnitude of associations varying by sex and ethnicity, but the evidence is lacking at younger ages. We aimed to investigate sex- and ethnic-specific associations of screen-viewing time at ages 2 and 3 years with abdominal adiposity measured by magne...
Article
In recent years, there appears to be a rise in the diagnosis and treatment of child mental health disorders in many countries, including Singapore. While this increase may be alarming, it could possibly be attributed to factors such as changes in diagnostic criteria, improved screening in schools and primary health settings, changes in clinical pra...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: To determine if variations in the neonatal amygdala mediate the association between maternal antenatal glycemia and offspring adiposity in early childhood. Research design and methods: 123 non-obese pregnant women with no pregnancy complications aside from gestational diabetes underwent a 75 g 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test at...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeCurrent literature on the roles of α-, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin in neurocognitive function has largely focused on preventing cognitive decline in older people, and less on neuro-development in children. We examined the relations of maternal plasma carotenoids concentrations with offspring cognitive development up to age 4.5 years in th...
Article
Full-text available
(1) Background: Breastfeeding has been shown to support glucose homeostasis in women after a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and is potentially effective at reducing long-term diabetes risk. (2) Methods: Data from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study were analyzed to understand the influenc...
Article
Full-text available
The Singapore Preconception Study of Long-Term Maternal and Child Outcomes (S-PRESTO) is a preconception, longitudinal cohort study that aims to study the effects of nutrition, lifestyle, and maternal mood prior to and during pregnancy on the epigenome of the offspring and clinically important outcomes including duration of gestation, fetal growth,...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Studies have identified lifestyle risk factors for perinatal depression, but none have examined the cumulative effect of these risk factors in pregnant women. Methods: We considered the following six factors during pregnancy: poor diet quality (Healthy eating index for Singapore pregnant women<median), poor sleep quality (global Pitt...
Article
Full-text available
Objective This study investigates variations in night, day, and total sleep trajectories across infancy and childhood in Asian children. Participants Participants consisted of a subset of 901 children, within the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes cohort, which recruited 1247 pregnant women between June 2009 and September 2010. Desi...
Article
Full-text available
Working memory (WM) is defined as the ability to maintain a representation online to guide goal-directed behavior. Its capacity in early childhood predicts academic achievements in late childhood and its deficits are found in various neurodevelopmental disorders. We employed resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) of 468 participants aged from 4 to 55 years a...
Article
Introduction Pro-vitamin A carotenoids namely α-, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin have potential roles in neurocognitive development, but current literature on these carotenoids mainly focused on preventing cognitive decline in the elderly. This study examined the associations of maternal plasma pro-vitamin A carotenoids concentrations with offsprin...
Article
Full-text available
Background: nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) affects 50 to 80 percent of women. The existing literature has examined NVP from the perspective of the mother, and relatively less is known about offspring outcomes. Objectives: to study the relationships of NVP with social-emotional, behavioral, and cognitive outcomes of the offspring in a multi...
Article
Background: Several risk factors in the first 1000 d are linked with increased obesity risk in later childhood. The role of potentially modifiable eating behaviors in this association is unclear. Objectives: This study examined whether the association between cumulated risk factors in the first 1000 d and adiposity at 6 y is moderated by eating...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To explore the associations between type of milk feeding (the “nutrients”) and mode of breast milk feeding (the “nursing”) with child cognition. Methods Healthy children from the GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes) cohort participated in repeated neurodevelopmental assessments between 6 and 54 months. For “nutrients”, w...
Article
Background: Screen viewing is a sedentary behaviour reported to interfere with sleep and physical activity. However, few longitudinal studies have assessed such associations in children of preschool age (0-6 years) and none have accounted for the compositional nature of these behaviours. We aimed to investigate the associations between total and d...
Article
Objectives: The increasing prevalence of advanced maternal age (AMA) coupled with poor sleep quality among pregnant women makes it important to study their association with perinatal outcomes. However, little is known about the interaction of AMA and maternal antenatal sleep on perinatal outcomes. Here, we examined whether associations between AMA...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Although infant media exposure has received attention for its implications on child development, upstream risk factors contributing to media exposure have rarely been explored. The study aim was to examine the relationship between maternal risk factors, infant television (TV) viewing, and later child cognition. Methods: We used a pro...
Article
Background & aims: Maternal metabolic disturbance arising from inappropriate meal timing or sleep deprivation may disrupt circadian rhythm, potentially inducing pregnancy complications. We examined the associations of maternal night-time eating and sleep duration during pregnancy with gestation length and preterm birth. Methods: We studied 673 p...
Article
Objectives: Minerals deficiencies during pregnancy have been shown to be associated with poorer cognitive outcomes in offspring. This study aimed to investigate associations of maternal plasma zinc and magnesium concentrations with cognitive development in 4-year old children from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcome cohort. Methods:...
Article
Parents' feeding practices have been shown to be associated with children's food intake and weight status, but little is known about feeding practices in Asian countries. This study used behavioral observation to explore the feeding practices of 201 mothers of 4.5 year-old children in Singapore during an ad libitum buffet lunch. Feeding practices w...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Screen-viewing in late childhood has been associated with adiposity and blood pressure (BP), but evidence is lacking at younger ages. To investigate the prospective associations of total and device-specific screen-viewing at age 2-3 years with BMI, sum of skinfold thicknesses and BP among Singaporean children at age 3-5 years. Methods...
Article
Full-text available
Background: lower inhibitory control has been associated with obesity. One prediction is that lower inhibitory control underlies eating behaviours that promote increased energy intakes. This study examined the relationships between children’s inhibitory control measured using the Stop Signal Task (SST), body composition and eating behaviours, which...
Article
Evidence on long term influences of maternal vitamin B12 deficiency or concentrations on infant cognition is limited. We examined associations between maternal plasma vitamin B12 and cognitive development in 24-months old infants. Maternal plasma vitamin B12 concentrations were measured at 26-28 weeks’ gestation; infant cognitive development assess...
Article
Full-text available
Background Both preterm and post-term births have been associated with neonatal morbidity and mortality, including adverse impact on neurodevelopment. Important neural maturational processes take place during sleep in newborns, but findings on gestational duration and sleep in early childhood are contradictory and often derive from small clinical s...
Article
Full-text available
br/>Background: We assessed the impact of adopting the 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria on the rates of gestational diabetes (GDM), pregnancy outcomes and identification of women at future risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods: During a period when the 1999 WHO GDM criteria were in effect, pregnant women were universally scree...
Article
While many studies focus on the association between early life adversity and the later risk for psychopathology, few simultaneously explore diverse forms of environmental adversity. Moreover, those studies that examined the cumulative impact of early life adversity focus uniquely on postnatal influences. The objective of this study was to focus on...
Article
Evidence on the association between sleep, diet, and eating behaviors in pregnant women is lacking. We examine this in a cohort of apparently healthy pregnant women. At 26–28 weeks gestation, 497 participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to assess sleep and a 24-h recall to assess dietary intake. Diet quality was assessed by the Hea...
Article
Full-text available
Background Few studies have investigated physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in relation to fasting (FG) and 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (2hPG) levels and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); we investigated these associations among Asian pregnant women. Methods As part of the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes coh...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Higher screen viewing time (SVT) in childhood has been associated with adverse health outcomes, but the predictors of SVT in early childhood are poorly understood. We examined the sociodemographic and behavioral predictors of total and device-specific SVT in a Singaporean cohort. Methods: At ages 2 and 3 years, SVT of 910 children wa...
Article
Background: Evidence suggests a relation between plasma tryptophan concentrations and sleep and mental well-being. As no studies have been performed in pregnant women, we studied the relation of plasma tryptophan concentrations during pregnancy with sleep quality, and mood during and after pregnancy. Methods: Pregnant women (n = 572) from the Gr...
Article
Full-text available
Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) deficiency, poor sleep quality, and night-time eating, have been independently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, but their inter-relationships are yet to be evaluated. We aimed to investigate the associations between maternal plasma 25OHD status and sleep quality and circadian eating patterns during preg...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Improved maternal nutrition and glycaemic control before and during pregnancy are thought to benefit the health of the mother, with consequent benefits for infant body composition and later obesity risk. Maternal insulin resistance and glycaemia around conception and in early pregnancy may be key determinants of maternal physiology and...
Article
Background: Dietary protein may affect glucose metabolism through several mechanisms, but results from studies on dietary protein intake and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been inconsistent. Objective: We examined the cross-sectional associations of dietary protein intake from different food sources during pregnancy with the risk...
Article
Background & aims: B-vitamins and homocysteine may contribute to the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but existing studies are inconsistent. We examined the cross-sectional associations of plasma folate, vitamins B6, B12, and homocysteine concentrations with GDM and glycemia in a sample of multi-ethnic Asian pregnant women. Met...
Article
Full-text available
Background Small-vessel dysfunction may be an important consequence of chronic hyperglycemia. We examined the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a state of transient hyperglycemia during pregnancy, and retinal microvascular changes in pregnant women at 26–28 weeks of pregnancy. MethodsA total of 1136 pregnant women with single...
Article
Objective: To examine the influence of maternal sleep quality and nocturnal sleep duration on risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Methods: 686 women (376 Chinese, 186 Malay and 124 Indian) with a singleton pregnancy attended a clinic visit at 26-28 weeks of gestation as part of the Growing Up in Singap...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Analyze the relation of gestational diabetes and maternal blood glucose levels to early cognitive functions in the first two years of life. Methods: In a prospective Singaporean birth cohort study, pregnant women were screened for gestational diabetes at 26-28 weeks gestation using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Four hundred and...
Data
Flow chart of subject participation. (PDF)
Data
Supplementary methods. Detailed protocol for auditory oddball (event related potentials). (DOCX)
Article
Purpose: To investigate the association of passive tobacco smoke exposure with early-onset myopia among three-year-old children in Singapore. Methods: Pregnant mothers who attended their first trimester clinic at two major maternity units were recruited into the GUSTO birth cohort. The current analysis comprised 572 three-year-old children, who...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This study investigated the association of axial length (AL) to corneal radius of curvature (CRC) ratio with spherical equivalent (SE) in a 3-year old Asian cohort. Methods: Three-hundred forty-nine 3-year old Asian children from The Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort study underwent AL and CRC measureme...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluates the ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) to activate DC and neutrophils and modulate T cell activation and the impact of bacterial dose on these responses. Murine bone marrow derived DC or neutrophils were stimulated with LGG at ratios of 5 : 1, 10 : 1, and 100 : 1 (LGG : cells) and DC maturation (CD40, CD80, CD86, CD83,...
Article
Full-text available
and Aim: Short sleep duration is thought to be a factor contributing to increased body mass index (BMI) in both school-age children and adults. Our aim was to determine whether sleep duration associates with growth outcomes during the first two years of life. Study design: Participants included 899 children enrolled in the Growing Up in Singapore...
Article
Objective: Studies have demonstrated a relationship between lower omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) status and anxiety and depression. It is uncertain whether similar associations occur in pregnant women, when anxiety and depression could have long-term effects on the offspring. We examined the associations between plasma LC-...
Article
To determine if eye size and shape at birth are associated with eye size and refractive error 3 years later. A subset of 173 full-term newborn infants from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the dimensions of the internal eye. Eye shape was assessed by an o...
Article
Breastfeeding has been shown to enhance global measures of intelligence in children. However, few studies have examined associations between breastfeeding and specific cognitive task performance in the first 2 y of life, particularly in an Asian population. We assessed associations between early infant feeding and detailed measures of cognitive dev...
Article
Full-text available
Universal and high-risk screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been widely studied and debated. Few studies have assessed GDM screening in Asian populations and even fewer have compared Asian ethnic groups in a single multi-ethnic population. 1136 pregnant women (56.7% Chinese, 25.5% Malay and 17.8% Indian) from the Growing Up in Sin...
Article
Studies in the general population have proposed links between nutrition and depression, but less is known about the perinatal period. Depletion of nutrient reserves throughout pregnancy and delayed postpartum repletion could increase the risk of perinatal depression. We examined the relationships of plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations duri...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) were employed for the metabolic footprinting of a pair of immortalized human uroepithelial cells namely HUC-1 (nontumorigenic) and HUC T-2 (tumorigenic). Both HUC-1 and HUC T-2 cell lines were cultivated...
Article
To study the mechanism of action of the lactobacilli, splenocytes were incubated with lactobacilli. We compared the ability of live and lyophilized Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus to modulate the production of interleukin 12p40 (IL-12p40), tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-10 by splenoc...
Article
(Cancer Sci 2010; 101: 751–758) The present gold standard for bladder cancer is Mycobacterium bovis, Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) immunotherapy. But it has a non-responder rate of 30–50% and side effects are common. Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota has been reported to reduce the incidence of recurrence in bladder cancer patients and to cure tu...

Network

Cited By