Shiping Tang

Shiping Tang
Fudan University · School of International Relations and Public Affairs

Doctor of Philosophy

About

76
Publications
49,141
Reads
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981
Citations
Citations since 2016
27 Research Items
576 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
Introduction
International Relations, Comparative Politics, Development Economics, Institutional Economics, Philosophy of the Social Sciences, Evolutionary Social Sciences, Computational Social Sciences
Additional affiliations
July 2009 - present
Fudan University
Position
  • Fudan Distinguished Professor and Dr. Seaker Chan Chair Professor

Publications

Publications (76)
Article
China has employed various industrial policies and science & technology (S&T) policies in its effort of catching up with the world technology frontier. This paper evaluates the effect of China's industrial policies and S&T policies with a newly constructed measurement of policy intensity and a national database of firm surveys. We argue that whethe...
Article
Full-text available
The coming of the Last Universal Cellular Ancestor (LUCA) was the singular watershed event in the making of the biotic world. If the coming of LUCA marked the crossing of the “Darwinian Threshold”, then pre-LUCA evolution must have been Pre-Darwinian and at least partly non-Darwinian. But how did Pre-Darwinian evolution before LUCA actually operate...
Preprint
Full-text available
Election forecasting has been traditionally dominated by subjective surveys and polls or methods centered upon them. We have developed a novel platform for forecasting elections based on agent-based modeling (ABM), and it is entirely independent from surveys and polls. The platform uses statistical results from objective data along with simulation...
Article
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If the coming of the last universal cellular ancestor (LUCA) marks the crossing of the “Darwinian Threshold” (Woese in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:8742–8747, 2002), pre-LUCA evolution must have been pre-Darwinian. But how did pre-Darwinian evolution actually operate? Bringing together and extending insights from both earlier and more recent contribut...
Preprint
Full-text available
The central mechanism of biological evolution, variation-selection-inheritance (VSI), is one of the most universal mechanisms known. Much of our understanding of VSI, however, has been dominated by the Neo-Darwinian Modern Synthesis with a rather narrow understanding of what constitutes variation, selection, and inheritance. This unduly narrow unde...
Article
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Bringing together the classic defense of liberty and democracy, the political economy of hierarchy, endogenous growth theory, and the new institutional economics on growth, we propose a new institutional theory that identifies democracy's unique advantage in prompting economic growth. We contend that the channel of liberty‐to‐innovation is the most...
Article
In this essay I survey the key themes within China's discourse on international order, especially how China views its position and role in shaping the existing and future order. I go on to explore the possible implications of China's thinking and actions toward the existing international order. I conclude that overall, China sees no need for and he...
Book
Institutional change is a central driving force behind social changes, and thus a central topic in all major fields of social sciences. Yet, no general theory of institutional change exists. Drawing from a diverse literature, this book develops a general theory of institutional change, based on a social evolutionary synthesis of the conflict approa...
Article
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This article contributes both empirically and methodologically. Empirically, we seek to advance our understanding of an important puzzle: does oil cause ethnic war? Methodologically, we seek to identify more precisely the different weaknesses and strengths of the quantitative approach and case studies with process-tracing by explicitly comparing re...
Article
This article seeks to transcend the debate regarding “generalized Darwinism” or “universal Darwinism” for the social sciences. Highlighting recent discoveries in evolutionary biology, the article argues that it is no longer tenable to insist that (neo-)Darwinism is the only proper doctrine for understanding biological evolution. Moreover, social ev...
Article
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Challenging and improving upon existing studies, we develop a more integrated and fine-grained theory regarding oil and the onset of ethnic war and present systematic quantitative evidences for our theory. We contend that it is the ethno-geographical location of oil rather than oil income, rent, or relative distribution/concentration that really co...
Article
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Order is one of those terms that have been much talked about but never rigorously defined. After a critical survey of existing definitions of order, I propose a more rigorous definition of order. I then develop a framework for measuring and comparing order. I go on to show that without a rigorous definition of order and a proper framework for measu...
Article
Ashraf and Galor (2012) advanced the bold thesis that genetic diversity within different human populations has been a foundational determinant of long-run economic development. We show that their results are not robust after controlling for a key missing variable - the Eurasia dummy. After controlling for the Eurasia dummy, all indicators of geneti...
Article
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I identify idea, action, and outcome as the three key objects of social sciences and explaining them as the three key tasks of social sciences. I show that our failure to grasp the ontological differences of the three objects and the fact that explaining them may require different epistemological stands and methodological tools has been a key cause...
Conference Paper
Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) is a technique originally developed by Charles Ragin in the field of political science. It accepts data sets from the problem of interest, and applies the rules of logical inference to determine the relations between combinations of variables and outcomes, which helps researchers validate hypotheses or discove...
Article
This article develops a general theory regarding the onset of ethnic war, starting with two analytic innovations: a mechanism-based approach toward social facts and an emphasis on dynamic interactions. I deploy two meta-mechanisms - the security dilemma/spiral model and intergroup-intragroup interactions - as meta-synthesizers. I then bring togethe...
Article
Critically building upon existing discussion on system, structure, and the agent-structure problematique in IR and the broader social sciences, I argue that the international system impacts states via six distinct but interacting channels. Because existing discussions have either relied on one or two of the six channels or failed to adequately appr...
Article
Since the very beginning of social sciences, the relationship between agents and the social system has been a central problématique. Unfortunately, the agent–structure problem, which is a much narrower version of the agent–system problem, has mostly replaced the latter in social sciences, including international relations (IRs). This article argues...
Article
Neo-modernity is a new philosophical stand that transcends the modernism vs. post-modernism debate. Neo-modernity is a new meta-theory about the relationship between theories of knowledge and theories of society, underpinned by a social evolutionary approach toward human knowledge and society. Neo-modernity also embodies the spirit of “permanent cr...
Article
A major cause behind our difficulties in understanding social power has been that there are four approaches in two dichotomies toward power. Each of the four approaches offers a one-sided understanding about power: the four approaches even define power differently. After dissecting the four major approaches and underscoring their inadequacies, I pr...
Article
This article advances a general theory of institutional change. I argue that because institutional change is essentially a process of selecting a few ideas out of many and solidifying them into institutions, competition of ideas and struggle for power to make rules are the heart of institutional change. Synthesizing the harmony approach and the con...
Article
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Four internal dimensions (capability, intention, interest, and resolve) and one external dimension (the strategic environment, broadly speaking) are indispensable for us to make sense of others’ behavior. This article outlines a new theory of behavioral attribution in IR. Specifically, each of the five dimensions independently poses different chall...
Article
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By synthesizing material forces with ideational forces more organically via a social evolutionary approach, we advance a deeper understanding about post-World War II American military interventionism. We argue that post-World War II American military interventionism — that is, the American elites’ and public’s support for America’s military interve...
Article
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For years, mainstream international relations (ir) theorists have essentially ignored reconciliation as a special—and perhaps the most difficult—form of cooperation building in international politics. This review article seeks to make the study of reconciliation a more visible field for further inquiry in ir, comparative politics, and sociology...
Article
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I critically examine the existing literature on the security dilemma in ethnic conflict, thus laying part of the foundation for constructing a dynamic and integrative theory of ethnic conflict. I show that many attempts to apply the security dilemma to the understanding of ethnic conflict have been based on an imprecise and often mistaken understan...
Article
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In addition to the material market, there is also a positional market in human society. The channel of social mobility â the institutional system that regulates the performance of individuals and groups in the positional market â is a critical dimension of the overall institutional foundation of economic growth because it underpins the incentive st...
Article
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When stripped to the bare bone, there are only 11 foundational paradigms in social sciences. These foundational paradigms are like flashlights that can be utilized to shed light on different aspects of human society, but each of them can only shed light on a limited area of human society. Different schools in social science result from different bu...
Book
This book advances a coherent statement of defensive realism as a theory of strategy for our time and adds to our understanding of defensive realism as a grand theory of IR in particular and our understanding of IR in general and contributes to the ongoing debates among major paradigms of international relations.
Article
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I advance an endogenous explanation for the systemic transformation of international politics and offer to neatly resolve the debate between offensive realism and defensive realism through a social evolutionary approach. I contend that international politics has always been an evolutionary system and it has evolved from an offensive realism world t...
Chapter
Taliaferro (2001) did realism a great service by advancing a fairly sound framework for categorizing realism theories (see also Liu and Zhang 2006). However, because his understanding of the levels of analysis was incomplete and imprecise and, more importantly, because his understanding of the differences between offensive realism and defensive rea...
Chapter
The preceding chapters clarify several critical areas of confusion that have come to obscure our understanding of the critical differences between defensive realism and offensive realism, redefine the security dilemma as the linchpin concept of defensive realism more rigorously, and resolve the critical question of security dilemma and war. With th...
Chapter
The discussion in chapters 2 and 4 makes it evident that the way to cope with uncertainty over others’ intentions constitutes a critical point of divergence between offensive realism on the one side and defensive realism (and other non-offensive realism approaches) on the other (Tang 2008a).
Chapter
To advance a coherent statement of defensive realism, we need to first define what defensive realism is. This is no easy task, primarily because there have been so many realisms out there, even if we merely restrict our scope to IR. These include structural realism, neorealism (Waltz 1979), modified realism (Krasner 1982a), classical realism, moder...
Chapter
As students of realism, we should resist the temptation to advocate for policy recommendations without discretion. Yet, we should prescribe policy recommendations when the theoretical framework we have developed bears clear implications for the real world. After all, realism has always been both a descriptive and a prescriptive paradigm. After adva...
Chapter
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The security dilemma is one of the most important theoretical ideas in international relations (Wheeler and Booth 1992, 29).1 Not surprisingly, in the years since Herbert Butterfield (1950), John Herz (1950; 1966), and Robert Jervis (1976; 1978) first developed the concept, this concept has been extended and applied to “address many of the most imp...
Chapter
After clearing the underbrush that has come to obstruct our understanding of the concept of the security dilemma itself, we can now tackle the critical question: has the security dilemma been a major cause of war in history? Or, to put it differently, can the security dilemma really explain most, or even many, interstate wars in history? If the ans...
Article
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Neoclassical Realism, the State, and Foreign Policy. Edited by Steven E. Lobell, Norrin M. Ripsman, Jeffrey W. Taliaferro. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. 310 pp., $31.99 paperback (ISBN-13: 978-0-521-73192-8). Within contemporary realism literature, neoclassical realism, which seeks to combine both structural and domestic variables t...
Article
Full-text available
Critically building upon the work of Herbert Butterfield, John Herz, and Robert Jervis, this article advances a more rigorous definition of the security dilemma. It demonstrates critical implications of the rigorously redefined concept. It examines several influential extensions and expansions of the original concept, showing that most have been in...
Article
Four internal dimensions (capability, intention, interest, and resolve) and one external dimension (the strategic environment, broadly speaking) are indispensable for us to make sense of states’ behavior, and uncertainty can form around each of the five dimensions. These five dimensions of uncertainty pose different challenges for our cognition, an...
Chapter
Full-text available
In the early 1990s, when China’s economic growth became impossible to ignore, many regional observers became anxious about how China was going to exercise its growing power. Along with the anxiety about China’s power and intentions, various proposals for handling the “China Problem”—from containment, to engagement, to congagement, to hedging—also b...
Article
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There are two—and only two—fundamental positions on how to cope with the fear that is derived from the uncertainty over others’ intentions in international relations (IR) literature. Because these two positions cannot be deduced from other bedrock assumptions within the different IR approaches, the two positions should be taken as an additional bed...
Article
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In a recent article, Evan Montgomery addresses the question of how states cope with uncertainty about other states' intentions in international politics through reassurance. He finds that because of a variety of constraining factors, attempts at reassurance have been rare and largely unsuccessful. Despite arriving at the correct conclusion and rais...
Article
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Building on recent scholarship on reputation in international politics, this article argues that, because reputation for resolve cannot form in international conflicts due to anarchy, politicians' persistent belief in the value of reputation for resolve is merely a cult of reputation. After outlining the logic of the cult and an operational code de...
Article
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This article develops a systemic theory of security environment and explores the theory's implication for managing security. The central theme here is to argue that becuase security environment is a system, a systemic approach, not the conventional approach by identifying threats, is the way to go for understanding security environment and making s...
Article
Using institution-building theory from the school of neoliberalism, the paper examines the role of leadership and institutional bargaining in moving the “10+3” regional cooperation framework forward. The core argument developed here is that close cooperation between Japan and China is key to the future of “10+3”, and ASEAN states and South Korea sh...
Article
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This article will explore the possibilities for Sino-Russian cooperation in Central Asia, focusing specifically on the question of whether or not the two countries will cooperate on promoting regional economic integration. This issue was chosen for two reasons. First, economic integration is now recognized as one of the most effective approaches fo...
Article
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Lung cancer causes more than 140,000 deaths annually in the United States alone, and the prognosis for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is particularly poor. Therapies using small molecules that preferentially kill lung tumor cells by inducing cellular suicide (apoptosis) would therefore be highly desirable. Retinoids have shown promise as cancer...
Article
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Existing application of evolutionary thinking to human society suffers from the lack of a clear understanding of the nature of social evolution, resulting in confusion and even Social Darwinism and Geopolitics. In this article, I define social evolution as a phenomenon, thus paving the way for proposing Social Evolution Paradigm as a proper paradig...

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