Shin-ya Murakami

Shin-ya Murakami
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency | JAXA · Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)

D.Sc.

About

38
Publications
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821
Citations

Publications

Publications (38)
Article
Full-text available
The planetary missions including the Venus Climate Orbiter ‘Akatsuki’ provide new information on various atmospheric phenomena. Nevertheless, it is difficult to elucidate their three-dimensional structures globally and continuously only from observations because satellite observations are considerably limited in time and space. We constructed the f...
Article
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At the cloud top of the Venus atmosphere, equatorial Kelvin waves have been observed and are considered to play an important role in the super-rotation. We were able to reproduce the wave in a general circulation model (GCM) by conducting an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) with the help of a data assimilation system. The synthetic hor...
Article
Full-text available
Although Venus is a terrestrial planet similar to Earth, its atmospheric circulation is much different and poorly characterized¹. Winds at the cloud top have been measured predominantly on the dayside. Prominent poleward drifts have been observed with dayside cloud tracking and interpreted to be caused by thermal tides and a Hadley circulation2–4;...
Article
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Explaining super-rotation on Venus The solid surface of Venus rotates very slowly, once every 243 days, but its thick atmosphere circles the planet in just 4 days. This phenomenon, known as super-rotation, requires a continuous input of angular momentum, from an unknown source, to overcome friction with the surface. Horinouchi et al. mapped the pla...
Article
We describe the dayside cloud top structure of Venus as retrieved from 93 images acquired at a wide variety of solar phase angles (0–120°) using the 2.02-μm channel of the 2-μm camera (IR2) onboard the Venus orbiter, Akatsuki, from April 4 to May 25, 2016. Since the 2.02-μm channel is located in a CO2 absorption band, the sunlight reflected from Ve...
Article
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Planetary‐scale waves at the Venusian cloud‐top cause periodic variations in both winds and ultraviolet (UV) brightness. While the wave candidates are the 4‐day Kelvin wave and 5‐day Rossby wave with zonal wavenumber 1, their temporal evolutions are poorly understood. Here we conducted a time series analysis of the 365‐nm brightness and cloud‐track...
Article
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Plain Language Summary On Venus, the atmosphere circulates 60 times faster than the solid body of Venus; this phenomenon is called “superrotation,” and it is one of the mysteries of the Venusian atmosphere. To maintain the fast circulation, thermal tides, which are global‐scale atmospheric waves excited by solar heating, have been considered a very...
Article
Full-text available
An unknown absorber near the cloud-top level of Venus generates a broad absorption feature from the ultraviolet (UV) to visible, peaking around 360 nm, and therefore plays a critical role in the solar energy absorption. We present a quantitative study of the variability of the cloud albedo at 365 nm and its impact on Venus’s solar heating rates bas...
Preprint
Planetary-scale waves at the Venusian cloud-top cause periodic variations in both winds and ultraviolet (UV) brightness. While the wave candidates are the 4-day Kelvin wave and 5-day Rossby wave with zonal wavenumber 1, their temporal evolutions are poorly understood. Here we conducted a time series analysis of the 365-nm brightness and cloud-track...
Preprint
Full-text available
An unknown absorber near the cloud top level of Venus generates a broad absorption feature from the ultraviolet (UV) to visible, peaking around 360 nm, and therefore plays a critical role in the solar energy absorption. We present a quantitative study on the variability of the cloud albedo at 365 nm and its impact on Venus' solar heating rates base...
Preprint
Full-text available
Longwave Infrared Camera (LIR) onboard Akatsuki first revealed the global structure of the thermal tides in the upper cloud layer of Venus, where the data coverage was from the equator to the mid-latitudes in both hemispheres and over the whole local time, based on Akatsuki's long-term observation. The vertical structure was also indicated by compa...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between the planetary-scale ultraviolet contrast known as the Y feature and the wind field at the Venusian cloud top was investigated by using images obtained by Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) on ESA's Venus Express. Spectral analyses of the ultraviolet reflectivity and the wind field revealed common periodicities of 4–5 Earth days,...
Article
Full-text available
Stationary features indicative of topographic gravity waves were identified at the cloud top of Venus with the 283-nm channel of the Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) onboard Akatsuki, and their geographical and local time dependences were studied. At this wavelength the absorption by SO 2 dominates. To extract stationary structures with respect to the surf...
Article
Full-text available
The status and initial products of the 1-μm camera onboard the Akatsuki mission to Venus are presented. After the successful retrial of Venus’ orbit insertion on Dec. 2015 (5 years after the failure in Dec. 2010), and after a long cruise under intense radiation, damage in the detector seems small and fortunately insignificant in the final quality o...
Article
Full-text available
Venus is covered with thick clouds. Ultraviolet (UV) images at 0.3–0.4 microns show detailed cloud features at the cloud-top level at about 70 km, which are created by an unknown UV-absorbing substance. Images acquired in this wavelength range have traditionally been used to measure winds at the cloud top. In this study, we report low-latitude wind...
Article
Full-text available
Since insertion into orbit on December 7, 2015, the Akatsuki orbiter has returned global images of Venus from its four imaging cameras at eleven discrete wavelengths from ultraviolet (283 and 365 nm) and near infrared (0.9–2.3 µm), to the thermal infrared (8–12 µm) from a near-equatorial orbit. The Venus Express and Pioneer Venus Orbiter missions h...
Article
Full-text available
The ultraviolet imager (UVI) has been developed for the Akatsuki spacecraft (Venus Climate Orbiter mission). The UVI takes ultraviolet (UV) images of the solar radiation reflected by the Venusian clouds with narrow bandpass filters centered at the 283 and 365 nm wavelengths. There are absorption bands of SO2 and unknown absorbers in these wavelengt...
Article
Full-text available
The existence of lightning discharges in the Venus atmosphere has been controversial for more than 30 years, with many positive and negative reports published. The lightning and airglow camera (LAC) onboard the Venus orbiter, Akatsuki, was designed to observe the light curve of possible flashes at a sufficiently high sampling rate to discriminate l...
Article
We present measurements of the wind speeds at the nightside lower clouds of Venus from observations by JAXA's mission Akatsuki during 2016, complemented with new wind measurements from ground-based observations acquired with TNG/NICS in 2012 and IRTF/SpeX in 2015 and 2017. Zonal and meridional components of the winds were measured from cloud tracki...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present measurements of the wind speeds at the nightside lower clouds of Venus from observations by JAXA's mission Akatsuki during 2016, complemented with new wind measurements from ground-based observations acquired with TNG/NICS in 2012 and IRTF/SpeX in 2015 and 2017. Zonal and meridional components of the winds were measured from cloud tracki...
Article
Full-text available
After the arrival of Akatsuki spacecraft of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency at Venus in December 2015, the radio occultation experiment, termed RS (Radio Science), obtained 19 vertical profiles of the Venusian atmosphere by April 2017. An onboard ultra-stable oscillator is used to generate stable X-band downlink signals needed for the experiment...
Article
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The Venus Climate Orbiter Akatsuki arrived at Venus in December 2015, and the Longwave Infrared Camera (LIR) onboard the spacecraft started making observations. LIR has acquired more than 8000 images during the first two Venusian years since orbit insertion without any serious faults. However, brightness temperature derived from LIR images containe...
Article
Full-text available
The first year (December 2015 to November 2016) of IR2 after Akatsuki’s successful insertion to an elongated elliptical orbit around Venus is reported with performance evaluation and results of data acquisition. The single-stage Stirling-cycle cryo-cooler of IR2 has been operated with various driving voltages to achieve the best possible cooling un...
Article
The existence of large stationary gravity waves was discovered during Akatsuki's first observation sequence in 2015. In this study, the further detection of large stationary gravity waves in brightness temperature images over a 1.5 year-period is reported. The waves periodically appeared mostly above four specific highland regions in the low latitu...
Article
Full-text available
We provide an overview of data products from observations by the Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter, Akatsuki, and describe the definition and content of each data-processing level. Levels 1 and 2 consist of non-calibrated and calibrated radiance (or brightness temperature), respectively, as well as geometry information (e.g., illumination angles). Lev...
Article
The Venusian atmosphere is in a state of superrotation where prevailing westward winds move much faster than the planet’s rotation. Venus is covered with thick clouds that extend from about 45 to 70 km altitude, but thermal radiation emitted from the lower atmosphere and the surface on the planet’s nightside escapes to space at narrow spectral wind...
Article
Full-text available
We analyze the albedo of Venus obtained from the UV Imager on board Akatsuki. A relative global mean albedo over phase angle is used in this study, and we confirm the glory feature at 283 and 365 nm in the data acquired in 2016 May. We successfully simulate the observation using a radiative transfer model. Our results show that cloud aerosols of μm...
Article
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Even though many missions have explored the Venus atmospheric circulation, its instantaneous state is poorly characterized. In situ measurements vertically sampling the atmosphere exist for limited locations and dates, while remote-sensing observations provide only global averages of winds at altitudes of the clouds: 47, 60 and 70 km. We present a...
Article
Full-text available
Correlation-based cloud tracking has been extensively used to measure atmospheric winds, but still difficulty remains. In this study, aiming at developing a cloud tracking system for Akatsuki, an artificial satellite orbiting Venus, a formulation is developed for improving the relaxation labeling technique to select appropriate peaks of cross-corre...
Article
The planet Venus is covered by thick clouds of sulfuric acid that move westwards because the entire upper atmosphere rotates much faster than the planet itself. At the cloud tops, about 65 km in altitude, small-scale features are predominantly carried by the background wind at speeds of approximately 100 m s⁻¹. In contrast, planetary-scale atmosphe...
Data
Figure S1: Similar to Fig. 2c, but it demonstrates the expected error in the estimated vorticity, which is dependent on the scale of interest.
Article
Full-text available
AKATSUKI is the Japanese Venus Orbiter designed to investigate the climate system of Venus. It was launched on May 21, 2010 and reached Venus on December 7, 2010. Thrust was applied by the orbital maneuver engine in an attempt to put AKATSUKI into a westward equatorial orbit around Venus with a 30 hours' orbital period. However, this operation fail...
Article
In barotropic 2D turbulence on a β-plane with high wavenumber forcing, it is well known the existence of alternating zonal jets by many numerical experiments. Moreover, in the case of β to be large, the eastward jets are narrower and faster than the westward jets. This velocity profile corresponds to the saw-tooth vorticity profile. A formation mec...

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