Sheana Bull

Sheana Bull
University of Colorado | UCD · Department of Community and Behavioral Health

PhD, MPH

About

154
Publications
24,870
Reads
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8,122
Citations
Education
January 1994 - August 1997
Georgia State University
Field of study
  • Sociology
September 1991 - December 1993
Tulane University
Field of study
  • Public Health

Publications

Publications (154)
Article
Full-text available
Background Nearly half of patients do not take their cardiovascular medications as prescribed, resulting in increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Mobile and digital technologies for health promotion and disease self-management offer an opportunity to adapt behavioral “nudges” using ubiquitous mobile phone technology to facilitate me...
Article
Almost 50% of patients with cardiovascular diseases face challenges in taking medications and increased morbidity and mortality. Text messaging may impact medication refill behavior and can be delivered at scale to patients by texting mobile phones. To obtain feedback from persons with chronic conditions on the design of interactive text messages a...
Chapter
In this chapter, we follow a young Latina woman named Lourdes as she attempts to balance her own aspirations for a career with her own growth as a young adult in a new sexual relationship. Neither she nor her partner know enough about contraception to take steps they think are important to avoid having children right now. Her solution is one that i...
Article
Objective: Millions of infants worldwide remain under-immunized and at risk for unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Text messaging may offer a low-cost solution. We aimed to evaluate text message reminders to improve infant immunization in Guatemala. Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted at four public health clinics in rural and u...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Bright by Three (BB3), a non-profit organization that promotes caregiver behaviors to support language development in young children was augmented with a text-messaging program, Bright by Text (BBT), in 2015. While some evidence suggests that text-messaging can promote early development, it is unknown if these interventions are reachin...
Article
In this narrative review, we will present a brief overview of known disparities in children's language development based on socioeconomic status (SES) and efforts in the primary care setting to promote children's language development. Next, we will define mobile-health (m-health) and review the limited, published literature regarding the effectiven...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Despite safe and effective childhood immunizations, decreased acceptance of vaccines has become an emerging global problem. The WHO SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy developed a common diagnostic tool, the Vaccine Hesitancy Scale (VHS), to identify and compare hesitancy in different global settings. We field tested the VHS in rur...
Article
Background: Despite efforts to promote vaccination in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), over 20 million infants remain under-immunized and at risk for unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Mobile health technologies, such as Short Message Service (SMS) texts, have tremendous and untapped potential for disease management. Patient reminder sy...
Article
This study examines the extent to which knowledge of recreational marijuana laws, health effects, and perceptions of risk for marijuana use differ between Spanish- and English-speaking Latino survey respondents from a registry of Colorado adults. Spanish-speaking Latino respondents (n = 47) had less accurate knowledge of laws permitting use of mari...
Article
Background: Guy2Guy (G2G) is the first comprehensive HIV prevention program developed for sexual minority males as young as 14 years old and is delivered nationally via text messaging. Here, we report the results of the pilot randomized control trial. Methods: G2G was tested against an attention-matched "healthy lifestyle" control (eg, self-este...
Article
Full-text available
Youth marijuana use is a growing concern with increasingly permissive views towards marijuana use. Little is known about attitudes and beliefs toward marijuana use among youth in the context of legalization. This study describes youth attitudes and beliefs about health risks associated with marijuana use, social norms of peer use, conversations wit...
Article
Introduction: Passage of voter-driven marijuana reform laws signals a shift in public attitudes for marijuana use. For providers, legalization may necessitate practice modifications, particularly regarding patient-provider conversations about use and risk. We examined healthcare providers' knowledge of marijuana laws and health implications, profe...
Article
In this issue of Mhealth , Jenkins et al . (1) offer a summary describing attitudes of 60 stroke patients towards the use of mobile phone tools—specifically smart phones—to monitor blood pressure and facilitate medication adherence.
Article
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Background Initiatives to promote adolescent friendly health services (AFHS) have been taking place in India and many low- and middle-income countries for nearly two decades. Evaluations of these initiatives have been placed in the public arena from time to time, but little is known about what they say about the overall situation on AFHS in India....
Article
Background: Colorado is among the first states to legalize the recreational sale of marijuana and therefore among the first to develop regulations outlining the purchase, possession, consumption, and enforcement, and penalties. Colorado legislators set aside funds for a statewide informational media campaign to educate Colorado residents on legal...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To consider whether Youth All Engaged! (a text message intervention) intensified the effects of the adolescent pregnancy prevention Teen Outreach Program (control) for youths. Methods: In this trial performed in Denver, Colorado, from 2011 to 2014, we randomized 8 Boys & Girls Clubs each of 4 years into 32 clubs per year combinations...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Using social networking websites to recruit research participants is increasingly documented in the literature, although few studies have leveraged these sites to reach those younger than 18 years. Objective: To discuss the development and refinement of a recruitment protocol to reach and engage adolescent gay, bisexual, and other te...
Article
Purpose: There is a dearth of HIV prevention/healthy sexuality programs developed for adolescent gay and bisexual males (AGBM) as young as 14 years old, in part because of the myriad ethical concerns. To address this gap, we present our ethics-related experiences implementing Guy2Guy, a text messaging-based HIV prevention/healthy sexuality program...
Article
This systematic review describes mHealth interventions directed at healthcare workers in low-resource settings from the PubMed database from March 2009 to May 2015. Thirty-one articles were selected for final review. Four categories emerged from the reviewed articles: data collection during patient visits, communication between health workers and p...
Article
This systematic review describes mHealth interventions directed at healthcare workers in low-resource settings from the PubMed database from March 2009 to May 2015. Thirty-one articles were selected for final review. Four categories emerged from the reviewed articles: data collection during patient visits, communication between health workers and p...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Patient reminder systems are an evidence-based way to improve childhood vaccination rates but are difficult to implement in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Short Message Service (SMS) texts may offer a potential low-cost solution, especially in LMICs where mobile phones are becoming more ubiquitous. Objective: To determine...
Article
Background: There has been a rise in internet-based health interventions without a concomitant focus on new methods to measure user engagement and its effect on outcomes. We describe current user tracking methods for internet-based health interventions and offer suggestions for improvement based on the design and pilot testing of healthMpowerment....
Article
Objective: To document the integration of social science theory in literature on mHealth (mobile health) and consider opportunities for integration of classic theory, health communication theory, and social networking to generate a relevant theory for mHealth program design. Method: A secondary review of research syntheses and meta-analyses publ...
Article
Full-text available
Five activities were implemented between November 2012 and June 2014 to develop an mHealth HIV prevention program for adolescent gay, bisexual, and queer men (AGBM): (1) focus groups to gather acceptability of the program components; (2) ongoing development of content; (3) Content Advisory Teams to confirm the tone, flow, and understandability of p...
Article
Youth are prolific users of cell phone minutes and text messaging. Numerous programs using short message service text messaging (SMS) have been employed to help improve health behaviors and health outcomes. However, we lack information on whether and what type of interaction or engagement with SMS program content is required to realize any benefit....
Article
Full-text available
eHealth, mHealth and "Web 2.0" social media strategies can effectively reach and engage key populations in HIV prevention across the testing, treatment, and care continuum. To assess how these tools are currently being used within the field of HIV prevention and care, we systematically reviewed recent (2013-2014) published literature, conference ab...
Article
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Program developers and researchers in the sexual health domain have increasingly embraced technological trends as they emerge. With the emergence of serious game applications to impact health behaviors, a natural step for research enquiry will be the investigation of serious games for sexual health education. We invited a panel of sexual health res...
Article
Individuals in neighborhoods composed of minority and lower socioeconomic status populations are more likely to have an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest event, less likely to have bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed, and less likely to survive. Latino cardiac arrest victims are 30% less likely than whites to have bystander CPR per...
Article
Full-text available
One in three new cases of HIV in South Africa is among adolescents. Given that adolescents are particularly affected, scalable and cost-effective prevention programs are urgently needed. This study aims to identify opportunities to integrate technology into youth HIV prevention efforts. In 2012, 1,107 8th – 11th graders completed a paper-and-pencil...
Chapter
AM:STARs is the official publication of the AAP Section on Adolescent Health. Published 2 times per year, it offers adolescent specialists and primary care physicians timely information on matters relating to adolescent health and wellness.
Article
Full-text available
In 2008, we conducted online interviews with 65 self-identified adult heterosexual men and women and gay/bisexual men to explore perceptions and experiences with meeting people online. Reasons for meeting people online, desired partner characteristics, and the process of connecting for sex paralleled those observed in real-life; but the Internet al...
Article
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Background/Aims Cancer prognosis is one of the leading topics of interest for cancer patients, their caregivers and providers. Literature suggests that nomograms that use prognostic algorithms integrating several predictors improve prognostic accuracy. There has been increasing interest in the availability and use of web-based tools by both health...
Article
Full-text available
Background/Aims The Cancer Survival Query System (CSQS) is a second generation prototype cancer prognostic tool developed by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). It was designed for physicians to use so they could better understand and communicate with prostate and colorectal cancer patients valid estimates of their cancer survival within the conte...
Chapter
The burden of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is disproportionaly high for adolescents and young adults. Adolescents and young people report high rates of sexual activity, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use. The Internet and, more specifically, online social networks, are beginning to be harnessed as potentia...
Article
Youth represent almost half of all new HIV infections globally. Although condom use is an effective method of HIV prevention among sexually active youth in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), they face substantial barriers in obtaining condoms in environments where adults hold attitudes condemning premarital sex. More research is needed to better understand...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To develop and pilot a theory-based, mobile phone texting component attractive to minority youth as a supplement to the Teen Outreach Program®, a youth development program for reducing teen pregnancy and school dropout. Methods We conducted iterative formative research with minority youth in multiple focus groups to explore interest in tex...
Conference Paper
For youth, text messaging is a preferred communication method and offers an inexpensive and effective way to connect. Texting is a tool to bring educational equity to high-risk youth, including youth of color. Through a 4-year intervention, we deliver supplemental text messages to reinforce and intensify an effective teen pregnancy prevention progr...
Conference Paper
Introduction Effective teen pregnancy prevention programs are limited by the numbers of people they can reach and lack of sustainability. We wish to enhance effective programs with supplemental text messaging reinforcing and intensifying program effects. Methods In this four year intervention, we are partnering with Boys & Girls Clubs of Metro Denv...
Article
Capitalizing on emerging data suggesting that HIV-preventive behaviors can be positively affected by Internet-based programs, we developed and tested CyberSenga, an Internet-based, comprehensive sexuality education program for adolescents in Mbarara, Uganda. Three hundred and sixty-six secondary school students were randomly assigned to either the...
Article
Perception of peer behaviors is an important predictor of actual risk behaviors among youth. However, we lack understanding of peer influence through social media and of actual and perceived peer behavior concordance. The purpose of this research is to document the relationship between individual perception of and actual peer sexual risk behavior u...
Article
Full-text available
Background/Aims The Cancer Research Network Cancer Communication Research Center (CCRC), one of five National Cancer Institute-funded Centers of Excellence in Cancer Communication Research, had the unique opportunity to collaborate with colleagues from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to conduct real world testing of an NCI-developed decision ai...
Article
Background/Aims Information about cancer prognosis is a main topic of interest for cancer patients and clinicians alike. Prognostic information can help with decisions about treatment, lessen patients' uncertainty and empower them to participate in the decision making process. Calculating and communicating cancer prognostic information can be chall...
Article
Full-text available
Cancer prognosis is of keen interest for cancer patients, their caregivers and providers. Prognostic tools have been developed to guide patient-physician communication and decision-making. Given the proliferation of prognostic tools, it is timely to review existing online cancer prognostic tools and discuss implications for their use in clinical se...
Article
Full-text available
Cost-effective, scalable programs are urgently needed in countries deeply affected by HIV. This parallel-group RCT was conducted in four secondary schools in Mbarara, Uganda. Participants were 12 years and older, reported past-year computer or Internet use, and provided informed caregiver permission and youth assent. The intervention, CyberSenga, w...
Data
CyberSenga CONSORT Figure Checklist. (DOC)
Data
CyberSenga Study Research Protocol Approved by Ethics Review Boards. (DOC)
Article
Objective: To review the current state of knowledge on the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV in adolescents and to highlight the existing gaps and priority areas for future research. Background: A disproportionate burden of HIV infections falls on adolescents, a developmental stage marked by unique neural, biological, and social transitio...
Article
Youth, particularly youth of color, continue to face disparities with regard to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. Yet, comprehensive education about sex and sexual risk for STIs is not universal for youth in the United States. While Internet research on HIV prevention has demonstrated that the medium can be as effective as face...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Young black men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV. Rapid expansion of mobile technologies, including smartphone applications (apps), provides a unique opportunity for outreach and tailored health messaging. We collected electronic daily journals and conducted surveys and focus groups with 22 black MSM (age 1...
Article
Full-text available
Youth are using social media regularly and represent a group facing substantial risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI). Although there is evidence that the Internet can be used effectively in supporting healthy sexual behavior, this has not yet extended to social networking sites. To determine whether STI prevention messages delivered via Fa...
Conference Paper
Introduction Effective teen pregnancy prevention programs are limited by the numbers of people they can reach and lack of sustainability. We wish to enhance an effective program with supplemental text messaging to reinforce and intensify program effects. Methods We partnered with Boys and Girls Clubs (BGC) to convene six focus groups with 59 yout...
Conference Paper
Background: Studies document bias and stereotyping by physicians based on patient race, which can lead to inequalities in care delivery. It is critical to explore patients' perception of physician bias impacting the perceived quality of care. Methods: Focused Discussion Groups (FDG) with 45 African American and Latino community members stratified b...
Article
Seeking health information can be a complicated process for a patient. Patients must know the topic of interest, where to look or ask, how to assess and comprehend, and how to evaluate the credibility and trustworthiness of the sources. In this study, the authors describe preferences of patients with multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease...
Article
Full-text available
Youth bear a significant proportion of the sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV burden in the United States, CDC, 2010. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats09/default.htm, with rates of some STIs increasing among youth of color and young men who have sex with men. Technology use among youth also continues to increase. The ubiquitous natur...
Article
Use of the Internet is growing in Sub-Saharan Africa. Evidence of computer and Internet effectiveness for reduction in risk behaviors associated with HIV shown in US settings has yet to be replicated in Africa. We describe the development, usability, and navigability testing of an Internet-based HIV prevention program for secondary school students...
Article
Purpose: Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most previous research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The c...
Article
The applicability of the IMB model in predicting condom use was tested among 390 sexually active secondary school students in Mbarara, Uganda. Adolescents across five secondary schools completed a self-report survey about their health and sexual experiences. Based upon results from structural equation modeling, the IMB model partially predicts cond...
Article
Abstract Coercion is consistently reported as a risk factor for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Because of the gendered nature of previous research, however, little is known about male victims or female perpetrators. To address this gap, we report survey data from 354 sexually experienced secondary school students in Mbarara, Uganda. Findings sugg...
Article
Acculturation to US society among minority patients may-beyond race and ethnicity alone-influence health outcomes beyond race and ethnicity alone. In particular, those who are foreign-born and who do not speak English as their primary language may have greater challenges interacting with the health care system and thus be at greater risk for advers...
Article
In Uganda, HIV prevalence remains high with young people at higher risk of infection than adults. Much is known about the sexual risk factors for HIV transmission among youths, including sexual encounters that are coerced. On the other hand, relatively little is known about the barriers to preventing sexual coercion and what strategies may overcome...
Article
Full-text available
Background Information about genetics and the promise of genomic medicine is commonplace in the mass media. How the mass media themselves contribute - or not - to the persistence of this issue and its perception by the public is the topic of this presentation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the structural and individual perspectives on...