Shawn Burke

Shawn Burke
University of Central Florida | UCF · Institute for Simulation and Training

About

119
Publications
141,532
Reads
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9,442
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2001 - present
University of Central Florida
Position
  • Associate Professor (Research)

Publications

Publications (119)
Article
Objective We describe a methodology that provides a nonobtrusive means of detecting stress and related deficits through the assessment of spontaneous verbal output in ongoing communications. Background In high-demand environments, operational personnel are exposed to an array of environmental, task, and interpersonal stressors that can negatively...
Article
Under what conditions do team learning behaviors best predict team performance? The current meta-analytic efforts synthesize results from 113 effect sizes and 7758 teams to investigate how different conceptualizations (fundamental, intrateam, and interteam), team characteristics (team size and team familiarity), task characteristics (interdependenc...
Article
The prevalence of teams in organizational settings has dramatically increased over the last 50 years, and as such, researchers have made much progress in understanding the conditions and intra-team dynamics that facilitate successful team performance. However, much remains to be learned due to the complexity of teams. This complexity often makes it...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore the team process-sequences executed within and across performance episodes and their relation to team performance. In doing so, this effort responds to the call for examining the temporal and dynamic aspects of teams. Design/methodology/approach Data (i.e. observations and audio recordings) was coll...
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Organizations depend on the learning capabilities of teams in order to be competitive in today’s information-laden business landscape. Hence, it is not surprising that there have been tremendous efforts made to understand team learning within the past two decades. These efforts, however, have produced a cluttered literature-base that overlooks a fu...
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There is a long history, dating back to the 50 s, which examines the manner in which team roles contribute to effective team performance. However, much of this work has been built on ad hoc teams working together for short periods of time under conditions of minimal stress. Additionally, research has been conducted with little attention paid to the...
Chapter
A key challenge for cost-effective Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) is the ability to create generalizable domain, learner, and pedagogical models so they can be re-used many times over. Investment in this technology will be needed to succeed in developing ITSs for team training. The purpose of this chapter is to propose an instructional framewo...
Conference Paper
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Multiple factors may influence Warfighters’ ability to team effectively with personnel from other nations in joint military operations. The present study (N = 696) used a situation judgement test (SJT) to assess multinational decision-making competence. We hypothesized that both social identity and general decision-making competencies would be asso...
Article
The global reach of the US military requires commanders to manage multinational teams effectively but cultural factors make effective decision-making challenging. This article reports a series of three studies with a total sample of 696 participants. They examined how sociocultural factors, personality traits, and decision-making competencies corre...
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Despite the growing interest in extreme teams, there is currently a lack of understanding concerning leadership within such teams, as the literature has predominantly focused on team leadership within the context of traditional organizations. The current study investigates team leadership within the context of teams operating in extreme environment...
Article
Although it is consistently identified as a critical component of team performance, team communication is often conceptualized in a variety of manners. The present meta-analysis addresses this inconsistency by examining the moderating influence of communication characteristics, as well as other salient team and task characteristics, on the relation...
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Contemporary military operations require the US to partner with coalition nations, so that commanders must make effective decisions for multinational teams. The effectiveness of decision-making may depend on various factors. General decision-making competence and personality traits that promote interpersonal functioning may be advantageous in the t...
Chapter
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Purpose - Our aim is to catalog how the functional behaviors that leaders engage in should change over time based on the needs of the team - thereby presenting a functional view of team leadership over time. Methodology/approach - A critical review of the literature on team leadership, team development, and teams was conducted. This information was...
Article
Teams are increasingly engaged in networked interaction across both team and organizational boundaries in order to achieve complex, higher order goals. In contrast to theoretical work on goal pursuit within isolated teams, there is an absence of theoretical models focused on systems composed of such teams. In response, we propose a predictive model...
Article
The concept of roles is ubiquitous in the social sciences, and a number of scholars have examined the operation of roles in task teams. In fact, this research has resulted in a seemingly unlimited number of roles that have been described as relevant to team performance. In this study, we attempt to integrate this research by deriving a model that d...
Article
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The goal of this research was the development of a practical architecture for the computer-based tutoring of teams. This article examines the relationship of team behaviors as antecedents to successful team performance and learning during adaptive instruction guided by Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs). Adaptive instruction is a training or educa...
Chapter
The use of team-based organizing has become the norm in many organizations, especially those characterized by complexity. However, research has shown that teams are not always effective, despite their popularity (Sims & Salas, 2007). The complex endeavor of creating and maintaining the enabling conditions for team performance is further compounded...
Chapter
Teams today face a vast number of challenges as they become increasingly diverse, distributed, and virtual, each of which can have its advantages and disadvantages in terms of influencing team functioning. Given these complexities, it is important to understand what factors may be able to help improve their performance and reduce the likelihood of...
Article
Like other organizations with a global reach, the US military faces challenges associated with multicultural teaming. Cultural differences in norms for work and social relationships may impair decision-making. This article reports the initial stages of the development of a Situation Judgment Test (SJT) for multicultural decision-making ability. SJT...
Conference Paper
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This paper explores the effect of critical precursors to realizing successful collaborative instructional environments in terms of their interaction within the learning effect model (Sottilare, 2012; Fletcher & Sottilare, 2013; Sottilare, 2013; Sottilare, Ragusa, Hoffman & Goldberg, 2013) and measurable relationships to team learning in the literat...
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Team research increasingly incorporates emergent states as an integral mediator between team inputs and outcomes. In conjunction with this, we have witnessed a proliferation and fragmentation of measurement techniques associated with emergent states. This inconsistency in measurement presents a problem for scientists and practitioners alike. For th...
Conference Paper
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Automation is an important and widely utilized component in work environments across many domains; it is useful for completing tasks too dangerous or cumbersome for personnel to complete by themselves. Despite its benefits, potential issues can occur that may impact safety and efficiency in the overall human-automation system. To realize the benefi...
Article
Past research on deception detection has demonstrated the diagnostic value of attending to verbal content (e.g., message content) over nonverbal cues (e.g., gaze aversion; Vrij, 2008). Moreover, research has also demonstrated the value of computer-based text analysis programs for distinguishing truthful from deceptive communications (Hauch, Masip,...
Article
PurposeThe purpose of this chapter is to illustrate some of the complexities and decision points that must be made while attempting to collect data on multiteam systems (MTSs). Methodology/approachAn integration of the literature along with prior experience in collecting data on MTSs in both field and laboratory environments was used to identify a...
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As technology, globalization, changing work demands, and a growing reliance on teams are changing the work environment, the social complexity surrounding work functions is increasing dramatically. While a variety of socially-relevant KSAs have been examined, we argue that studying them in isolation is no longer sufficient, as individuals require a...
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The military unit is a critical center of gravity in the military's efforts to enhance resilience and the health of the force. The purpose of this article is to augment the military's Total Force Fitness (TFF) guidance with a framework of TFF in units. The framework is based on a Military Demand-Resource model that highlights the dynamic interactio...
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Swift starting action teams (STATs) are increasingly prevalent in organizations, and the development of trust is often a critical issue for their effectiveness. However, current theory and research do not provide a clear picture regarding how trust toward the team (i.e., the team as the target) is developed in these settings. The primary contributi...
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Executive coaching is a popular intervention to improve the performance of middle and top level leaders. Globalization and the resulting cultural diversification of the workplace have also rapidly increased. Given these two trends, it is becoming increasingly important for executive coaches to understand how cultural values should affect their coac...
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Various types of organizations must manage rapidly changing operational contexts. To respond to these demands, organizations are relying more heavily on team-based work arrangements. Effectively managing such performance requires a systematic, broad approach to measuring team effectiveness that is comprehensive and sound, yet unobtrusive. One aspec...
Article
Perhaps nowhere are leaders more pivotal than in the extreme contexts of responding to the aftermath of natural disasters or orchestrating post-war stability, support, transition, and reconstruction efforts. In the current study, historiometric methods were employed in order to elucidate the aspects of leadership essential in these extreme contexts...
Article
Although a tremendous amount of research in the last decade has begun to disentangle interaction factors and performance outcomes associated with virtual teams, significant gaps still exist in our understanding, particularly in terms of virtual team leadership. Shared leadership may be particularly important to virtual teams, where team members’ se...
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The burgeoning use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) has, regrettably, not been met with an appropriate integration of training science into UAS training efforts. At best, current UAS training efforts are fragmented; at worst, they are ineffective (Stulberg, 2007). However, this need not be the case. Though nascent, the UAS literature has identifie...
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This research reports the results of a comprehensive investigation into the effectiveness of team building. The article serves to update and extend Salas, Rozell, Mullen, and Driskell's (1999) team-building meta-analysis by assessing a larger database and examining a broader set of outcomes. Our study considers the impact of four specific team-buil...
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This research effort leveraged the science of training to guide a taxonomic integration and a series of meta-analyses to gauge the effectiveness and boundary conditions of team training interventions for enhancing team outcomes. Disparate effect sizes across primary studies have made it difficult to determine the true strength of the relationships...
Article
In modem military and civilian organizations, teams are increasingly composed of members from very different cultural backgrounds. This heterogeneity in cultural composition poses a unique set of challenges on the process of building and maintaining effective teams. This paper describes the concept of friction points in multicultural team performan...
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Games are an effective and cost-saving method in education and training. Although much is known about games and learning in general, little is known about what components of these games (i.e., game attributes) influence learning outcomes. The purpose of this article is threefold. First, we review the literature to understand the “state of play” in...
Article
FEATURE AT A GLANCE: Today's organizations exist in an ever-changing, global, knowledge-based environment. As such, they expect employees to rapidly gain new knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) to ensure the organization's viability. Blended learning, which evolved from e-learning, has been offered as one means to support employee development a...
Article
Leaders have been argued to play a key role in determining organizational effectiveness across all levels (e.g., individual, team, unit) that exist within organizations. A key component in a leader's ability to be effective within such environments is the degree to which subordinates and co-workers trust him/her. Therefore, it is not surprising tha...
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Project Objectives: 1) To provide a deeper, richer and robust theoretical foundation to macrocognition. 2) To develop a synthetic task environment to study macrocognition. 3) To develop, test and improve macrocognitive metrics in ill-structured settings. 4) To increase our understanding of complex collaboration in problem solving setting. 5) To dev...
Article
Stagl, Salas, Rosen, Priest, Burke, Goodwin, and Johnston (this volume) conducted a review of distributed team performance and discussed some of the implications of distributed, multicultural operations for individual, team, and organizational decision making. Expanding upon Stagl and colleagues’ discussion, Alutto (this volume), and Coovert and Bu...
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Team cognition has been identified as a key component to achieve mission goals in dynamic, team-based, stressful, distributed and multicultural operations. Effective team performance in complex environments requires that team members hold a shared understanding of the task, their equipment, and their teammates. So, many of the simulation-based trai...
Article
The multilevel integrative framework described in this section offers researchers and practitioners a useful, yet simple, heuristic that can be called on to quickly understand the most important aspects of interdependent performance. The integrative framework illustrated in Figure 12 above is intended to highlight often-ignored issues in team-effec...
Article
Distributed performance arrangements are increasingly used by organizations to structure dyadic and team interactions. Unfortunately, distributed teams are no panacea. This chapter reviews some of the advantages and disadvantages associated with the geographical and temporal distribution of team members. An extended discussion of the implications o...
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This endeavor provides a multidisciplinary, multilevel, and multiphasic conceptualization of team adaptation with theoretical roots in the cognitive, human factors, and industrial-organizational psychology literature. Team adaptation and the emergent nature of adaptive team performance are defined from a multilevel, theoretical standpoint. An input...
Article
Despite the increased work on leadership in teams, there is a lack of integration concerning the relationship between leader behaviors and team performance outcomes. A framework depicting the relationship between leadership functions, specific leadership behaviors, and conditions which enable team performance was created. Using this framework, a me...
Article
Adaptive capacity has commonly been defined as the “general ability of institutions, systems, and individuals to adjust to potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences” (http://www.greenfacts.org). Adaptive capacity is herein described as the ability to facilitate the process of adaptive team performance an...
Article
Barriers to cultural adaptability include perceptual, interpretive, and evaluative biases. Differences in culturally based perceptual patterns can be problematic given that interpretation and evaluation of behavior is a critical element of teamwork. Altogether, perceptual patterns are “selective, learned, culturally determined, consistent, and inac...
Article
Crew resource management (CRM) training was developed more than 20 years ago, yet we still do not know its impact on safety. One reason might be that a simple, practical, scientifically based tool is lacking that outlines the critical steps to be taken when designing, implementing, and evaluating CRM training. In this article, we provide such a too...
Article
Crew resource management (CRM) training was introduced to the aviation community in 1979. Since then it has evolved and matured and is now being applied in a number of domains, including health care and offshore oil production. There is abundant literature resulting from research in the area, but there is no recent comprehensive review of the origi...
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This review provides the state of crew resource management (CRM) training evaluations since the E. Salas, C. S. Burke, C. A. Bowers, and K. A. Wilson (2001) review and extends it to areas beyond aviation cockpits. Some critical evaluation needs in CRM training are also covered. Because of the purported success of CRM training in aviation, other hig...
Chapter
As operational environments become increasingly fluid, organizations are turning to teams as a proven performance arrangement to structure complex work. Teams are ubiquitous in modern organizations because they can be used to create synergies, streamline workflow, deliver innovative services, satisfy incumbent needs, maximize the benefits of techno...
Article
Organizations are operating in increasingly complex , dynamic and even ambiguous environments. In response , many organizations have turned to the use of teams and employ a highly proactive strategy to business (i.e. attempting to estimate all possibilities). However , within a complex environment being proactive is not enough , organizations must...
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The study of teamwork has been fragmented through the years, and the findings are generally unable to be used practically. This article argues that it is possible to boil down what researchers know about teamwork into five core components that the authors submit as the “Big Five” in teamwork. The core components of teamwork include team leadership,...
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Many Human Factors/Ergonomics specialists are members of work teams. To prepare students for teamwork, the students' educational experiences need to include team building exercises and experiences. As a follow-up to the 2004 HFES panel on teaching team behavior, this panel will address more specific aspects of teaching team behavior to HF/E student...
Article
Many organizations have been using teams as a means of achieving organizational outcomes (such as productivity and safety). Research has indicated that teams, especially those operating in complex environments, are not always effective. There is a subset of organizations in which teams operate that are able to balance effectiveness and safety despi...