Shawn Arent

Shawn Arent
University of South Carolina | USC · Department of Exercise Science

PhD, CSCS*D, FACSM, FISSN, FNAK

About

190
Publications
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Publications

Publications (190)
Article
PURPOSE: To examine the effects of a 4-week biofeedback intervention on coherence, psychological, and performance variables in collegiate student-athletes. METHODS: Thirteen student-athletes were randomly assigned to the intervention (one weekly biofeedback session for 4-weeks) or control group (no sessions). Data were collected at pre and post-int...
Article
It is unknown whether running and landing mechanics differ between racial groups despite injury disparities between African Americans (AA) and white Americans (WA). This study aimed to identify potential racial differences in running and landing mechanics and understand whether anthropometric, strength, and health status factors contribute to these...
Article
Full-text available
Context The COVID-19 pandemic led to an abrupt disruption in access to services and personnel for collegiate student-athletes in the spring and summer of 2020. We sought to identify the effects of this unprecedented change by examining the psychological well-being, changes to normal routines, and return-to-play considerations of current student-ath...
Article
Social agents associated with cheerleading environments are increasingly linked to body image dissatisfaction (BID) and eating disorders (ED). This study examined ED risk across team type, squad type, and position. An additional purpose determined BID in clothing type (daily clothing, midriff uniform, and full uniform), and meta-perceptions from th...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine individual and combined Female Athlete Triad components within collegiate cheerleaders, an at-risk group. Cheerleaders (n = 19; age: 20.3 ± 1.2 years) completed anthropometric measurements, health history questionnaires, resting metabolic rate, the eating disorder inventory-3 and symptom checklist, blood sam...
Chapter
Physical activity results in a series of proinflammatory reactions and innate immune responses, which occur postexercise. This is followed by antiinflammatory reactions that are critical for regeneration and healing. The severity of inflammation following exercise depends on the type, duration, and intensity of the exercise bout, as well as the tra...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of COVID-19 and stay-at-home (SAH) orders on collegiate student-athletes’ training, nutrition, sleep habits, and mental health and to identify disparities between sexes and competitive divisions. Collegiate student-athletes (n = 401; age, 20 ± 2 yr) completed an 84-question anonymous survey rega...
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Based on a comprehensive review and critical analysis of the literature regarding the effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on exercise performance, conducted by experts in the field and selected members of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN), the following conclusions represent the official Position of the Society: 1. Sup...
Article
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Background In-season competition and tournaments for team sports can be both long and congested, with some sports competing up to three times per week. During these periods of time, athletes need to prepare technically, tactically and physically for the next fixture and the short duration between fixtures means that, in some cases, physical prepara...
Poster
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Recently, HR monitoring systems have incorporated R-R data, from which HR variability (HRV) can be calculated. The secondary HRV data from HR monitoring provide measures of parasympathetic and sympathetic activation within the autonomic nervous system. This has been proposed to be useful for managing athlete readiness and recovery status. Typically...
Poster
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Monitoring athletes using both objective and subjective assessments is a common strategy when managing athlete workloads in attempt to optimize performance. PURPOSE: To assess changes in performance alongside subjective measures throughout a collegiate field hockey season. METHODS: Female athletes (n=20; BMI=23.9 ±3.3 kg/m2) completed countermoveme...
Article
McFadden, BA, Walker, AJ, Bozzini, BN, Hofacker, M, Russell, M, and Arent, SM. Psychological and physiological changes in response to the cumulative demands of a women's division I collegiate soccer season. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-This study sought to determine the effects of a women's collegiate soccer season on psychological mark...
Article
High training demands throughout the competitive season in female collegiate soccer players have been shown to induce changes in biomarkers indicative of stress, inflammation, and reproduction, which may be exacerbated in athletes using oral contraceptives (OCs). Purpose: To compare biomarkers and body composition between OC-using and non-using (...
Article
Bozzini, BN, McFadden, BA, Scruggs, SK, and Arent, SM. Evaluation of performance characteristics and internal and external training loads in female collegiate beach volleyball players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-Although women's beach volleyball is the fastest growing collegiate sport, the training demands and performance characterist...
Article
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This study compared the capacity of linear-(LP) and non-linear periodized (NLP) resistance training to improve select myokines and metabolic parameters in overweight sedentary women. An additional purpose was to compare these variables between the overweight and lean women. Fitness- and age-matched overweight women between 28 and 43 years old were...
Article
Sekiguchi, Y, Curtis, RM, Huggins, RA, Benjamin, CL, Walker, AJ, Arent, SM, Adams, WM, Anderson, T, and Casa, DJ. The relationships between perceived wellness of, sleep of, and acute: chronic training load on National Collegiate Athletics Association division I male soccer players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-The purpose of this study...
Article
Background Racial differences in gait mechanics have been recently reported, but we don’t know what factors may drive differences in gait and whether these factors are innate or modifiable. The answers to those questions will inform both basic research and clinical interventions and outcomes. Research question Do anthropometric, strength, and heal...
Article
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Following critical evaluation of the available literature to date, The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) position regarding caffeine intake is as follows: 1. Supplementation with caffeine has been shown to acutely enhance various aspects of exercise performance in many but not all studies. Small to moderate benefits of caffeine use...
Article
Objectives: To profile performance and physiological responses to typical patterns of match-day activity for second-half soccer substitutes. Design: Descriptive. Methods: Following a warm-up, 13 male team sports players underwent ∼85min of rest, punctuated with five min rewarm-ups at ∼25, ∼50, and ∼70min, before ∼30min of simulated soccer matc...
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess differences in physical workloads, physiological responses, and performance variables between in-conference (IC) and out-of-conference (OC) games during a collegiate women's soccer season. Female field players (N = 11), who played a minimum of 45 minutes for >50% of games, were evaluated using an integrative...
Article
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Body composition assessments are useful for practitioners to monitor overall athlete health and nutritional status, particularly in aesthetic and weight-class sports that emphasize ideal body weight standards. Portable and accurate measurement tools are especially important for these assessments. Ultrasound has the potential to provide portable bod...
Poster
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Elite youth soccer players differ physiologically and anthropometrically from their non-elite counterparts, but data in elite youth athletes are limited. Assessing characteristics by both chronological age and by player position may provide information regarding normative athlete characteristics that relate to sport performance. Purpose: To assess...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a competitive soccer season on biomarkers and performance metrics in order to determine the correlation between changes in biomarkers, body composition, and performance outcomes. Twenty-one Division 1 female collegiate soccer players were monitored throughout the 16-week season. Player worklo...
Article
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Nutrient timing involves manipulation of nutrient consumption at specific times in and around exercise bouts in an effort to improve performance, recovery, and adaptation. Its historical perspective centered on ingestion during exercise and grew to include pre- and post-training periods. As research continued, translational focus remained primarily...
Article
Together, the stress‐related conditions of anxiety and depression represent the two most common mental health disorders. This chapter provides an overview of the research addressing the antidepressant and anxiolytic responses to exercise. It focuses primarily on the results of large‐scale epidemiological studies, randomized controlled trials, and m...
Poster
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Low body fat percentage (%BF) and caloric intake may be associated with hormonal disruptions and adverse health effects in athletes. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between body composition (BC), dietary intake, and hormonal disruptions in female ballet dancers with self-reported oligomenorrhea. METHODS: Female ballet...
Article
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Background This study evaluated the feasibility of a technology‐enhanced group‐based fitness intervention for adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of childhood cancer. Procedure AYA survivors ages 13‐25 years were randomized to the intervention (eight in‐person group sessions with mobile app and FitBit followed by 4 weeks of app and FitBit o...
Poster
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Abstract/Poster A61: Cannabinoids and sports nutrition – is product marketing ahead of the science?
Article
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The microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract play a significant role in nutrient uptake, vitamin synthesis, energy harvest, inflammatory modulation, and host immune response, collectively contributing to human health. Important factors such as age, birth method, antibiotic use, and diet have been established as formative factors that shape the...
Research
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Introduction: Ultrasound (US) is proposed as a portable body composition (BC) assessment tool, however technician skill-level may impact measurement reliability. The purpose of this study was to assess intra- and inter-rater reliability of two technicians (T1; T2) using brightness mode (B-mode) US to determine body fat percentage (%BF). Methods: 17...
Article
Although weight training can enhance muscular strength, power, and body composition, outdated beliefs about muscular adaptations have limited its use in dancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an 8-week progressive overload resistance-training (RT) program on muscular strength, power and body composition in collegiate fe...
Article
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Despite empirical observations suggesting that practitioners value the use of substitutions during soccer match-play, limited research has sought to substantiate such claims. This study used online surveys to assess the perceptions of practitioners within professional soccer about the use and practices of substitutes. Thirty-three practitioners com...
Article
Walker, AJ, McFadden, BA, Sanders, DJ, Bozzini, BN, Conway, SP, and Arent, SM. Early season hormonal and biochemical changes in Division I field hockey players: is fitness protective? J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The purpose was to evaluate changes in hormonal and biochemical markers as a result of the accumulated stress of the initial...
Article
McFadden, BA, Walker, AJ, Bozzini, BN, Sanders, DJ, and Arent, SM. Comparison of internal and external training loads in male and female collegiate soccer players during practices vs. games. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The purpose of this study was to compare the internal and external training loads (TLs) in men and women throughout a...
Article
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Background Theacrine (1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric-acid) is a pure alkaloid with a similar structure to caffeine and acts comparably as an adenosine receptor antagonist. Early studies have shown non-habituating effects, including increases in energy and focus in response to Teacrine®, the compound containing pure theacrine. The purpose of this study was...
Article
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Position statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review of the mechanisms and use of probiotic supplementation to optimize the health, performance, and recovery of athletes. Based on the current available literature, the conclusions of the ISSN are as follows: Probiotics are live microorgan...
Article
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In this Position Statement, the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review of the literature pertinent to nutritional considerations for training and racing in single-stage ultra-marathon. Recommendations for Training. i) Ultra-marathon runners should aim to meet the caloric demands of training by fol...
Thesis
Full-text available
Body composition (BC) assessments are used to monitor athletes’ overall health and track changes over time. These assessments are preferable compared to body weight alone or body mass index (BMI) because they provide additional information in regards to specific tissue quantities. However, the most accurate tools, such as air displacement plethysmo...
Article
Specific physiological attributes such as maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2max ) and running economy (RE) have been suggested to help predict long distance performance in endurance athletes. Despite this, investigations of RE have yielded conflicting results, particularly when comparing elite and recreational runners. The purpose of this study was t...
Article
Cintineo, HP and Arent, SM. Anticipatory salivary cortisol and state anxiety before competition predict match outcome in Division I collegiate wrestlers. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-Anticipation of exercise and other stressors has been shown to result in physiological and psychological changes, which include increased levels of cortiso...
Article
Curtis, RM, Huggins, RA, Benjamin, CL, Sekiguchi, Y, Adams, WM, Arent, SM, Jain, R, Miller, SJ, Walker, AJ, and Casa, DJ. Contextual factors influencing external and internal training loads in collegiate men's soccer. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-This study investigated factors influencing training loads (TL) in collegiate men's soccer....
Article
Walker, AJ, McFadden, BA, Sanders, DJ, Rabideau, MM, Hofacker, ML, and Arent, SM. Biomarker response to a competitive season in Division I female soccer players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of training load (TL) on performance and biomarkers of health, performance, and recovery in Divis...
Article
Curtis, RM, Huggins, RA, Benjamin, CL, Sekiguchi, Y, Arent, S, Armwald, B, Pullara, JM, West, CA, and Casa, DJ. Seasonal accumulated workloads in collegiate men's soccer: a comparison of starters and reserves. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-The purpose of this investigation was to quantify and compare player's season total-, match-, and t...
Poster
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Background: Amplitude- (A-US) and brightness-mode (B-US) ultrasound are inexpensive, portable body-fat percentage (%BF) assessment devices. However, research with these tools is limited in contrast to other laboratory-based techniques (e.g. air displacement plethysmography (ADP), bioelectrical impedance (BIA)). Therefore, the purpose of this study...
Article
Sanders, DJ, Walker, AJ, Prior, KE, Poyssick, AN, and Arent, SM. Training demands and physiological profile of cross-disciplined collegiate female dancers. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-Little is known about the physical demands of high-level dance training. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological demand...
Article
Cintineo, HP, Freidenreich, DJ, Blaine, CM, Cardaci, TD, Pellegrino, JK, and Arent, SM. Acute physiological responses to an intensity-and time under-under-tension-equated single- vs. multiple-set resistance training bout in trained men. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Regardless of the setting, proper manipulation of resistance training pr...
Article
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There is robust evidence which shows that consuming protein pre- and/or post-workout induces a significant rise in muscle protein synthesis. It should be noted, however, that total daily caloric and protein intake over the long term play the most crucial dietary roles in facilitating adaptations to exercise. However, once these factors are accounte...
Article
Fragala, MS, Goldman, SM, Goldman, MM, Bi, C, Colletti, JD, Arent, SM, Walker, AJ, and Clarke, NJ. Measurement of cortisol and testosterone in athletes: Accuracy of LC-MS/MS assays for cortisol and testosterone measurement in whole-blood microspecimens. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Biomarker monitoring provides insight into athletes' tr...
Chapter
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Biological markers (biomarkers) measured in blood and urine samples may be useful as indicators of increased susceptibility to, onset and severity of, and recovery from exertional heat illness (EHI). Currently, however, there are no biomarkers that can be used to confidently predict susceptibility to, severity of, and recovery from EHI. Markers of...
Article
Background: Very few weight and fat loss supplements undergo finished-product research to examine efficacy. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an 8-week diet and exercise program on body composition, hip and waist girth, and adipokines and evaluate whether a dietary supplement containing raspberry ketone, capsaicin, caffeine,...
Article
Physiological changes with endurance exercise (EE) and resistance training (RT) are likely influenced by the metabolic and hormonal response to each exercise bout, but may be blunted in obese individuals. To compare acute effects of EE, RT, and a control upon hormonal changes in obese women, sedentary, obese women (n=12) participated in a randomise...
Article
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Position statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review regarding the timing of macronutrients in reference to healthy, exercising adults and in particular highly trained individuals on exercise performance and body composition. The following points summarize the position of the ISSN: 1. Nu...
Article
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Position statement The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review related to the intake of protein for healthy, exercising individuals. Based on the current available literature, the position of the Society is as follows: 1) An acute exercise stimulus, particularly resistance exercise, and protein i...
Article
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Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature regarding the effects of diet types (macronutrient composition; eating styles) and their influence on body composition. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1) There is a multitude of diet types and e...
Article
Background: Though jaw-repositioning devices have been found to increase size of upper respiratory airways in individuals, the effects of jaw-repositioning mouthguards on respiratory function during exercise have not been fully explored. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of over-the-counter (OTC) jaw-repositioning mouthguards o...