Shaun Gallagher

Shaun Gallagher
The University of Memphis | U of M · Department of Philosophy

Ph.D.

About

382
Publications
235,541
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Introduction
I'm the Lillian and Morie Moss Professor of Excellence in Philosophy at the University of Memphis, and a Professorial Fellow in the School of Liberal Arts, University of Wollongong (Australia).
Additional affiliations
January 2014 - present
University of Wollongong
Position
  • Professorial Fellow

Publications

Publications (382)
Article
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In this paper we explore the notion of rehearsal as a way to develop an embodied and enactive account of imagining. After reviewing the neuroscience of motor imagery, we argue, in the context of performance studies, that rehearsal includes forms of imagining that involve motor processes. We draw on Sartre’s phenomenology of imagining which also sug...
Article
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This paper considers the epistemic role that embodiment plays in imagining. We focus on two aspects of embodied cognition understood in its strong sense: explicit motoric processes related to performance, and neuronal processes rooted in bodily and action processes, and describe their role in imagining. The paper argues that these two aspects of st...
Article
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A number of perceptual (exteroceptive and proprioceptive) illusions present problems for predictive processing accounts. In this chapter we’ll review explanations of the Müller-Lyer Illusion (MLI), the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) and the Alien Hand Illusion (AHI) based on the idea of Prediction Error Minimization (PEM), and show why they fail. In sp...
Article
In this paper I build on the process philosophy of Whitehead and on enactive approachs to hermeneutics, to suggest that if we want to conceive of archaeological practice in terms of a process archaeology, then rather than characterizing it as ‘digging up the past’, it is better to think of it as digging up concrescences. From the perspective of ena...
Book
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Performance/Art explores the phenomenology of skilled performance, ranging from athletics to the performing arts, including musical performance, dance and acting. Gallagher reviews a variety of studies concerning different degrees of mindful awareness operative in performance, and builds on the model of meshed architecture, suggesting ways to make...
Chapter
This chapter considers a variety of criticisms and a number of applications in which the usefulness of the body image/body schema distinction is still apparent. The chapter suggests that one can find complexity in this distinction by exploring several theoretical and practical directions, for example, by developing a non-reductive neuroscientific e...
Article
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We explore relationships between phenomenology and developmental psychology through an in-depth analysis of a particular problem in social cognition: the most fundamental access to other minds. In the first part of the paper, we examine how developmental science can benefit phenomenology. We explicate the connection between cognitive psychology and...
Preprint
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New thesis on strongly embodied imagination and its epistemic relevance. Peer-reviewed and accepted for publication in Synthese topical collection: "Imagination and its Limits"
Article
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Full text available at http://rdcu.be/IqxF -- Questions about the nature of self and self-consciousness are closely aligned with questions about the nature of autonomy. These concepts have deep roots in traditional philosophical discussions that concern metaphysics, epistemology and ethics. They also have direct relevance to practical consideration...
Article
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This paper discusses different frameworks for understanding imagination and metaphor in the context of research on the imaginative skills of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In contrast to a standard linguistic framework, it advances an embodied and enactive account of imagination and metaphor. The paper describes a case study from a s...
Chapter
Despite the fact that rationality is unanimously considered a peculiar trait of the human animal’s ontology, there has never been consensus on the meaning of this term. In cognitive science, it is possible to distinguish between at least two conceptions of rationality: one, which led to the development of the computational accounts of the human min...
Article
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En el desarrollo de una fenómenología enactivista, el análisis de la conciencia del tiempo necesita ser conducido hacia un enfoque totalmente enactivista. Así, intento impulsar este análisis hacia una fenomenología enactivista más completa de la conciencia del tiempo. Además, sostengo que el análisis de Varela motiva un examen más detallado de los...
Article
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It is often argued by educators and researchers that access to the arts leads to increased academic performance. However, it is not clear why such access does so. We here use autopoietic enactive embodied cognition and ecological psychology to explain the relationship between dance training and conceptual problem-solving. We investigate four featur...
Article
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We review 4E (embodied, embedded, extended and enactive) approaches to the analysis of art and aesthetic experience. We argue that extended mind analyses that focus on tool use miss important aspects, and that it requires 4 or more E’s to address the broad spectrum of aesthetic experiences that correlate to the broad variety of artistic genres. We...
Article
I argue that different types of movement—gesture, marking, blocking, dancing, and whole-body engagements—can contribute to (or scaffold, or enable) thinking or can even constitute thinking in various forms of problem solving, memory, and reasoning ability. But I also argue that not all movement is thinking; specifically, resisting the threat of pan...
Chapter
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Studies of depression indicate the existence of temporal abnormalities, particularly as related to the perspectival and agentive aspects of lived experience in persons who undergo depression. With reference to these anomalies, there is a long-standing view in phenomenological psychopathology, reinforced by empirical studies, that depression involve...
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What does it mean for an actor to empathize with the character she is playing? We review different theories of empathy and of acting. We then consider the notion of “twofoldness” (Wollheim), which has been used to characterize the observer or audience perspective on the relation between actor and character (Smith). This same kind of twofoldness or...
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In this paper, we engage in a reciprocal analysis of situated cognition and the notion of “meshed architecture” as found in performance studies (Christensen et al., 2016). We start with an account of various conceptions of situated cognition using the distinction between functional integration, which characterizes how an agent dynamically organizes...
Chapter
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Conversation is clearly a form of social interaction and depends on the same kinds of dynamical processes found in interaction more generally. In conversation meaning emerges at the intersection of a set of semiotic resources that include social, cultural, material structures and their dynamical changes in the environment where action and interacti...
Article
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Ecological psychologists and enactivists agree that the best explanation for a large share of cognition is non-representational in kind. In both ecological psychology and enactivist philosophy, then, the task is to offer an explanans that does not rely on representations. Different theorists within these camps have contrasting notions of what the b...
Article
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Don Ihde and Lambros Malafouris (Philosophy and Technology 32:195–214, 2019) have argued that “we are homo faber not just because we make things but also because we are made by them.” The emphasis falls on the idea that the things that we create, use, rely on—that is, those things with which we engage—have a recursive effect on human existence. We...
Book
Action and Interaction is divided into three parts. The first part focuses on the nature of action, starting with questions about action individuation, context, the notion of ?basic action? and the temporal structure of action. The importance of circumstance for understanding action is stressed. These topics lead to questions about intention and th...
Chapter
Considerations in the previous chapters led to an acknowledgment of the important role played by social context and intersubjective relations for understanding action. In this and subsequent chapters I explore in more detail, not only how action is related to social interaction, but also the nature of social interaction itself. In this chapter I st...
Chapter
Concepts of socially extended cognition and cognitive institution have relevance for understanding how social and cultural practices shape not only our cognitive processes, but also our actions and interactions. Cognitive institutions are not only institutions that support cognitive processes, but are also such that without them these specific cogn...
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This chapter continues to build the more positive account of our everyday intersubjective abilities by considering the role of communicative and narrative practices. Research in applied linguistics shows that our communicative engagements are complex and detailed practices that draw on a multitude of semiotic resources in the environment and in the...
Chapter
This chapter explores how we might move from considerations that focus on social-cognitive issues to understanding their implications for concepts that are basic to the development of a critical theory that addresses social and political issues—basic concepts of agency, autonomy, and recognition. Following a brief philosophical history of the conce...
Chapter
Autonomous action is characterized by intention, a sense of agency, and meaning, all of which go beyond simple bodily movement. In this chapter I present evidence to support the idea that actions initially emerge out of our early interactions with others. Moreover, to the extent that we learn to act in specific ways, and that our actions aim at som...
Chapter
In this chapter I explore the micro-structures of action and the perceptual aspects that accompany action, in order to show how at a very basic level they self-organize into processes that support the intentional lives of agents. The intrinsic temporality of action is shaped in part by the fact that action is dynamically embodied and situated. Init...
Chapter
The philosophical analysis of action often leads to abstractions. I argue that we can avoid some of these abstractions by keeping in mind that actions are defined and individuated by their circumstances; they are always situated or contextual. I argue that the most appropriate way to think of actions and circumstances is to think of them as ordered...
Chapter
In this chapter I further develop interaction theory and the concept of primary intersubjectivity by providing evidence for our ability to directly perceive intentions and emotions. Intentions and emotions can be understood at least in part as composed of perceivable patterns of contextualized embodied behaviors. I argue that perception is “smart”...
Chapter
In contrast to standard accounts of social cognition I offer an alternative account—interaction theory. According to this approach we understand other people primarily by means of a diverse set of embodied, social, and cultural practices governed by social norms. Our understanding of someone’s action is frequently shaped by shared pragmatic context...
Chapter
This chapter asks what justice is as it pertains to immediate embodied intersubjective interactions, and how it extends from there to institutionally mediated social interactions. Rather than attempting to work out principles of justice as they might derive from or pertain to the abstractions of original positions or ideal situations of communicati...
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This paper introduces the notion of ‘cognitive’ institution and discusses its relevance to institutional economics. Cognitive institutions are conceptually founded on the philosophy of mind notion of extended mind, broadened to also include the distinctly social, institutional, and normative dimensions. Cognitive institutions are defined as institu...
Article
Grief is often described as characterized by a particular emotional response to another person’s death. While this is true of paradigm cases, we argue that a broader notion of grief allows accommodating forms of this emotional experience that deviate from the paradigmatic case. The bulk of the paper explores such a nonparadigmatic form of grief, an...
Chapter
Levels of Analysis in Psychopathology - edited by Kenneth S. Kendler April 2020
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Levels of Analysis in Psychopathology - edited by Kenneth S. Kendler April 2020
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I review an unusual case of ‘anonymous vision’ in which a subject has lost a sense of ownership for his visual perception of objects, but not for other persons. Focusing on this difference between object-perception and person-perception, I argue that one significant difference is the gaze, and more generally the face of the other. I explore the com...
Chapter
In this chapter I explore several variations of mindfulness in performance, and I focus specifically on variations of self-awareness in these practices. I take an enactivist approach, clarifying first why enactivism is not a form of behaviorism. I argue that phenomenologically inspired enactivist conceptions of perception and action are neither min...
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In depression, the experience of time changes due to alterations in the intrinsic temporal structure of experience. Husserl analyzed the intrinsic subjective temporal flow in terms of formal, transcendental structures of consciousness related to intentionality: retention, primal impression, protention. Recent analyses in predictive processing compl...
Article
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In “Hermeneutics and the Cognitive Sciences,” which is proposed here in translation, Shaun Gallagher considers the possible relations between hermeneutics and the cognitive sciences, focusing on the points on which the two perspectives of investigation agree and on mutual contributions that each could provide to the other. Particular attention is g...
Article
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Background: Group-based physiotherapy is effective for individuals with MS; nevertheless individualization within groups is questioned and little is known regarding individuals´ experiences with individualization in small groups. Objective: We aimed to explore the short- and long-term experiences of individuals with MS participating in a 6-week, gr...
Chapter
Intersubjective interactions are highly complex processes that integrate a variety of contextual aspects—physical, pragmatic, social, cultural, normative, institutional—into which embodied individuals, with varying emotions, intents, desires, and motivations, enter. We elucidate the role of context in different varieties of social understanding. We...
Article
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Categorization-based diagnosis, which endeavors to be consistent with the third-person, objective measures of science, is not always adequate with respect to problems concerning diagnostic accuracy, demarcation problems when there are comorbidities, well-documented problems of symptom amplification, and complications of stigmatization and looping e...
Article
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An important part of what it means for agents to be situated in the everyday world of human affairs includes their engagement with economic practices. In this paper, we employ the concept of cognitive institutions in order to provide an enactive and interactive interpretation of market and economic reasoning. We challenge traditional views that und...
Article
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Based on a qualitative study about expert musicianship, this paper distinguishes three ways of interacting by putting them in relation to the sense of agency. Following Pacherie (Phenomenology the Cognitive Sciences 13:25–46, 2014), it highlights that the phenomenology of shared agency undergoes a drastic transformation when musicians establish a s...
Article
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Narrative is rarely mentioned in philosophical discussions of collective intentionality and group identity despite the fact that narratives are often thought important for the formation of action intentions and self-identity in individuals. We argue that the concept of the ‘we-narrative’ can solve several problems in regard to defining the status o...
Article
This is a precis of my book Enactivist Interventions, with commentaries by Louise Barrett, Amanda Corris and Anthony Chemero, and Daniel Hutto, plus my replies.
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In this essay, I respond to the critical remarks of Louise Barrett, Amanda Corris and Anthony Chemero, and Daniel Hutto on my book Enactivist Interventions. In doing so, I consider whether behaviorism can make a contribution to enactivist theory, whether synergies are the same as dynamical gestalts, and whether the brain can add anything to mathema...
Article
I address several issues found in Susan Eastman’s work on Paul’s anthropology and Michael Spezio’s response to Eastman’s analysis in a recent JSNT issue. These are both methodological issues pertaining to interdisciplinary research, and substantial issues concerning the interpretation of some broadly moral implications involved in the contrast betw...
Article
I focus on the sense of ownership and ask whether this experience is some­thing over and above one’s bodily experiences, or something intrinsic to them. I consider liberal, deflationary, and phenomenological accounts of the sense of ownership, and I offer an enactive or action-oriented account that takes the sense of ownership to be intrinsic to th...
Article
It has been twenty years since Clark and Chalmers published “The Extended Mind.” In the present article I review the development of the extended mind hypothesis across what some proponents have defined as three theoretical “waves.” From first‐wave extended mind theory, based on the parity principle, to second‐wave complementarity, to the third wave...
Article
On an enactivist conception of cognition, the unit of explanation is not just the brain, not just the body, and not just the environment, but the body–brain–environment understood as a dynamically coupled structure or gestalt. On this view, referencing Viktor von Weizsäcker's metaphor of the gestalt circle (Gestaltkreis), the brain is not in the ce...
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The commentaries on my target article tend to be either supportive and expansive or corrective. I respond to these commentaries by focusing on issues that involve philosophical and scientific frameworks, concepts of autonomy, self, and social cognition broadly conceived.
Article
The articles in this special issue cover a lot of ground, from very specific scientific questions about the nature of movement and development, to very large questions about ontological framing. My comments here are meant to highlight some important issues found in these articles and to offer some clarifications.
Article
Context • Challenges by embodied, enactive, extended and ecological approaches to cognition have provided good reasons to shift away from neurocentric theories. > Problem • Classic cognitivist accounts tend towards internalism, representationalism and methodological individualism. Such accounts not only picture the brain as the central and almost e...
Article
I argue that a variety of physical disabilities, and neurological and psychiatric disorders can be understood in terms of changes to the subject’s affordance space. Understanding disorders in this way also has some implications for therapy. On the basis of a phenomenological- and pragmatist-inspired enactivism I propose an affordance-based approach...
Chapter
In this chapter, we explore the role of habit in giving shape to conscious experience and importantly to our pre-reflective awareness of ourselves which includes the sense of mineness that accompanies our conscious experience. For the most part, discussions in philosophy of mind and phenomenology concerning pre-reflective self-awareness are focused...
Article
Debates about the concept of self have a long history in philosophy and anthropology and continue today in interdisciplinary discussions. The current range of theories about self include the idea that there is no such thing as selfhood, that there is a minimal self, that the self is constituted in narrative, that the self is socially constructed, a...
Chapter
Recent developments in embodied cognition in the field of cognitive science support an expanded notion of rationality. I attempt to explicate this expanded notion by introducing the concepts of embodied rationality and enactive hermeneutics. I argue that bodily performance is rational and that there is continuity between the rational movements of t...
Preprint
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This paper examines the notion of constitution in the new mechanist literature and the enactivist literature and attempts to show that the causal-coupling-constitution objection does not hold on an enactivist/dynamical conception of constitution.
Article
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We distinguish between three philosophical views on the neuroscience of predictive models: predictive coding (associated with internal Bayesian models and prediction error minimization), predictive processing (associated with radical connectionism and ‘simple’ embodiment) and predictive engagement (associated with enactivist approaches to cognition...
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The notion of a self-pattern, as developed in the pattern theory of self (Gallagher, 2013), which holds that the self is best explained in terms of the kind of reality that pertains to a dynamical pattern, acknowledges the importance of neural dynamics, but also expands the account of self to extra-neural (embodied and enactive) dynamics. The patte...
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An unsettled debate: Key empirical and theoretical questions are still open – CORRIGENDUM - Volume 41 - Stefano Vincini, Yuna Jhang, Eugene H. Buder, Shaun Gallagher
Article
Resistance to the idea that phenomenology can be relevant to cognitive scientific explanation has faced two objections advanced, respectively, from both sides of the issue: from the scientific perspective it has been suggested that phenomenology, understood as an account of first-person experience, is ultimately reducible to cognitive neuroscientif...
Article
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Physiotherapists are well placed to help people adjust and engage meaningfully with the world following major weight loss. Recent research indicates that the body size a patient has lived with for years can continue to affect movement and perception even after largescale weight loss. This article explores this discrepancy in depth from the perspect...
Chapter
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In Chapter 8, Gallagher Morgan and Rokotnitz explore the notion of relational authenticity, arguing that to understand existential authenticity we must not return to the individuality celebrated by classical existentialism nor look for a reductionist explanation in terms of neuronal patterns or mental representations that would simply opt for a mor...
Chapter
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In this chapter I focus on the relationship between embodied intersubjective interactions and the kind of spaces that shape and are shaped by such interactions. After clarifying some of the theoretical background involved in questions about social cognition, I review several empirical studies that suggest that social interactions and social relatio...
Chapter
I contrast narrative and theory-of-mind (ToM) approaches to self-understanding and social cognition. A narrative approach is a clear alternative to strict ToM views on self-understanding, some of which deny that we have first-person access to our own mental states. On a narrative approach, self-understanding is more than just familiarity with one’s...
Chapter
This article reviews different explanations of what consciousness must be like if it is possible for us to experience time and temporal objects such as melodies. Consciousness is characterized by a temporal structure and seems to involve a successive flow—the often-used metaphor of a stream of consciousness. This temporal structure of experience ne...
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Debates about neonatal imitation remain more open than Keven & Akins (K&A) imply. K&A do not recognize the primacy of the question concerning differential imitation and the links between experimental designs and more or less plausible theoretical assumptions. Moreover, they do not acknowledge previous theorizing on spontaneous behavior, the explana...
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Hermeneutik çoğu zaman yorum teorisi ve pratiği olarak tanımlanır. Bir disiplin olaraksa, her şeyden önce edebî, dinî ve hukuki metinlerin usulüne uygun bir şekilde tefsir edilmesiyle ilgilenen oldukça uzun ve karmaşık bir tarihi kapsar. Hermeneutik, yirminci yüzyılda, Charles Taylor'ın ifadesiyle, insan "kendi kendini tefsir eden hayvandır" düşünc...
Article
Full-text available
Context • In developing an enactivist phenomenology the analysis of time-consciousness needs to be pushed toward a fully enactivist account. Problem • Varela proposed a neurophenomenology of time-consciousness. I attempt to push this analysis towards a more complete enactivist phenomenology of time-consciousness. Method • I review Varela’s account...

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Projects (4)
Project
The distinction between body image and body schema is a long-standing as well as a modern issue in diverse research fields related to embodiment. Looking back at its history, the concept of body schema was first introduced to neurology in the early 20th century (e.g., Head & Holmes, 1911). Diverse disturbances in sensory-motor activities resulting from neural and brain lesions were successfully described by using this concept. Phantom limbs, asomatognosia, apraxia and other symptoms have been explicated in terms of body schema. It also developed as a psychological concept related to wider problems such as schizophrenia, anorexia, depersonalization, and body dysmorphic disorder among others (e.g., Schilder, 1935). Both ideas are rich in their potential to explicate diverse phenomena in neuroscience, psychology, psychiatry, cognitive science, sports science and other related fields.
Project
March 24-25, 2018 The University of Tokyo (Komaba Campus), Japan --------------------------------------------------------------------------- [Call for Papers] Deadline for Abstract Submissions: January 24th, 2018 Notification of Acceptance: January 31st, 2018 The distinction between body image and body schema is a long-standing as well as a modern issue in diverse research fields related to embodiment. Looking back at its history, the concept of body schema was first introduced to neurology in the early 20th century (e.g., Head & Holmes, 1911). Diverse disturbances in sensory-motor activities resulting from neural and brain lesions were successfully described by using this concept. Phantom limbs, asomatognosia, apraxia and other symptoms have been explicated in terms of body schema. It also developed as a psychological concept related to wider problems such as schizophrenia, anorexia, depersonalization, and body dysmorphic disorder among others (e.g., Schilder, 1935). Both ideas are rich in their potential to explicate diverse phenomena in neuroscience, psychology, psychiatry, cognitive science, sports science and other related fields.