Sharon L. Smith

Sharon L. Smith
University of Miami | UM · Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science

PhD

About

97
Publications
19,065
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5,796
Citations
Citations since 2016
2 Research Items
1235 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200

Publications

Publications (97)
Article
Masirah Island, situated off the southern coast of Oman in the Arabian Sea, is surrounded by upwelled water during the Southwest Monsoon (SWM) and was used as a base for time-series studies of the copepod community for a decade beginning in 2006, covering the Spring Intermonsoon (SIM), April–May, and including June, and the SWM period, August–Octob...
Article
A variety of ecological strategies for tolerance of low-oxygen conditions within the Costa Rica Dome (CRD) area of the Eastern Tropical Pacific are documented for the copepod family Eucalanidae. During the summer of 2010, we compared the ecological strategies used by the Eucalanidae inside and outside the central CRD region. We compared the vertica...
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The total zooplankton biomass was determined for 216 samples collected during seasonal surveys onboard a research vessel. Some of these samples were processed to the level of species. In 2007–2008, the Omani shelf was populated by a highly productive epipelagic plankton community. The chlorophyll-a concentration was high throughout the seasonal cyc...
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The dynamics of potentially harmful phytoplankton in relation to environmental parameters was investigated in the semi-enclosed Bay of Bandar Khayran (Sea of Oman) from April 2006 through April 2011. In total, 24 potentially harmful algal species were identified, including 11 species of dinoflagellates and eight species of diatoms. The dinoflagella...
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The analysis of the sea surface temperature (SST) data for the period from 1961 to 2010, showed the SST regime changes off Oman on different temporal scales. A rapid warming phase is conspicuous in the SST off Muscat and off Masirah along Oman after 1984. The shifts in the SST occurred several times on shorter time scales prior to 1984 but a notabl...
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The analysis of chlorophyll-a for a 7 year period from the ocean color images of SeaWiFS in the Arabian Sea and its marginal seas showed considerable inter-annual and geographical variability. The variability in chlorophyll-a was essentially centered on the Southwest and the Northeast monsoon seasons. The mean seasonal chlorophyll-a of the Northeas...
Book
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The taxonomy and distribution of the calanoid copepods from the Arabian Sea region is reported, based upon samples collected in the Northwestern Indian Ocean within the framework of the Netherlands Indian Ocean Program (NIOP; 1992–1993), the U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (U.S. JGOFS; 1994–1996), and the U.S. Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics pro...
Book
Full-text available
The taxonomy and distribution of halocyprid ostracods from the Arabian Sea Region is reported, based upon samples collected in the Northwestern Indian Ocean within the framework of the Netherlands Indian Ocean Program (NIOP: 1992-1993), the U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (U.S. JGOFS: 1994–1996), and the U.S. Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics prog...
Article
Abundances of larval Chionoecetes bairdi and C. opilio in the southeastern Bering Sea are compared for springs of 1978 through 1981. Geographical subareas of the shelf were designated for statistical analysis of results to accommodate variations in hydrographic conditions and circulation, distribution of benthic populations, and distribution of pla...
Article
Monthly plankton sampling across the Straits of Florida (SOF) allowed for a thorough investigation of the feeding ecologies of four taxa of larval tunas (family Scombridae, tribe Thunnini) and the horizontal and vertical distributions of tuna larvae and their dominant prey. Before piscivory, Thunnus spp. larvae had a mixed diet of crustaceans and a...
Article
In September 2004, an extensive survey of a cold-core eddy in the Canada Basin, western Arctic was carried out with high-horizontal-resolution physical and chemical sampling and lower-horizontal-resolution biological sampling. The eddy was located over the continental slope north of the Chukchi Shelf and had a radius of ∼8 km. Its core was centered...
Article
Indian Ocean Biogeochemical Processes and Ecological Variability provides a synthesis of current knowledge on Indian Ocean biogeochemistry and ecology and an introduction to new concepts and topical paradigm challenges. It also reports on the development of more extensive/frequent observational capacity being deployed in the Indian Ocean. This repr...
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Despite a history of exploration dating back to the classical era and its leading role as a pathway for trade and cultural exchange for the great civilizations of those times, the Indian Ocean has consistently been subject to less attention in the modern era in terms of oceanographic enquiry. The cornerstone of the Sustained Indian Ocean Biogeochem...
Article
Global warming is presently a widely accepted phenomenon with a broad range of anticipated impacts on marine ecosystems. Alterations in temperature, circulation and ice cover in Arctic seas may result in changes in food chain dynamics, beginning with planktonic processes. As part of the Shelf–Basin Interactions (SBI) program, we conducted zooplankt...
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In September 2004 an extensive survey of an anticyclonic, cold-core eddy in the western Arctic was carried out, measuring its physical, chemical and biological properties. The eddy, located over the continental slope north of the Chukchi Shelf, had a radius of ~ 8 km and was centered a depth of ~ 160 m. The core of the eddy was composed of water of...
Article
Two recent major reports on the health of the oceans in the United States have warned that coastal development and population pressures are responsible for the dramatic degradation of U.S. ocean and coastal environments. The significant consequences of this increased population density, particularly in sub/tropical coastal regions, can be seen in r...
Article
There has been an increasing recognition of the inter-relationship between human health and the oceans. Traditionally, the focus of research and concern has been on the impact of human activities on the oceans, particularly through anthropogenic pollution and the exploitation of marine resources. More recently, there has been recognition of the pot...
Article
Under conditions of rapid sea-ice retreat and dissolution , we observed at least nine Pacific walrus calves separated from adult females in waters as deep as 3,000 m in July and August 2004 in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean. Given limited sea surface visibility from the ship, we surmise that many additional calves may have been separated in t...
Article
The intensive study of the Arabian Sea during the 1990s included mesozooplankton investigations by the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Pakistan, India, Germany and the United States. Several major discoveries resulted. First, the high biomass of mesozooplankton observed during the Northeast Monsoon season is sustained by primary productivity stimulate...
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The taxonomic composition, abundance and biomass of copepods in the epipelagic realm of the Northwestern and Central Arabian Sea were investigated using zooplankton samples collected in the US Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) in the area between Oman and India north of 10o N during the Southwest (August-September) and Northeast (December) Mons...
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We studied mechanisms that might control the emergence of the last juvenile stage of Calanoides carinatus from diapause in the Arabian Sea. Diapaused copepods are modeled as Lagrangian particles that include a simplified means for lipid catabolism during diapause. The advective field for the particles, which are released at intermediate and deep la...
Article
In this paper, we use a coupled biological/physical model to synthesize and understand observations taken during the US JGOFS Arabian Sea Process Study (ASPS). Its physical component is a variable-density, -layer model; its biological component consists of a set of advective–diffusive equations in each layer that determine nitrogen concentrations i...
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Large-scale experiments using a hydrocyclone, a self-cleaning 50 mum screen, and a UV unit were undertaken to evaluate the treatment efficiency of these commercially available units for preventing the transfer of unwanted species via ships' ballast water. The water flow through the treatment system was approximately 5.7 m(3) min(-1). The effect of...
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Near-surface zooplankton samples were collected during an interdisciplinary study of biological responses to oceanographic circulation south of Looe Reef in the southern Straits of Florida (SSF) in late May 1994. Surface currents in the sampling region were monitored during the study with the University of Miami's high frequency (HF) Ocean Surface...
Article
The distinguishing characteristic that sets the Arabian Sea apart from other oceanic regions is the regular oscillation of monsoonal atmospheric conditions that produces predictable periods of upwelling or convective mixing, with associated biological response, during the Southwest and Northeast monsoons, respectively. This oscillation is also evid...
Article
The spatial distribution of zooplankton biomass was surveyed in coastal waters of the northern Arabian Sea during the 1995 Southwest Monsoon (August) on cruise MB 95-06 of the NOAA Ship Malcolm Baldrige. Vertical patterns of displacement volumes from a limited set of paired day–night MOCNESS tows suggest there was little diel vertical migration in...
Article
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During the Second Marine Zooplankton Colloquium (MZC2) 3 issues were added to those developed 11 yr ago during the First Marine Zooplankton Colloquium (MZC1). First, we focused on hot spots, i.e., locations where zooplankton occur in higher than regular abundance and/or operate at higher rates. We should be able to determine the processes leading t...
Article
The annual cycle of monsoon-driven variability in primary productivity was studied in 1995 during the Arabian Sea Expedition as part of the United States Joint Global Ocean Flux Studies (US JGOFS). This paper describes the seasonal progression of productivity and its regulation on a section which ran from the coast of Oman to about 1000 km offshore...
Article
The Arabian Sea Expedition, now five years past its field observations, is at a stage when some of its dominant themes can be summarized. Of the large range of possible topics, five are considered here: (1) Is the Arabian Sea a source or sink for carbon dioxide?; (2) Is the Arabian Sea Mother Nature's iron experiment?; (3) Do grazing zooplankton co...
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A three-dimensional, physical-biological model of the Indian Ocean is used to study the influences of diurnal and intraseasonal forcing on mixed-layer and biological variability in the central Arabian Sea, where a mooring was deployed and maintained from October 1994 to October 1995 by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Upper Ocean Processes...
Article
Coral reefs serve as the habitat for demersal mesozooplankton and small fishes that migrate into overlying waters at night but spend daylight hours within the reef in part because that habitat provides protection against visual predators. These movements structure energy, mass, and nutrient exchange between the reef habitat and the surrounding wate...
Article
Growth rates, grazing and fecal pellet production by mesozooplankton size classes in the surface 200 m are compared over two inshore/offshore transects in the Northern Arabian Sea during different monsoon seasons. We derived these rate parameters from measured biomass and several empirical models that estimate copepod production from temperature, b...
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This paper focuses on the characteristics of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) as observed in the Arabian Sea over the complete monsoon cycle of 1995. Dissolved oxygen, nitrite, nitrate and density values are used to delineate the OMZ, as well as identify regions where denitrification is observed. The suboxic conditions within the northern Arabian Sea...
Article
Ecological Geography of the Sea . Alan Longhurst. Academic, San Diego, 1998. 412 pp. $79.95. ISBN 0-12-455558-6. Longhurst offers an inclusive overview of oceanic ecology, based on the inseparability of the physical environment and the biological communities. Successfully integrating ideas from terrestrial ecology, his synthesis will prove useful...
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The US JGOFS Arabian Sea Process Study was designed to provide a seasonally and spatially resolved carbon budget for a basin exhibiting some of the highest and lowest concentrations of plant biomass in the world’s ocean. During the US JGOFS Process Study in the Arabian Sea (September 1994–January 1996), the absolute maximum in biomass of epipelagic...
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The seasonal occurrence, timing, and pattern of diel vertical migration of acoustically estimated zooplankton biomass at the edge of the continental shelf off the eastern United States is described based on the SEEP II (Shelf Edge Exchange Processes in the Southern Middle Atlantic Bight) data set obtained between February 1988 and May 1989. Zooplan...
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The fate of large-sized phytoplankton and pathways of carbon cycling in surface waters, i.e. recycling within or export out of the euphotic zone, were investigated in the Northeast Water (NEW) Polynya (77-81°N) from 23 May to 17 August 1993. Sampling represented a wide range of ice, hydrographic and nutrient conditions. Phytoplankton and zooplankto...
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The distribution and abundances of zooplankton in the Northeast Water (NEW) Polynya during the summer of 1992 have been determined from samples collected with Bongo (this study) and MOCNESS (earlier analysis) plankton net tows. The initial hypothesis was that the troughts of the Greenland Shelf in the region of the NEW polynya would be conduits for...
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The abundance and chemistry of the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral coiling) have long been used as tools for monitoring polar surface ocean changes and for correlating these changes to atmospheric and thermohaline circulation fluctuations. However, due to its remote habitat, very little is known about how modern N. pa...
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In September and October 1988 a series of physical and biological observations were collected by the R. V. Endeavor and R. V. Cape Hatteras in a Gulf Stream meander crest. The hydrographic data, vertical chlorophyll a profiles derived from CTD/fluorescence profiles (calibrated with discrete pigment samples), and zooplankton biomass data (20–120m, e...
Article
Some of the strongest atmospheric forcing of oceanic properties anywhere on our planet is observed in the Arabian Sea, where seasonally reversing monsoon winds drive fast-flowing, vertically extensive currents, complex eddy-fields, broad-scale, open-ocean upwelling, coastal upwelling, and pronounced mixed-layer deepening. Cycles of production in th...
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Zooplankton ecology in the Northeast Water Polynya was investigated from July 15 to August 15, 1992. The initial hypotheses were that the polynya would be a site of enhanced secondary production and that the copepod community would be composed of varying proportions of North Atlantic and Arctic species advected onto the Greenland shelf through the...
Article
The Shelf Edge Exchange Processes II (SEEP-II) program was designed to examine the potential for export of organic carbon from the continental shelf to the deeper ocean. In the Middle Atlantic Bight of the east coast, U.S.A., a “cold pool” of relict winter water is isolated by the development of a strong seasonal thermocline on the shelf. Oxygen co...
Article
Fifteen months of data from an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and three fluorometers obtained during the SEEP-II program in the southern Mid-Atlantic Bight provide a unique view of the seasonal progression of zooplankton and phytoplankton biomass and their responses to physical forcing. Phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass records were h...
Article
Sediment traps were deployed for 5 days during March 1988, at 20 and 33 m in 42 m of water over the continental shelf off Norfolk, Virginia (SEEP-II study area). During the sediment trap deployment, a time-series study determined the community and age-structure of copepods as well as the standing stocks, production rates and settling velocities of...
Article
Patterns in zooplankton biomass distribution in a Gulf Stream meander were documented using a ship-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) in fall 1988 as part of the BIOSYNOP program. The dominant signal in biomass was the regional variation between water masses, with greatest biomass recorded in the Slope Water, intermediate biomass at t...
Article
The distribution and abundance of the euphausiids Thysanoessa raschi and Thysanoessa inermis in the shelf waters of the southeastern Bering Sea were investigated during spring and summer of 1980 and 1981. Experiments were conducted during the study to describe the reproduction, growth and development of these species. T. inermis was the dominant eu...
Article
Thysanoessa inermis was the dominant euphausiid species observed over the outer shelf region; it began spawning in early April while T. raschi dominated the euphausiids over the middle shelf and began spawning in mid or late May. The seasonal progression in spawning followed the seasonal development of temperature, but spawning did not begin earlie...
Article
Acoustic Dopplercurrent profilers (ADCPs) offer a unique ability for studying biological structures in the ocean over a wide range of time and space scales. Studies of the capabilities of RD Instruments’ ADCPs operating at 307 and 150 kHz have been carried out to measurezooplankton abundance. A pilot study indicated that the method held great promi...
Article
In July 1988 we sampled upper layer zooplankton distributions in and around a major cold filament located off Point Arena, California. Average zooplankton biomass levels declined inshore to offshore, but relatively high levels extended seaward along the cool side of the filament jet. A series of transverse station lines shows strong shifts in commu...
Article
The second Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP II) experiment was designed as an extension of SEEP I work and was a multidisciplinary effort to describe the transport of carbon along and across the shelf and slope of the middle Atlantic Bight. A significant portion of the zooplankton work conducted during this project was devoted to repeated net sa...
Article
During the southwest monsoon of 1979, plankton samples were collected between the equator and 12{degrees}N. Surface samples collected while the research vessel was surveying this area have been analyzed for the abundance of copepod nauplii, primarily the young of the copepod Calanoides carinatus. These samples revealed a sharp rise in the abundance...
Article
The most abundant large herbivorous copepod in the jet off Point Arena, California, was Eucalanus californicus. In July 1988, females were actively laying eggs and also had a sac of stored lipid. If egg production is a function of present food supply, food concentrations within the jet become the primary factor governing egg laying. However, if sto...
Article
Reproductively activeCalanus hyperboreus (Kryer) andC. glacialis Jaschnov were captured in the upper 100 m of Fram Strait (77 to 79N) in late winter 1987. There was no evidence of a phytoplankton bloom; chlorophylla concentrations were uniformly low (<0.1 mg m–3), and nitrate concentrations were uniformly high (>11.3 mg-at m–3). Gut-fullness measur...
Article
A pilot intercalibration study was performed to evaluate the ability of RD Instrument's 307 kHz acoustic Doppler current profiler to measure zooplankton abundance. The intercalibration was between a bottom-mounted acoustic profiler deployed in 150 m of water at the edge of the New England shelf and zooplankton samples collected with a MOCNESS net s...
Article
A well-developed upwelling plume was observed off the California coast near Point Conception and Point Arguello (∼34°20′N latitude, 120°35′W longitude) during April 1983. The core of the upwelling plume was cool, nutrient-rich, and low in phytoplankton biomass. The distributions of temperature and nutrients were relatively symmetric about the offsh...
Article
The hypothesis that a large fraction of the primary production on continental shelves is exported to the deep ocean basins was investigated during the spring of 1984 off the coast of Long Island, New York. Using data collected aboard ship and from moored instruments, we constructed a carbon budget to account for the production and utilization of th...
Article
Spring in shelf waters of the New York Bight was characterized by a relatively rapid increase in the numbers and biomass of the large herbivorous copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which seemed to be growing at an in situ rate of approximately 8% body weight per day. The functional feeding response of females of all three taxa never showed saturation. T...
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A summer study of zooplankton in the Fram Strait area of the Greenland Sea showed elevated abundances of herbivorous copepods in the marginal ice zone or ice-edge compared with copepod communities under the pack ice cover. Several physical factors contributed to this, including the large-scale current systems which deliver both North Atlantic and A...
Article
Laboratory studies and field collections show that egg production by Centropages typicus (Kryer) in New York shelf waters in autumn 1984 responded to both food and temperature. Rates of egg production were high (43 to 76 eggs female-1 d-1) in October, early in the fall diatom bloom. Later, although food concentrations remained high and female size...
Article
When a relatively warm year (1981) in the southeastern Bering Sea is compared with a cooler year (1980), the upper layer of both the middle shelf and outer shelf warmed at a faster rate in the warmer year, but the spring bloom of phytoplankton took place at approximately the same time both years. The middle front near the 100 m isobath separated th...
Chapter
Surface maps of selected taxa of zooplankton were made off Pt. Conception, California, during three contrasting upwelling situations: moderate upwelling, strong upwelling, and downwelling. Number of taxa and number of individuals decreased with increasing upwelling intensity, indicating replacement of richer surface waters by relatively impoverishe...
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It has been suggested that biological production and consumption of organic matter is not balanced in coastal marine ecosystems1,2. If, as suggested, 90% of the phytoplankton produced during the spring bloom period were exported, excess organic carbon would be sequestered on the continental slope below the permanent thermocline. Here we summarize t...
Article
Two distinct communities of herbivorous zooplankton, separated by an oceanographic front, inhabit the continental shelf and slope of the southeastern Bering Sea during spring. The community over the outer shelf and slope is dominated by populations of large-sized oceanic copepods (mainly Neocalanus ssp.) that develop early in spring and attain maxi...
Article
The Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX 84) concentrated on atmospheric, oceanic, and ice interactions in the Fram Strait region of the Greenland Sea, specifically the effect of the retreating ice margin on the productivity in the area and the use of zooplanktonic species as indicators of Arctic and North Atlantic water masses. The data in this rep...
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The distribution of nutrients, phytoplankton and zooplankton was investigated during summer, 1983 in the marginal ice zone of the East Greenland Sea. Nutrient levels, especially inorganic nitrogen, were extremely low, and probably limited the growth of phytoplankton during this period. An ammonium maximum at the base of the euphotic zone, generally...
Article
Egg production and development rates of Centropages typicus (Kryer) were studied in the laboratory under carying food and temperature conditions. Egg production rates in the laboratory ranged from 0 to 124 eggs female-1 d-1 and increased with food concentration up to a critical food concentration (Pc) above which egg production was constant. Egg pr...
Article
When surface properties of the northwestern Indian Ocean observed during the southwest monsoon of 1964 (R.R.S. ‘DISCOVERY’) are compared with those of 1979 (R.V. ‘ISELIN’), the area of upwelling around Ras Hafun (near 10°N) showed the clearest similarity in the two years. The highest surface concentration of chlorophyll between Mombasa (4°S) and Ca...
Article
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Analyses of 402 samples collected from late March through early June in 1980 have shown that the two communities of zooplankton over the southeastern shelf of the Bering Sea are kept separate spatially by the lack of advection and frontal characteristics of the salinity distributions. The abundance of copepods over the middle shelf, between 50 and...