Sharon M Brookes

Sharon M Brookes
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs | DEFRA · Animal and Plant Health Agency (AHVLA)

PhD FRSB
Lead Scientist for Animal and Zoonotic Viral Diseases. APHA-Weybridge

About

168
Publications
21,078
Reads
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4,539
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2022 - present
Animal and Plant Health Agency
Position
  • Lead Scientist - Animal and Zoonotic Viral Diseases
January 2022 - March 2019
Animal and Plant Health Agency
Position
  • Avian Virology and Mammalian Influenza Work Group Leader
January 2001 - December 2013
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
Education
January 1982 - November 1990
La Trobe University
Field of study
  • Virology and electron microscopy

Publications

Publications (168)
Article
Full-text available
The 2016-17 European outbreak of H5N8 HPAIV (Clade 2.3.4.4b) affected a wider range of avian species than the previous H5N8 outbreak (2014-15), including an incursion of H5N8 HPAIV into gamebirds in England. Natural infection of captive-reared pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) led to variable disease presentation; clinical signs included ruffled feat...
Article
Full-text available
An H7N9 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) emerged in 2013 through genetic reassortment between H9N2 and other LPAIVs circulating in birds in China. This virus causes inapparent clinical disease in chickens, but zoonotic transmission results in severe and fatal disease in humans. To examine a natural reassortment scenario between H7N9...
Article
Full-text available
Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a host cell membrane protein (receptor) that mediates the binding of coronavirus, most notably SARS coronaviruses in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Although SARS-CoV-2 infection is mainly confined to humans, there have been numerous incidents of spillback (reverse zoonoses) to domestic and cap...
Article
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 virus was first detected in late 2019 and circulated globally, causing COVID-19, which is characterised by sub-clinical to severe disease in humans. Here, we investigate the serological antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection during acute and convalescent infection using a cohort of (i) COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital, (ii) hea...
Article
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 virus was first detected in late 2019 and circulated globally, causing COVID19, which is characterised by sub-clinical to severe disease in humans. Here, we investigate the serological antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection during acute and convalescent infection using a cohort of (i) COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital, (ii) heal...
Article
Full-text available
The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 likely emerged from a wildlife source with transmission to humans followed by rapid geographic spread throughout the globe and severe impacts on both human health and the global economy. Since the onset of the pandemic, there have been many instances of human-to-animal transmission involving companion, farmed and zo...
Preprint
Full-text available
An H7N9 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) emerged through genetic reassortment between H9N2 and other LPAIVs circulating in birds in China. This virus causes inapparent clinical disease in chickens, but zoonotic transmission results in severe and fatal disease in humans. We evaluated the consequences of reassortment between the H7N9 a...
Preprint
Full-text available
The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 likely emerged from a wildlife source with transmission to humans followed by rapid geographic spread throughout the globe and severe impacts on both human health and the global economy. Since the onset of the pandemic, there have been many instances of human-to-animal transmission involving companion, farmed and zo...
Article
Full-text available
Highly-pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N6 (clade 2.3.4.4b) incurred into Europe in late 2017 and was predominantly detected in wild birds, with very few terrestrial poultry cases. Pekin ducks directly-infected with a UK virus (H5N6-2017) were donors of infection to investigate contact transmission to three recipient species: Ducks, chick...
Article
Full-text available
Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5 and H7 are capable of mutating from low to high pathogenicity strains, causing high mortality in poultry with significant economic losses globally. During 2015, two outbreaks of H7N7 low pathogenicity AIV (LPAIV) in Germany, and one each in the United Kingdom (UK) and The Netherlands occurred, as well as sing...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Ferrets were experimentally inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 to assess infection dynamics and host response. During the resulting subclinical infection, viral RNA was detected in the up-per respiratory cavity between 2-21 days post-inoculation (dpi), with a peak between 4-6dpi. Vi-ral genomic sequence analysis in samples from three animals iden...
Preprint
Full-text available
The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 likely emerged from a wildlife source with transmission to humans followed by rapid geographic spread throughout the globe and dramatic impacts on both human health and global economies. Since the onset of the pandemic, there have been several instances of human-to-animal transmission involving companion, farmed and...
Article
Full-text available
The rapid emergence of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, and its dissemination globally has caused an unprecedented strain on public health. Animal models are urgently being developed for SARS-CoV-2 to aid rational design of vaccines and therapeutics. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation techniques that facilitate reliable and...
Article
Full-text available
Swine influenza A virus (swIAV) infection causes substantial economic loss and disease burden in humans and animals. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza A virus is now endemic in both populations. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of different vaccines in reducing nasal shedding in pigs following pH1N1 virus challenge. We also assessed t...
Preprint
Full-text available
The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 likely emerged from a wildlife source with transmission to humans followed by rapid geographic spread throughout the globe and dramatic impacts on both human health and global economies. Since the onset of the pandemic, there have been several instances of human-to-animal transmission involving companion, farmed and...
Article
Full-text available
Background The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (A(H1N1)pdm09) influenza A virus (IAV) has replaced the previous seasonal H1N1 strain in humans and continues to circulate worldwide. The comparative performance of inactivated A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccines remains of considerable interest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two licensed...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The European H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) epizootic during 2016-2017 resulted in both wild bird and poultry deaths throughout the EU. This in vivo study investigated the potential for indirect infection of naïve birds through contaminated drinking water or feed, to assess potential disease incursion into a high biosecurity c...
Article
Full-text available
Avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) in different species of seals display a spectrum of pathogenicity, from sub-clinical infection to mass mortality events. Here we present an investigation of avian IAV infection in a 3-to 4-month-old Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) pup, rescued from St Michael's Mount, Cornwall in 2017. The pup underwent medical treat...
Article
Avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) in different species of seals display a spectrum of pathogenicity, from sub-clinical infection to mass mortality events. Here we present an investigation of avian IAV infection in a 3-to 4-month-old Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) pup, rescued from St Michael's Mount, Cornwall in 2017. The pup underwent medical treat...
Article
Full-text available
As high-throughput sequencing technologies are becoming more widely adopted for analysing pathogens in disease outbreaks there needs to be assurance that the different sequencing technologies and approaches to data analysis will yield reliable and comparable results. Conversely, understanding where agreement cannot be achieved provides insight into...
Article
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Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) virus has become established in swine in the United Kingdom and currently co-circulates with previously enzootic swine influenza A virus (IAV) strains, including avian-like H1N1 and human-like H1N2 viruses. During 2010, a swine influenza A reassortant virus, H1N2r, which caused mild clinical disease in pigs in the Uni...
Article
H5N8 highly-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs, clade 2.3.4.4) have spread globally via migratory waterfowl. Pekin ducks infected with a UK virus (H5N8-2014) served as the donors of infection in three separate cohousing experiments to attempt onward transmission chains to sequentially introduced groups of contact ducks, chickens and turkeys...
Article
Full-text available
A swine influenza A pandemic 2009 H1N1 (pH1N1) virus was used in a pig challenge model to investigate the efficacy of whole inactivated vaccines homologous or heterologous to the challenge virus as well as a commercial vaccine. Nasal shedding of viral RNA was monitored daily by real-time, quantitative RT-PCR (RRT-qPCR) as detailed (1). Here we repo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Avian Influenza A Viruses (IAV) in different species of seals display a spectrum of pathogenicity, from subclinical infection to mass mortality events. Here we present an investigation of avian IAV infection in a 3-4 month old Grey seal ( Halichoerus grypus ) pup, rescued from St Michael’s Mount, Cornwall in 2017. The pup underwent medical treatmen...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the epidemiological dynamics of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in wild birds is crucial for guiding effective surveillance and control measures. The spread of H5 HPAIV has been well characterized over large geographical and temporal scales. However, information about the detailed dynamics and demographics of individua...
Article
Full-text available
Swine influenza A virus (SwIV) infection has considerable economic and animal welfare consequences and, because of the zoonotic potential, can also have public health implications. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 ‘swine-origin’ infection is now endemic in both pigs and humans. In Europe, avian-like H1 av N1, human-like H1 hu N2, human-like swine H3N2 and, s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Previously we successful infected turkeys with the China-origin H7N9 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV, A/Anhui/1/13, referred to as ‘wild-type’ (Wt)) which successfully transmitted to contact turkeys with virulent outcomes, highly unusual for LPAIV infection, particularly as the LPAIV cleavage site remained unchanged in all experiment...
Book
Full-text available
This report aims to provide guidance, and stimulate discussion, on ways of avoiding mortality in animals in research and testing. It is concerned with mortality that could feasibly be avoided, by reducing the number of animals ‘found dead’, reducing unpredicted mortality of animals being used in procedures, and challenging perceived requirements fo...
Article
Full-text available
Previously-published neuraminidase (NA) subtype-specific reverse transcriptase RealTime (RRT)-PCRs were further validated for the detection of five avian influenza virus (AIV) NA subtypes, namely N5, N6, N7, N8 and N9. Testing of 30 AIV isolates of all nine NA subtypes informed the assay assessments, with the N5 and N9 RRT-PCRs retained as the orig...
Article
Full-text available
Widespread H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV; clade 2.3.4.4b) infections occurred in wild birds and poultry across Europe during winter 2016-17. Four different doses of H5N8 HPAIV (A/wigeon/Wales/052833/2016 [wg-Wal-16]) were used to infect 23 Pekin ducks divided into four separate pens, with three contact turkeys introduced for c...
Poster
Full-text available
Swine Influenza A transmission from pigs to ferrets, to model occupational exposure of farm workers
Article
A 12-month pilot project for notifiable avian disease (NAD) exclusion testing in chicken and turkey flocks in Great Britain (GB) offered, in partnership with industry, opportunities to carry out differential diagnosis in flocks where NAD was not suspected, and to identify undetected or undiagnosed infections. In May 2014, clinical samples received...
Article
Full-text available
The China-origin H7N9 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) emerged as a zoonotic threat in 2013 where it continues to circulate in live poultry markets. Absence of overt clinical signs in poultry is a typical LPAIV infection outcome, and has contributed to its insidious maintenance in China. This study is the first description of H7N9 LP...
Article
Full-text available
Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are known to be important reservoirs for influenza A viruses (IAV) and they have been repeatedly implicated as causing avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreaks in domestic poultry flocks worldwide. In recent years, wild birds have been implicated in spreading zoonotic H5 influenza viruses to many countries, which has...
Article
Full-text available
Influenza is a major health threat, and a broadly protective influenza vaccine would be a significant advance. Signal Minus FLU (S-FLU) is a candidate broadly protective influenza vaccine that is limited to a single cycle of replication, which induces a strong cross-reactive T cell response but a minimal Ab response to hemagglutinin after intranasa...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence and identify the strains of swine influenza virus (SwIV), as well as the seroprevalence of porcine parvovirus (PPV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), porcine circovirus type 2...
Article
Full-text available
Influenza virus infection in pigs is a major farming problem, causing considerable economic loss and posing a zoonotic threat. In addition the pig is an excellent model for understanding immunity to influenza viruses as this is a natural host pathogen system. Experimentally, influenza virus is delivered to pigs intra-nasally, by intra-tracheal inst...
Article
Full-text available
Influenza A viruses are a major health threat to livestock and humans, causing considerable mortality, morbidity, and economic loss. Current inactivated influenza vaccines are strain specific and new vaccines need to be produced at frequent intervals to combat newly arising influenza virus strains, so that a universal vaccine is highly desirable. W...
Article
Full-text available
Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled with geographic segregation of global swine populatio...
Article
Since early 2014, several outbreaks involving novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) viruses have been detected in poultry and wild bird species in Asia, Europe and North America. These viruses have been detected in apparently healthy and dead wild migratory birds, as well as in domestic chickens, turkeys, geese and duck...
Article
Full-text available
Genetic sequences of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus in England have high homology to those detected in mainland Europe and Asia during 2014. Genetic characterization suggests this virus is an avian-adapted virus without specific affinity for zoonoses. Spatio-temporal detections of H5N8 imply a role for wild birds in virus spread.
Data
Full-text available
Methods for genetic characterization of HPAI H5N8 virus among domestic ducks in England.
Article
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Unlabelled: Skeletal muscle, at 30 to 40% of body mass, is the most abundant soft tissue in the body. Besides its primary function in movement and posture, skeletal muscle is a significant innate immune organ with the capacity to produce cytokines and chemokines and respond to proinflammatory cytokines. Little is known about the role of skeletal m...
Article
Full-text available
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses cause severe infection in chickens at near complete mortality, but corresponding infection in ducks is typically mild or asymptomatic. To understand the underlying molecular differences in host response, primary chicken and duck lung cells, infected with two HPAI H5N1 viruses and a low pathogeni...
Article
Full-text available
Carcases received for rabies diagnosis are occasionally decomposed due to delays in finding, submitting or storing them. Positive diagnostic results from such samples are reliable but negative results may be invalid. Previous studies assessed the effect of decomposition on rabies detection using excised brains. To better reflect decomposition in th...
Article
Full-text available
Natural killer (NK) cells are important players in the innate immune response against influenza A virus and the activating receptor NKp46, which binds hemagglutinin on the surface of infected cells, has been assigned a role in this context. As pigs are natural hosts for influenza A viruses and pigs possess both NKp46- and NKp46+ NK cells, they repr...