Shanlin Fu

Shanlin Fu
University of Technology Sydney | UTS · Centre for Forensic Science

PhD

About

125
Publications
28,253
Reads
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4,765
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2008 - present
University of Technology Sydney
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (125)
Article
Full-text available
The proliferation of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has necessitated the development and improvement of current practices for the detection and identification of known NPS and newly emerging derivatives. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is quickly becoming the industry standard for these analyses due to its ability to be operated in data...
Article
The analysis of drug material in the field is an important function of law enforcement agencies, forensic drug laboratories, and drug checking services. Portable testing techniques employed by these different groups range from inexpensive screening tools with low discriminating power, such as presumptive chemical color tests, to more sophisticated...
Article
Equine urine analysis has evolved over time to detect thousands of urinary compounds for doping control in the horse racing industry. The longitudinal assessment of 3‐methoxytyramine to tyramine ratio (3‐MT/T) values in equine urine by GC‐MS profiling was investigated to support the Racing NSW Equine Biological Passport (EBP) for detection of dopam...
Article
Metabolomics is a multidisciplinary field providing workflows for complementary approaches to conventional analytical determinations. It allows for the study of metabolically related groups of compounds or even the study of novel pathways within the biological system. The procedural stages of metabolomics; experimental design, sample preparation, a...
Article
JWH-424, (8-bromo-1-naphthyl)(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methanone, is a synthetic cannabinoid, which is a brominated analogue of JWH-018, one of the best-known synthetic cannabinoids. Despite the structural similarity to JWH-018, little is known about JWH-424 including its metabolism. The aim of the study was to compare human liver microsomes (HLM) an...
Article
The conventional detection of exogenous drugs in equine doping samples has been used for confirmation and subsequent prosecution of participants responsible. In recent years, alternative methods using indirect detection have been investigated due to the expanding number of pharmaceutical agents available with the potential of misuse. The monitoring...
Article
Full-text available
The high morbidity and mortality of neuroinflammatory diseases drives significant interest in understanding the underlying mechanisms involved in the innate and adaptive immune response of the central nervous system (CNS). Diagnostic biomarkers are important to define treatable neuroinflammation. Metabolomics is a rapidly evolving research area off...
Article
Full-text available
Organophosphorus pesticides (OPS) are widely used in the world, and many poisoning cases were caused by them. Phorate intoxication is especially common in China. However, there are currently few methods for discriminating phorate poisoning death from phorate exposure after death and interpretation of false-positive results due to the lack of effect...
Article
Based on the specific interaction of Ag⁺ and cytosine-cytosine (C-C) base mismatch and using berberine as the fluorescent probe and Exonuclease I (Exo I) as the background fluorescence reducing tool, a label-free Exo I-assisted fluorescence aptamer sensing platform was established for the detection of silver ions with high sensitivity and selectivi...
Article
The presence of erectile dysfunction (ED) drugs in adulterated dietary supplements, mainly in pharmaceutical dosage forms, is frequently addressed in the literature. Little attention is given to food products despite their increasing adulteration trend. To address this knowledge gap targeted, suspected-target, and non-targeted strategies were utili...
Article
The emergence of novel doping agents is a continuous issue for analysts who aim to maintain the integrity of horseracing together with the wellbeing and safety of the animals and riders involved. Untargeted mass spectrometric analysis presents a potential improvement for anti‐doping as it enables the detection of compounds being indirectly affected...
Article
Full-text available
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technology is an attractive method for the prompt and accurate on-site screening of illicit drugs. As portable Raman systems are available for on-site screening, the readiness of SERS technology for sensing applications is predominantly dependent on the accuracy, stability and cost-effectiveness of the SER...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose A tert -leucinate derivative synthetic cannabinoid, methyl (2 S )-2-([1-(4-fluorobutyl)-1 H -indazole-3-carbonyl]amino)-3,3-dimethylbutanoate (4F-MDMB-BINACA, 4F-MDMB-BUTINACA or 4F-ADB) is known to adversely impact health. This study aimed to evaluate the suitability of three different modes of monitoring metabolism: HepG2 liver cells, fun...
Article
Aim To explore the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolite features in acute neuroinflammatory diseases and identify potential biomarkers to diagnose and monitor neuroinflammation. Method A cohort of 14 patients (five females, nine males; mean [median] age 7y 9mo [9y], range 6mo–13y) with acute encephalitis (acute disseminated encephalomyelitis n=6,...
Article
Drug degradation as a consequence of putrefactive bacterial activity is a well-known factor that affects the identification and quantitation of certain substances of forensic interest. Current knowledge on putrefaction-mediated degradation of drugs is, however, significantly lacking. This study aimed to investigate the degradation of 4-methylmethca...
Article
Full-text available
The proliferation of adulterated health foods and beverages in the market demands a comprehensive analytical strategy to identify the adulterants, particularly those of isomeric phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. An instant coffee premix (ICP) purchased from an online retailer was flagged for suspected adulteration through PDE5 inhibition assay...
Article
The constant evolution of the illicit drug market makes the identification of unknown compounds problematic. Obtaining certified reference materials for a broad array of new analogues can be difficult and cost prohibitive. Machine learning provides a promising avenue to putatively identify a compound before confirmation against a standard. In this...
Article
The surge in the consumption of food products containing herbal aphrodisiacs has driven their widespread adulteration. A rapid screening strategy is, therefore, warranted to curb this problem. This study established an enzyme inhibition assay to screen phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors as adulterants in selected food products. Fluorescein‐label...
Article
The great increase of new psychoactive substances over the last decade has substantially transformed the illicit drug industry to an ever‐changing dynamic market. 25‐NBOMe compounds are just one of these new substance groups that pose a public health risk in many countries around the world. These highly potent, hallucinogenic phenethylamines have p...
Article
Synthetic opioids are a class of compounds that are of particular concern due to their high potency and potential health impacts. With the relentless emergence of new synthetic opioid derivatives, non‐targeted screening strategies are required that do not rely on the use of library spectra or reference materials. In this study, product ion searchin...
Article
The use of illicit drugs across the world causes issues for users, healthcare workers and the public. Due to the issues the use of these substances cause, quick and reliable onsite testing methods are required. In this study, seven commercial surface‐enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates were compared for the analysis of cocaine. The comparison of...
Article
The lucrative market of herbal remedies spurs rampant adulteration, particularly with pharmaceutical drugs and their unapproved analogues. A comprehensive screening strategy is, therefore, warranted to detect these adulterants, and accordingly, to safeguard public health. This study utilises the data‐dependent acquisition of a liquid chromatography...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing reports of neurological and psychiatric complications due to psychostimulant synthetic cathinones (SCs) have recently raised public concern. However, the precise mechanism of SC toxicity is unclear. This paucity of understanding highlights the need to investigate the in-vitro toxicity and mechanistic pathways of three SCs: butylone, pent...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the data on the optimisation and validation of a liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) to establish the presence of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors and their analogues as adulterants in instant coffee premixes. The method development data covered chromatographic optimisation for better analyte s...
Article
Full-text available
Infiltration of leukocytes within the vessel at sites of inflammation and the subsequent generation of myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants, including hypochlorous acid, are key characteristics of atherosclerosis. Hypochlorous acid is a potent oxidant that reacts readily with most biological molecules, including DNA and RNA. This results in nucleic aci...
Article
Full-text available
The continual introduction of a large number of new psychoactive substances, along with the large turnover of these substances, necessitates the development of non-targeted detection strategies to keep pace with the ever-changing drug market. The production of certified reference materials often lags behind the introduction of new substances to the...
Article
As a widely consumed beverage, coffee tends to be a target for intentional adulteration. This study describes the application of modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) coupled to liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) for simultaneous screening, identification, and quantification of undeclared...
Article
Release of myeloperoxidase (MPO) at sites of inflammation plays a key role in the development of numerous pathologies and is strongly associated with atherosclerotic lesion development. MPO produces the highly reactive oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which modifies RNA and DNA forming different chlorinated nucleoside products: 8-chloroadenosine (...
Chapter
Color tests are a key tool for the rapid and simple identification of seized illicit drugs. This chapter outlines a series of color tests that can be used for the preliminary identification of new psychoactive substances such as cathinones, piperazines, tryptamines, and amphetamine-type stimulants.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Identifying intake of synthetic cannabinoids generally requires the metabolism data of the drugs so that appropriate metabolite markers can be targeted in urine testing. However, the continuous appearance of new cannabinoids during the last decade has made it difficult to keep up with all the compounds including {1-[(1-methylpiperidin-2-y...
Article
During atherosclerosis, leukocytes infiltrate the vessel wall and release myeloperoxidase, which forms hypochlorous acid (HOCl). HOCl is highly reactive and forms chlorinated DNA and RNA products that are present within atherosclerotic plaques. In this study, the effect of various chlorinated nucleoside products on endothelial and smooth muscle cel...
Article
Full-text available
Traditional fingermark developing methods are unsuitable for developing and extracting latent blood fingermarks on dark surfaces at crime scene because of their ineffectiveness or tedious operation procedures. In the present work, an effective and simple method was developed to serve this purpose using a suspension of monodisperse silica nanopartic...
Article
The number of new psychoactive substances keeps on rising despite the controlling efforts by law enforcement. Although metabolism of the newly emerging drugs is continuously studied to keep up with the new additions, the exact structures of the metabolites are often not identified due to the insufficient sample quantities for techniques such as nuc...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Chronic cannabis use has been associated with impaired cognition and elevated psychological symptoms, particularly psychotic-like experiences. While Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is thought to be primarily responsible for these deleterious effects, cannabidiol (CBD) is purported to have antipsychotic properties and to ameliorate cogni...
Article
Synthetic cathinones are a large class of new psychoactive substances (NPS) that are increasingly prevalent in drug seizures made by law enforcement and other border protection agencies globally. Color testing is a presumptive identification technique indicating the presence or absence of a particular drug class using rapid and uncomplicated chemic...
Article
Neurotransmitters play crucial roles in physiological functions and their imbalances have demonstrated association in the pathology of several diseases. The measurement of neurotransmitters possesses a great potential as a significant clinical tool. This study presents the development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantifica...
Article
Chemical 'spot' tests are a presumptive illicit drug identification technique commonly used by law enforcement, border security personnel, and forensic laboratories. The simplicity, low cost and rapid results afforded by these tests make them particularly attractive for presumptive identification globally. In this paper, we review the development o...
Article
Full-text available
Cocaine trafficking in the form of textile impregnation is routinely encountered as a concealment method. Raman spectroscopy has been a popular and successful testing method used for in situ screening of cocaine in textiles and other matrices. Quantitative analysis of cocaine in these matrices using Raman spectroscopy has not been reported to date....
Article
While modern methodologies for the smuggling of illicit substances often tend towards more elaborate inventions, the simple practice of concealing cocaine hydrochloride within food matrices is becoming increasingly popular. This study was conducted to develop and optimize a Raman spectroscopic method capable of identifying and quantifying cocaine h...
Article
Aim: To assess the feasibility of the use of cannabidiol (CBD) for the management of cannabis withdrawal. Patients & methods: Eight participants were admitted to an in-patient detoxification facility for a 7-day open-label trial of CBD. Five participants received 600 mg of CBD and three participants received 1200 mg of CBD. Participants returned fo...
Article
Release of myeloperoxidase (MPO) at sites of inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerotic lesion development. MPO produces the highly reactive oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which modifies RNA and DNA forming different chlorinated nucleoside products. Concurrent release of DNA during lesion development either from necrotic cells or via extra...
Article
The proliferation of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in recent years has resulted in the development of numerous analytical methods for the detection and identification of known and unknown NPS derivatives. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) has been identified as the method of choice for broad screening of NPS in a wide range of analytical...
Article
Full-text available
The effectiveness of three types of plastic bags used by the New South Wales Police Force for the storage of clandestine drug evidence has been investigated through a comparison of mechanical properties. The tensile and tear properties of “as received” low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) bags do not show major differences...
Article
Full-text available
Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides such as methamidophos makes up a significant portion of forensic identification cases in China. Stability of methamidophos during specimen storage remains largely unknown. This study aimed to examine the long-term stability of methamidophos in postmortem specimens. Three experimental dogs after oral admini...
Article
A novel microextraction technique based on ultrasound-assisted low-density solvent dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (UA-LDS-DLLME) had been applied for the determination of 4 designer benzodiazepines (phenazepam, diclazepam, flubromazepam and etizolam) in urine samples by gas chromatography- triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QQQ-MS)....
Article
The knowledge of metabolic profile of synthetic cannabinoids is important for the detection of drugs in urinalysis due to the typical absence or low abundance of parent cannabinoids in human urine. The fungus Cunninghamella elegans has been reported to be a useful tool for metabolism study and thus applicability to synthetic cannabinoid metabolism...
Article
In the area of clandestine laboratory investigations, plastic bags are used to collect and store evidence, such as solvents, precursors, and other compounds usually employed for the manufacturing of drugs (although liquids may be stored in glass containers within the bags first). In this study, three different types of plastic bags were provided by...
Article
Full-text available
Myeloperoxidase produces strong oxidants during the immune response to destroy invading pathogens. However, these oxidants can also cause tissue damage, which contributes to the development of numerous inflammatory diseases. Selenium containing compounds, including selenomethionine (SeMet) and 1,4-anhydro-5-seleno-D-talitol (SeTal), react rapidly w...
Article
Hallucinogenic phenethylamines such as 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamines (2C-X) and their N-(2-methoxybenzyl) derivatives (25X-NBOMe) has seen an increase in novel analogues in recent years. These rapidly changing analogues make it difficult for laboratories to rely on traditional targeted screening methods to detect unknown new psychoactive substances...
Article
Infiltration of leukocytes at sites of inflammation within the vessel wall and the generation of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-derived oxidants, including hypochlorous acid (HOCl), are both hallmarks of atherosclerotic lesion development. HOCl is highly reactive, and reacts with almost all biological molecules, including RNA and DNA, which forms chlorinate...
Chapter
Urine drug testing plays an important role in monitoring licit and illicit drug use for both medico-legal and clinical purposes. One of the major challenges of urine drug testing is adulteration, a practice involving manipulation of a urine specimen with chemical adulterants to produce a false negative test result. This problem is compounded by the...
Article
Significant quantities of unknown, potentially illicit substances are seized by law enforcement and border protection agencies annually. Color testing is an ideal presumptive test and is commonly employed to provide rapid, selective, inexpensive and simple analyses. Synthetic cathinones are a class of psychoactive substances that do not currently h...
Article
Sativex(®) is an oromucosal spray indicated for the treatment of moderate-to-severe spasticity in multiple sclerosis and is also an effective analgesic for advanced cancer patients. Sativex contains Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol in an approximately 1:1 ratio. The increasing prevalence of medicinal cannabis products highlights the...
Article
Full-text available
Synthetic cannabinoids JWH-018, JWH-073 and AM2201 were metabolised by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans. In this article, data on individual metabolites of their retention times, mass accuracies, major product ions and structures indicated by product ions are presented. The data in this article is related to “Biotransformation of synthetic cannabi...
Article
Full-text available
The potential for liquid chromatography-high resolution accurate mass (LC-HRAM) spectrometry to identify ‘unknown’ compounds using non-targeted screening methods provides a potential advantage in the fight against doping in sport. This innovation comes with the requirement for assessment to support its use in the medico-legal context. A method for...
Article
There is currently limited data available on the stabilities of the three stimulants 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and N-benzylpiperazine (BZP) in a putrefying matrix. A Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) method to determine the concentration of the three drugs in putrefying porcine liver over a t...
Article
Full-text available
An examination of the chemistry of adipocere formation in aquatic systems provides insight into how environmental factors affect the decomposition processes of human remains. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) have been employed to monitor the changes to the chemistry of adipocere...
Article
Being marketed as “legal” smoking blends or mixtures, synthetic cannabinoids are abused widely owing to its cannabis-like effect. Due to the rapid introduction of new generation analogues of synthetic cannabinoids to escape from legislative/judicial control, the investigation of the metabolic pathways of these substances is of particular importance...
Article
Aim: Currently, procedures that identify the drugs 'destroyed' in adulterated urine specimens are very limited. This study aimed to determine the effect of pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) on routine opiate assays and identify reaction products formed. Results/methodology: Opiate-positive urines adulterated with PCC (20 and 100 mM) were analyzed us...
Article
Urinary 11-nor-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (Carboxy-THC) concentrations, normalised to creatinine output, have been demonstrated to be a useful tool in the interpretation of the results of a series of urine tests for cannabis. These tests, often termed historical data, can be used to identify potential chronic cannabis users who may...
Article
Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and N-chloramines are produced by myeloperoxidase (MPO) as part of the immune response to destroy invading pathogens. However, MPO also plays a detrimental role in inflammatory pathologies, including atherosclerosis, as inappropriate production of oxidants, including HOCl and N-chloramines, causes damage to host tissue. Low...
Article
Full-text available
An analytical method was developed and validated for the purpose of detecting and quantifying 37 new designer drugs including cathinones, hallucinogenic phenethylamines and piperazines. Using only 100 µL whole blood, a salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile was performed to isolate target compounds followed by chromatograph...
Article
Full-text available
Manipulations of urine sample by urine substitution, urine dilution, and urine adulteration with highly oxidative chemicals to escape detection in doping control analysis have been reported in the past. Adulteration of urine with oxidising chemicals such as potassium permanganate, cerium ammonium nitrate, pyridinium chlorochromate etc can lead to c...
Article
4-Methylmethcathione (4-MMC or mephedrone) is a prevalent drug of abuse globally. 4-MMC is often marketed as 'bath salts' and is readily available over the internet. The need for a rapid universal technique capable of detecting an extensive range of drug compounds has become increasingly important with the continued emergence of novel drug analogue...
Article
RATIONALEPyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) is the active ingredient of 'Urine Luck', a commercially available in vitro adulterating agent used to conceal the presence of drugs in a urine specimen. The exposure of codeine and its major glucuronide metabolite codeine-6-glucuronide (C6G) to PCC was investigated to determine whether PCC is an effective m...
Article
Desorption electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is a useful technique for the qualitative analysis of compounds found in seized drug material. In this study, DESI-MS was utilized in the screening analysis of illicit cocaine samples. The technique was also applied to the geographical origin determination of these samples. The limit...
Article
Drug testing programs are established to help achieve a drug-free work environment, promote fair competition in sport, facilitate harm minimization and rehabilitation programs, better manage patient care by clinicians and service law enforcement authorities. Urine remains the most popular and appropriate testing matrix for such purposes. However, u...
Article
Although amphetamine-type substances (ATS) have been investigated extensively in recent years, scarce data is available on screening tests for piperazine analogues. The need for a universal technique capable of detecting an extensive range of drug compounds becomes increasingly important with the continued emergence of novel drug analogues. Desorpt...