Shanis Barnard

Shanis Barnard
Purdue University | Purdue · Department of Comparative Pathobiology (CPB)

PhD Behavioural Biology

About

63
Publications
22,783
Reads
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726
Citations
Introduction
Shanis Barnard currently works at the Department of Comparative Pathobiology (CPB), Purdue University. Shanis does research in Animal Welfare Science, Behavioural Science and Cognitive Science. Her current project is 'Welfare of dogs kept and reared in large commercial breeding establishments (CBEs)'.
Additional affiliations
September 2018 - present
Purdue University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
September 2014 - August 2017
Queen's University Belfast
Position
  • PostDoc Position
January 2011 - August 2014
IZS Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (63)
Article
Maternal factors such as fear and stress influence offspring welfare in many species, but this area of research has been underexplored in dogs. As a large proportion of society’s dogs originate from commercial-breeding (CB) kennels, further investigation in this environment is crucial to ensure canine welfare. The current study aimed to refine a se...
Article
Full-text available
Objective, reliable behavioral tests are needed to refine on-site welfare assessments of dogs housed at commercial breeding (CB) kennels and provide a basis to inform predictions of their behavior when retired from such kennels. This study tested the reliability, construct validity, and applicability of a protocol for the behavioral assessment of d...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the behavioral welfare of dogs in commercial breeding kennels (CBKs) is important for improving breeders’ management practices as well as dog welfare. In the current study, breeding dogs from CBKs were exposed to novel stimuli to evaluate their behavioral responses, with emphasis on indicators of fear. Subjects were presented with a s...
Article
Full-text available
It is now widely agreed that a positive affective state is a crucial component of animal well-being. The judgment bias test represents a widespread tool used to assess animals' optimistic/pessimistic attitude and to evaluate their emotional state and welfare. Judgment bias tests have been used several times with dogs (Canis familiaris), in most cas...
Article
Full-text available
This study assessed the feasibility and reproducibility of a previously validated temperament test (TT) for shelter dogs. The test was developed to measure dog behaviour in the kennel, and traits of sociability towards people and other dogs, docility to leash, playfulness, cognitive skills, and reactivity. We introduced the use of differently sized...
Article
Full-text available
The shelter environment may have a severe impact on the dogs’ quality of life, and there is thus a need to develop valid tools to assess their welfare. These tools should be sensitive not only to the animals’ physical health but also to their mental health, including the assessment of positive and negative emotions. Qualitative Behaviour Assessment...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of dog breed groups, i.e., primitive, hunting/herding and Mastiff like (Study 1) and development, i.e., 4-month-old puppies vs adults (Study 2) on a quantity discrimination task. The task consisted of three conditions: C1—dogs were asked to choose between a large and a small amount of food; C2—the...
Preprint
Full-text available
The shelter environment may have a severe impact on the quality of life of dogs, and there is thus a need to develop valid tools to assess their welfare. These tools should be sensitive not only to the animals' physical health but also to their mental health, including the assessment of positive and negative emotions. Qualitative Behaviour Assessme...
Article
Full-text available
It has been reported that during the first few days following entry to a kennel environment, shelter dogs may suffer poor welfare. Previous work suggests that motor bias (the preferred use of one limb over the other) can potentially be used as an indicator of emotional reactivity and welfare risk. In this study, we investigate whether paw preferenc...
Article
Evidence suggests that paw preferences are related to emotional functioning in the domestic dog. Whether motor bias in this species is related to the display of behaviour problems, which often have their basis in emotional reactivity, is still unknown. This study therefore explored the relationship between lateralised motor behaviour in the form of...
Article
Full-text available
Certain personality traits (e.g. anxiousness, fearfulness), are known to affect the cognitive processing of environmental stimuli, such as the judgement of ambiguous stimuli (judgement bias). Our aim was to assess if personality traits are predictive of a more or less 'pessimistic' or 'optimistic' judgement bias in the domestic dog. We assessed dog...
Article
This study explored the relationship between four measures of canine paw preference to establish whether the distribution, direction or strength of motor bias was consistent between tasks. Thirty-two dogs had their paw preferences tested using the Kong ball, tape, lift paw and First-stepping tests. A smaller sample were re-tested 6 months later. Th...
Article
All livestock transport within the European Union must comply with the EC Regulation 1/2005. For sheep, this law prescribes a maximum journey of 29 hours after which animals must rest in control posts (CP) for 24 hours before further transportation. However, there is no scientific evidence defining the effects of different stop duration on sheep re...
Article
Dogs housed in shelters may experience poor welfare. To ensure these dogs a good quality of life, welfare assessment tools should be sensitive not only to the animals’ physical health but also to their mental state, including the assessment of positive and negative emotions. In this study, we focused on the assessment of shelter dogs’ emotional exp...
Article
Limb use, an indicator of hemispheric functioning, may be a useful predictor of cognitive bias and hence vulnerability to welfare risk. The relationship between cognitive bias and motor asymmetry, however, has been subject to little investigation. This study explored the association between motor asymmetry and cognitive bias in the domestic dog, a...
Article
Full-text available
A considerable number of studies have reported differences among dog breeds with respect to their genetic profile, cognitive abilities or personality traits. Each dog breed is normally treated as a homogeneous group, however, researchers have recently questioned whether the behavioural profile of modern breeds still reflects their historical functi...
Article
Behavioral laterality reflects the cerebral functional asymmetry. Measures of laterality have been associated with emotional stress, problem-solving, and personality in some vertebrate species. Thus far, the association between laterality and personality in the domestic dog has been largely overlooked. In this study, we investigated whether lateral...
Article
Full-text available
Aggressiveness is reported to be the most important public health issue related to both owned and free-roaming dogs. Common approaches to assess canine aggressiveness are temperament tests. The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether one such test, the Socially Acceptable Behaviour (SAB) test, created to evaluate aggressive and fearful behav...
Article
Full-text available
Mankind directly controls the environment and lifestyles of several domestic species for purposes ranging from production and research to conservation and companionship. These environments and lifestyles may not offer these animals the best quality of life. Behaviour is a direct reflection of how the animal is coping with its environment. Behaviour...
Data
B.A.R.K. software overview Additional information on the user’s interface of the software and details on it main functionalities are provided. (DOCX)
Data
Video-clip example. Exemplificative video sequence (5sec) showing the behaviour characterising Cluster 3 (also represented by Fig 9D) (WMV)
Data
Conference proceeding Pistocchi et al. 2014. Article describing the algorithms behind the early developmental phases of the software. Corresponds to reference [35]. (PDF)
Data
Video-clip example. Exemplificative video sequence (5sec) showing the behaviour characterising Cluster 2 (also represented by Fig 9C) (WMV)
Data
Video-clip example. Exemplificative video sequence (5sec) showing the behaviour characterising Cluster 4 (also represented by Fig 9E) (WMV)
Data
Video-clip example. Exemplificative video sequence (5sec) showing the behaviour characterising Cluster 1 (also represented by Fig 9B) (WMV)
Article
Full-text available
A number of studies have recently investigated personality traits in non-human species, with the dog gaining popularity as a subject species for research in this area. Recent research has shown the consistency of personality traits across both context and time for adult dogs, both when using questionnaire based methods of investigation and behaviou...
Data
Questionnaire selection method. Description of the questionnaire selection procedure. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to develop a scientific and practical tool to be used to assess horse welfare after commercial transport over long journeys. A set of physical, behavioural and environmental measures was selected, covering welfare aspects of both transport and unloading procedures. The protocol was field-tested on 51 intra-EU commercial transports...
Article
Full-text available
We assessed motor laterality in sheep to explore species-specific brain hemi-field dominance and how this could be affected by genetic or developmental factors. Further, we investigated whether directionality and strength of laterality could be linked to emotional stress in ewes and their lambs during partial separation. Forty-three ewes and their...
Code
This is the B.A.R.K software executables
Code
This is the B.A.R.K software executables
Article
Full-text available
In many European shelters, dogs may spend many years confined. A poor environment and inappropriate management may lead to a low quality of life. The absence of harmonised European regulatory frameworks defining the minimum requirements for shelter facilities makes the definition of welfare standards for kennelled dogs challenging. Here, a new prot...
Article
Full-text available
Sheep transport within Europe involves 9.5 million animals yearly, 63% of which travel over long journeys (> 8 h). Livestock transport, particularly over long journeys, gives rise to concern about the welfare of transported animals. The European Commission stimulates the development of market-oriented animal welfare standards for all phases of live...
Article
Full-text available
In Italy, standards for the management of free-roaming dogs (FRDs) are defined by regional norms, generating a high variability of approaches around the country. Despite efforts carried out by the competent authorities, FRDs are still a reality impacting upon animal health and welfare and public costs. A similar scenario can be found in many other...
Article
Full-text available
Free-roaming dogs (FRD) represent a potential threat to the quality of life in cities from an ecological, social and public health point of view. One of the most urgent concerns is the role of uncontrolled dogs as reservoirs of infectious diseases transmittable to humans and, above all, rabies. An estimate of the FRD population size and characteris...
Article
Full-text available
Sheep transport within Europe involves 9.5 million animals yearly, 63% of which travel over long journeys (> 8 h). Livestock transport, particularly over long journeys, gives rise to concern about the welfare of transported animals. The European Commission stimulates the development of market-oriented animal welfare standards for all phases of live...
Article
In Europe, maximum journey time for transported sheep is set at 29 h (EC Regulation 1/2005), after which animals must be unloaded, fed and watered in control posts stopping for 24 h, as all other species, before continuing their journey. The industry considers these resting times too general, not taking into account the peculiar differences between...
Article
Despite pattern recognition methods for human behavioral analysis has flourished in the last decade, animal behavioral analysis has been almost neglected. Those few approaches are mostly focused on preserving livestock economic value while attention on the welfare of companion animals, like dogs, is now emerging as a social need. In this work, foll...
Article
Pet identification and registration play a key role in guaranteeing animal health and welfare, and they stimulate responsible ownership, helping to control the phenomenon of straying. Transponder implantation provides a permanent identification system currently frequently used for dogs, but it still not common for cats. Cat electronic identificatio...
Article
Despite pattern recognition methods for human behavioral analysis has flourished in the last decade, animal behavioral analysis has been almost neglected. Those few approaches are mostly focused on preserving livestock economic value while attention on the welfare of companion animals, like dogs, is now emerging as a social need. In this work, foll...
Article
Abstract This work investigated the differences in the reactivity of Sarda (primiparous n = 18, multiparous n = 17) and Dorset (multiparous n = 8) breeds of sheep and their singleton lambs to two challenging test situations involving a mother-lamb partial separation test and an isolation test. Non-parametric analysis used single behavioural variabl...
Article
Full-text available
In Italia, la normativa riguardante gli animali di affezione e la prevenzione del randagismo (legge quadro n. 281 del 14 agosto 1991) impedisce la soppressione dei cani ospitati in canile se non gravemente malati o pericolosi. In quasi tutti i comuni italiani, il rapporto fra ingressi e adozioni nei canili è sbilanciato. Si generano pertanto, condi...
Article
Full-text available
In Italy, National Law (281/1991) prohibits euthanasia of shelter dogs if they are not dangerous or suffering seriously. Adoption rates in rescue shelters are often lower than entrance rates, leading inevitably to overcrowded facilities where animals are likely to spend the rest of their lives in kennels. In this situation, housing conditions (i.e....
Article
The risks associated with zoonotic infections transmitted by companion animals are a serious public health concern: the control of zoonoses incidence in domestic dogs, both owned and stray, is hence important to protect human health. Integrated dog population management (DPM) programs, based on the availability of information systems providing reli...
Article
In Italy, National Law (281/1991) prohibits euthanasia of shelter dogs if they are not dangerous or suffering seriously. Adoption rates in rescue shelters are often lower than entrance rates, leading inevitably to overcrowded facilities where animals are likely to spend the rest of their lives in kennels. In this situation, housing conditions (i.e....
Article
Temperament tests are widely accepted as instruments for profiling behavioral variability in dogs, and they are applied in numerous areas of investigation (e.g. suitability for adoption or for breeding). During testing, to elicit a dog's reaction toward novel stimuli and predict its behavior in everyday life, model devices such as a child-like doll...
Article
journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the authors institution and sharing with colleagues. Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling or licensing copies, or posting to personal, institutional or third part...
Article
Full-text available
Recent evidence indicates that dogs’ sociocognitive abilities and behaviour in a test situation are shaped by both genetic factors and life experiences. We used the ‘unsolvable task’ paradigm to investigate the effect of breed and age/experience on the use of human-directed gazing behaviour. Following a genetic classification based on recent genome...
Article
Full-text available
P , 0.001). The gazing behavior differed in all image categories (P , 0.001). The total fixation time was longest for images of dogs (534 6 80 ms) and shorter for alphabetic characters (94 6 120 ms), and in between for images of humans (446 6 81 ms) and toys (294 6 86 ms). We conclude that the eye tracking system can be used for assessing dogs' vis...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction Recent scientific and public interest in dog aggression has led several governments to take action in an attempt to prevent such events, including through the use of behavioural tests, despite limited generalisation between contexts (Cristensen et al., 2007). Little research has been done to investigate the effects of the context on do...
Article
Recently there has been a considerable increase in the number of studies on dogs’ socio-cognitive abilities. As noted by Miklo` si (2004), dogs are interesting study subjects for the possibility of looking at both the genetic influence on behavior by studying breed differences, and the ontogenetic factors, by taking into consideration various aspec...
Article
Full-text available
Both genetic factors and life experiences appear to be important in shaping dogs' responses in a test situation. One potentially highly relevant life experience may be the dog's training history, however few studies have investigated this aspect so far. This paper briefly reviews studies focusing on the effects of training on dogs' performance in c...

Projects

Projects (3)
Project
-Behaviour and welfare of breeding animals kept in CBEs -Behavioural and cognitive development of puppies bred in CBEs -Improving the quality of life of dogs kept in CBEs
Archived project
This research aims at investigating the association between motor bias tests and measures of emotional vulnerability (temperament and cognitive bias) in the domestic dog.