Shane Orchard

Shane Orchard
University of Canterbury | UC · School of Earth and Environment

Ph.D., M.Sc. PGDipMāoriResEnvtMgmt
Protected areas, water resources, risks, resilience & recovery from environmental change

About

86
Publications
11,157
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236
Citations
Citations since 2016
72 Research Items
233 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060

Publications

Publications (86)
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the response of a tidal lagoon system to a unique situation of relative sea-level change induced by powerful earthquakes (up to Mw 7.1) on the east coast of New Zealand in 2010–2011. Spatiotemporal impacts were quantified using airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) datasets complemented by hydrodynamic modelling and evaluatio...
Article
Link to author's eprints available here: https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/F4IUHWJCCTJA3ZZSMSUM/full?target=10.1080/14486563.2020.1719439 Surf breaks are natural resources that have experienced degradation in many countries worldwide. In response, protection initiatives have been established that are typically led by non-governmental groups. In...
Article
New Zealand is at the forefront of global developments in the management of surf breaks. Since establishing legal protection under the New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement 2010 the focus has shifted to the implementation responsibilities of local government. Within this context, a new planning mechanism has evolved around the concept of identifyin...
Article
Interest in citizen science has been increasing worldwide, accompanied by research oriented at identifying needs and recommending options for supporting the field. In this context, synthesising research on citizen science is becoming increasingly important. This short communication reviews recent findings in the New Zealand literature with a focus...
Article
After New Zealand's 7.8 Mw Kaikōura earthquake in late 2016 an unexpected anthropogenic effect involved increased motorised vehicle access to beaches. We show how these effects were generated by landscape reconfiguration associated with coastal uplift and widening of high-tide beaches, and present analyses of the distribution of natural environment...
Preprint
Full-text available
After New Zealand's 7.8 Mw Kaikōura earthquake in late 2016 an unexpected anthropogenic effect involved increased motorised vehicle access to beaches. We show how these effects were generated by landscape reconfiguration associated with coastal uplift and widening of high-tide beaches, and present analyses of the distribution of natural environment...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Ecologists traditionally study how contemporary local processes, such as biological interactions and physical stressors, affect the distribution and abundance of organisms. By comparison, biogeographers study the distribution of the same organisms, but focus on historic, larger-scale processes that can cause mass mortalities, such as earthquake...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the resilience and recovery processes of coastal marine ecosystems is of increasing importance in the face of increasing disturbances and stressors. Large-scale, catastrophic events can re-set the structure and functioning of ecosystems, and potentially lead to different stable states. Such an event occurred in south-eastern New Zeala...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates factors contributing to the unexpected loss of a recreational Chinook salmon fishery in a reach of the Rangitata River in Canterbury, New Zealand. The Rangitata is one of only 14 rivers nationwide in which flows are protected by water conservation orders to provide for instream values in the face of competition from extracti...
Article
Full-text available
Widespread mortality of intertidal biota was observed following the 7.8 Mw Kaikoura earthquake in November 2016. To understand drivers of change and recovery in nearshore ecosystems, we quantified the variation in relative sea-level changes caused by tectonic uplift and evaluated their relationships with ecological impacts with a view to establishi...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report contributes to a collaborative project between the Marlborough District Council (MDC) and University of Canterbury (UC) which aims to help protect and promote the recovery of native dune systems on the Marlborough coast. It is centred around the mapping of dune vegetation and identification of dune protection zones for old-growth seed s...
Article
Full-text available
Barrier sandspits are biodiverse natural features that regulate the development of lagoon systems and are popular areas for human settlement. Despite many studies on barrier island dynamics, few have investigated the impacts of sea-level rise (SLR) on sandspits. In peri-urban settings, we hypothesised that shoreline environment change would be stro...
Article
Full-text available
Coastal marine ecosystems are under stress, yet actionable information about the cumulative effects of human impacts has eluded ecologists. Habitat-forming seaweeds in temperate regions provide myriad irreplaceable ecosystem services, but they are increasingly at risk of local and regional extinction from extreme climatic events and the cumulative...
Article
Full-text available
The November 2016 Kaikōura earthquake reshaped the coastal landscape causing significant impacts on the coastline and marine ecosystems. This article provides an overview of the coastal recovery process three and half years later based on results from an intensive monitoring programme across 130 km of coast.
Technical Report
Full-text available
This project investigated and trialled a spotlight-based approach for fish surveys with the objective of obtaining relative abundance data for a target species at a relatively large scale. The initial intention was to trial this general approach to explore the feasibility of completing catchment-wide surveys for shortjaw kōkopu (Galaxias postvectis...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Migratory fish such as the whitebait galaxiids (īnanga, banded kōkopu, koaro, shortjaw kōkopu and giant kōkopu) and eels require management interventions at the whole catchment scale given their migratory life-histories. These species were recognised in the Biodiversity Contingency Business Case (BCBC) approved by the Minister of Conservation and t...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Environment Canterbury (ECan) Regional Fish Habitat initiative provides a coordinated region-wide approach to identifying, prioritising and remediating fish habitat. Within this context, there is a particular need to assess barriers to fish passage which is important consideration for the management of migratory fish. This contributes to the co...
Article
Full-text available
Coastal News (74): 6-8. Available online https://www.coastalsociety.org.nz/assets/Publications/Coastal-News/CN-74-2021-3.pdf
Technical Report
Full-text available
The 7.8 magnitude Kaikōura earthquake in November 2016 caused extensive uplift along approximately 130 km of the north-eastern coastline of the South Island of New Zealand. This resulted in widespread mortality of marine organisms and alteration to the community structure and, in many places, the integrity of intertidal and subtidal rocky reefs. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Galaxias maculatus is a declining amphidromous fish that supports New Zealand’s culturally-important whitebait fisheries targeting the migratory juvenile stage. Spawning ground protection and rehabilitation is required to reverse historical degradation and improve fisheries prospects alongside conservation goals. Although spawning habitat has been...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Summary results from an online survey of public perceptions
Preprint
Full-text available
Galaxias maculatus is a declining amphidromous fish that supports culturally-important whitebait fisheries in New Zealand and elsewhere in the Pacific. As a largely annual species, the seasonal productivity of spawning grounds has a strong influence on the availability of recruits. Spawning ground protection is urgently required to reverse historic...
Article
Full-text available
Digital citizen science platforms are prominent examples of modern volunteerism that provide people with opportunities to observe natural phenomena and to engage in scientific processes. In this study, we explore the values and motivations underlying sustained participation in digital citizen science projects through the lenses of two social psycho...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A census survey of īnanga spawning activity was completed for the Punakaiki River during the 2020 summer. The survey concentrated on the known spawning location upstream of the State Highway road bridge and was designed to inform the implementation of channel enhancement works under the Sustainable Wild Whitebait Fishery (SWWF) project facilitated...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report responds to a request from Marlborough District Council (MDC) for information on the coastal environment, with a particular focus on supporting the development of a bylaw to address changes in recreational use patterns that have occurred since the Kaikōura earthquake. We present a selection of information from our earthquake recovery re...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Environment Canterbury (ECan) Regional Fish Habitat initiative provides a coordinated region-wide approach to identifying, prioritising and remediating fish habitat. This contributes to the conservation of migratory species that rely on waterway connectivity for completion of their life stages. This project addresses the absence of documented i...
Technical Report
Full-text available
River-corridor restoration and whitebait conservation in Steam Wharf Stream, Christchurch. Prepared for Christchurch City Council, July 2020. Available online at https://ccc.govt.nz/assets/Documents/Environment/Water/Monitoring-Reports/2020-reports/Inanga-Spawning-in-Steamwharf-Stream-2020.PDF
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report summarises results from field surveys of the Arahura River lagoon system to support the Arahura River Restoration Project on the South Island’s West Coast. The focus of these surveys was to improve the understanding of locations used by īnanga (Galaxias maculatus) for spawning. Īnanga is a migratory fish that is the most abundant of the...
Article
Vegetated coastal ecosystems (VCEs) are in global decline and sensitive to climate change; yet may also assist its mitigation through high rates of ‘blue’ carbon sequestration and storage. Alterations of relative sea-level (RSL) are pervasive drivers of change that reflect the interaction between tidal inundation regimes and ground surface elevatio...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A range of literature was reviewed and summary information compiled to support the development of a conservation prioritisation strategy for two migratory fish species (īnanga and shortjaw kōkopu) on the South Island’s West Coast. This strategy will support the development of migratory species recovery plans under the government-funded Bio18 progra...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Stream bank erosion and restoration of riparian spawning habitat in Opara Stream, Banks Peninsula. Prepared for Christchurch City Council, June 2020.
Technical Report
Full-text available
To help sustain the whitebait fishery and improve the conservation status of migratory galaxiids the Department of Conservation is facilitating the Sustainable Wild Whitebait Fishery (SWWF) project on the South Island’s West Coast. Key themes within the project include strategies for reversing the historical decline of whitebait species and the ide...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report summarises the results of habitat mapping completed in March 2020 to support the Sustainable Wild Whitebait Fishery (SWWF) Project on the South Island’s West Coast. Surveys of the tidal reaches of three waterway systems were completed. The objectives of each survey included assessment of riparian habitat condition for īnanga spawning u...
Article
Full-text available
River flow is one of the key determinants of the quality and value of white water recreational resources. However, water abstraction for activities such as irrigation and hydroelectric power generation may reduce the availability of preferred flows with consequential impacts on recreational river users. We evaluated kayaking and rafting values in t...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Īnanga (Galaxias maculatus) is a highly valued diadromous fish that supports a popular recreational fishery. However, the species is currently listed in the ‘at risk - declining’ category of the New Zealand Threat Classification System in recognition of historic declines. The scope of this project included development of a draft methodology for gui...
Article
• The Mw 7.8 earthquake that struck the north‐east coast of the South Island of New Zealand in November 2016 caused extensive upheaval, of up to 6 m, over 110 km of coastline. Intertidal habitats were greatly affected with extensive die‐off of algal communities, high mortalities of benthic invertebrates, and greatly reduced ecosystem functioning, s...
Technical Report
Full-text available
River restoration opportunities in Amelia Rogers Reserve. Prepared for Christchurch City Council, April 2019.
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Department of Conservation is facilitating the Sustainable Wild Whitebait Fishery (SWWF) project on the South Island’s West Coast. An important objective is the protection and enhancement of spawning habitat for īnanga (Galaxias maculatus). The initial stage of the project includes re-survey, mapping and threat evaluation at previously reported...
Preprint
Full-text available
Following the Canterbury earthquake sequence of 2010-11, a large and contiguous tract of vacated ‘red zoned’ land lies alongside the lower Ōtākaro / Avon River and is known as the Avon-Ōtākaro Red Zone (AORZ). This is the second report in the Ecological Regeneration Options (ERO) project that addresses future land uses in the AORZ. The purpose of t...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Restoration strategies for river banks in the lower Ōpāwaho / Heathcote River. Prepared for Christchurch City Council, December 2018.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A survey methodology for locating and mapping īnanga spawning sites near coastal rivermouths.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Īnanga spawning habitat quality Rapid assessment protocol for field surveys. Prepared for Canterbury Regional Council River Engineers, November 2018
Technical Report
Full-text available
Īnanga spawning habitat assessment for Alymers Stream, Banks Peninsula. Prepared for Christchurch City Council, November 2018.
Article
Full-text available
Reducing the pressure on juvenile fish through a focus on whitebaiting is unfortunately not a panacea because other factors are major influences on the total number of breeders and their eggs. In fact, a preoccupation on controlling whitebaiting might increase extinction risk if it contributed to inaction on other aspects. Because the lifecycle is...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Īnanga spawning survey of Linwood Canal and Steamwharf Stream. Prepared for Christchurch City Council, June 2018. Available online at https://ccc.govt.nz/assets/Documents/Environment/Water/Monitoring-Reports/2018-reports/Inanga-spawning-survey-of-Linwood-Canal-and-Steamwharf-Stream-2018.pdf
Technical Report
Full-text available
Īnanga spawning in Takamatua Stream, Banks Peninsula. Prepared for Christchurch City Council, May 2018. Available online at https://ccc.govt.nz/assets/Documents/Environment/Water/Monitoring-Reports/2018-reports/Inanga-spawning-in-Takamatua-Stream-2018.pdf
Article
• Galaxias maculatus is a riparian spawning fish that supports an important recreational fishery in New Zealand, with spawning habitat requirements strongly structured by salinity gradients at river mouths. This study reports changes to the spawning habitat following a series of large earthquakes that resulted in the widespread deformation of groun...
Article
Galaxias maculatus is a diadromous riparian-spawning fish that supports an important fishery. Eggs develop terrestrially as with several other teleost fishes. Spawning habitat occurs in specific locations near rivermouths and its protection is a conservation priority. However, quantifying the areas involved is hampered by high egg mortality rates o...
Preprint
Full-text available
We studied the effectiveness of conservation planning methods for Galaxias maculatus , a riparian spawning fish, following earthquake-induced habitat shift in the Canterbury region of New Zealand. Mapping and GIS overlay techniques were used to evaluate three protection mechanisms in operative or proposed plans in two study catchments over two year...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Canterbury earthquakes resulted in numerous changes to the waterways of Ōtautahi Christchurch. These included bank destabilisation, liquefaction effects, changes in bed levels, and associated effects on flow regimes and inundation levels. This study set out to determine if these effects had altered the location and pattern of sites utilised by...
Preprint
Full-text available
Galaxias maculatus is a riparian spawning fish that supports an important recreational fishery in New Zealand with spawning habitat requirements strongly structured by salinity gradients at rivermouths. This study reports changes to the spawning habitat following a series of large earthquakes that resulted in widespread deformation of ground surfac...
Article
Full-text available
Surf breaks are natural resources that provide substantial value to communities around the world. Following decades of coastal development that largely ignored these features, New Zealand and Australia have established innovative approaches for their protection. These are centred on national level initiatives that are now well established in coasta...
Article
Here, we describe a methodology for quantifying the spawning habitat of īnanga (Galaxias maculatus), a protected native fish species. Our approach is demonstrated with a survey of the Heathcote/Ōpāwaho following the Canterbury earthquakes that produced unexpected findings. Spawning habitat was detected over a 2.5 km reach and the area occupied by s...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Available from Christchurch City Council https://ccc.govt.nz/environment/water/waterways/waterway-monitoring
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report is the third and final report in the Ecological Regeneration Options (ERO) project series. Its purpose is to assist in developing integrated assessment methodologies for evaluating ecological regeneration options in the Avon-Ōtākaro Red Zone (AORZ). This is an important topic to ensure that their potential benefits are recognised alongs...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Following the Canterbury earthquake sequence of 2010-11, a large and contiguous tract of vacated ‘red zoned’ land lies alongside the lower Ōtākaro / Avon River and is known as the Avon-Ōtākaro Red Zone (AORZ). This is the second report in the Ecological Regeneration Options (ERO) project that addresses future land uses in the AORZ. The purpose of...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Canterbury region of New Zealand experienced a sequence of strong earthquakes during 2010-2011. Responses included government acquisition of many thousands of residential properties in the city of Christchurch in areas with severe earthquake effects. A large and contiguous tract of this ‘red zoned’ land lies in close proximity to the Ōtākaro /...
Presentation
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Presentation to Surf Medicine International Surfer’s Academy Symposium, 1 October 2016
Technical Report
Full-text available
The focus of this study is on understanding salinity changes in the vicinity of the freshwater-saltwater interface in estuarine ecosystems. In these areas, species, habitats and ecosystems that are adapted to brackish conditions are expected to migrate in response to salinity changes under sea level rise. For the Avon Heathcote Estuary in Christchu...
Article
Full-text available
Citizen science has come of age in New Zealand and there are a wide range of opportunities for coastal scientists and practitioners to make use of, or contribute to it. This article provides an overview of some recent highlights and progress with a focus on projects supported by NatureWatch NZ, a national platform for citizen science in New Zealand...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Īnanga (Galaxias maculatus) are known to use specific locations for spawning. These sites are on riparian margins in upper estuarine areas near the spring high tide waterline. Many anthropogenic activities that occur in the same area may present threats to the availability and condition of spawning sites. These factors suggest that spawning may be...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
New Zealand’s whitebait fishery is comprised mainly of inanga (Galaxias maculatus). The unique life history of this diadromous species includes obligate spawning in tidally inundated riparian vegetation in upper estuarine areas. At the time of European settlement, the riparian vegetation in inanga spawning sites likely comprised tall overarching fo...
Presentation
Full-text available
Īnanga (Galaxias maculatus) is a culturally important species known to utilise specific locations for spawning. These occur on the riparian margins of estuaries close to the spring high tide waterline. Many human activities in the same areas may present threats to the availability and condition of spawning habitat. The spatial ecology of spawning s...
Article
Full-text available
The design of shoreline protection initiatives is a cornerstone topic in the discourse on coastal climate change. Projects to restore degraded coastal margins are an important aspect of this field, and looking ahead, the avoidance of similar degradation issues is an important topic for planning. In recent years there has been considerable progress...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Mahinga Kai Exemplar (MKE) is a joint project between Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu, Ngāi Tūāhuriri Rūnanga, and the Avon Ōtākaro Network (AvON), with the assistance of many other organisations including CCC, ECan, DOC, and the Waterways Centre for Freshwater Management. The approach being taken is to develop an exemplar project at a peri-urban site t...
Presentation
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Overview of the NatureWatch NZ participatory science platform
Technical Report
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The purpose of this assessment is to compare records of known inanga spawning sites in the waterways of Ōtautahi Christchurch from before and after the Canterbury earthquakes, with particular emphasis on information used in the design of planning methods for spawning site protection. Environment Canterbury (ECan) has recently notified a list of kn...