Shalom H Schwartz

Shalom H Schwartz
Hebrew University of Jerusalem | HUJI · Department of Psychology

Ph.D

About

288
Publications
1,128,589
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82,058
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2011 - December 2016
National Research University Higher School of Economics
Position
  • scientific supervisor of international laboratory for social psychological research
November 2008 - June 2010
University of Bergen
Position
  • Professor
July 1979 - August 2015
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (288)
Article
Full-text available
Three studies address unresolved issues in value-behavior relations. Does the full range of different values relate to common, recurrent behaviors? Which values relate more strongly to behavior than others? Do relations among different values and behaviors exhibit a meaningful overall structure? If so, how to explain this? We find that stimulation...
Chapter
Full-text available
Values play an outsized role in the visions, critiques, and discussions of politics, religion, education, and family life. Despite all the attention values receive in everyday discourse, their systematic study took hold in mainstream psychology only in the 1990’s. This review discusses the nature of values and presents the main contemporary value t...
Article
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Affect is involved in many psychological phenomena, but a descriptive structure, long sought, has been elusive. Valence and arousal are fundamental, and a key question-the focus of the present study-is the relationship between them. Valence is sometimes thought to be independent of arousal, but, in some studies (representing too few societies in th...
Article
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Using data from two studies, we investigate the role of basic values in predicting academic achievement. We focus on self-direction and conformity, two-value domains that have been neglected or understudied in earlier research on academic success. In line with the refined value theory, we split self-direction into independence of thought and of act...
Article
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This repository of value instruments includes the numerous authorized language versions of each of the four instruments developed by Schwartz to measure the basic values in his theory: The Schwartz Value Survey (SVS), the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ40), the PVQ21 (aka the Human Values Scale of the European Social Survey [ESS21]), and the rev...
Data
Supplement to Assessment Article on PVQ-RR across 49 cultural groups
Preprint
This study examined the structural and genetic links between value orientations, based on the theory of basic values, and moral concerns, based on moral foundations theory. We hypothesized both structural and genetic convergence of Conservation (versus openness to change) with Binding foundations and of Self-transcendence (versus self-enhancement)...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the structural and genetic links between value orientations, based on the theory of basic values, and moral concerns, based on moral foundations theory. We hypothesized both structural and genetic convergence of Conservation (versus openness to change) with Binding foundations and of Self-transcendence (versus self-enhancement)...
Presentation
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An examination of various correlates of national differences in the level of value consensus within European countries, based on ESS data.
Preprint
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Research has found that value-behavior relations are usually weak to moderate. But is this really the case? This paper proposes that the relations of personal values to behavior are stronger at higher levels of value importance and weaker at lower levels. In a large, heterogeneous sample, we tested this proposition by estimating quantile correlatio...
Article
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Researchers around the world are applying the recently revised Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ-RR) to measure the 19 values in Schwartz’s (2017) refined values theory. We assessed the internal reliability, circular structure, measurement model, and measurement invariance of values measured by this questionnaire across 49 cultural groups (N = 53,4...
Article
Full-text available
Research has found that value-behavior relations are usually weak to moderate. But is this really the case? This paper proposes that the relations of personal values to behavior are stronger at higher levels of value importance and weaker at lower levels. In a large, heterogeneous sample, we tested this proposition by estimating quantile correlatio...
Article
Full-text available
A large body of cross-sectional research on personal values and subjective well-being (SWB) has inspired theories of the interplay between personal values and SWB. In the current registered report, we investigated which of these theories fit best with the longitudinal associations between values and cognitive and affective SWB. We hypothesized that...
Article
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Supplements 2-24 for The Longitudinal Interplay Between Personal Values and Subjective Well-Being: A Registered Report
Article
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We study relations of two value dimensions—self-enhancement versus self-transcendence and conservation versus openness to change—with attitudes to cultural diversity. We examine two potential moderators of the value–attitude link, the meaning and the level of cultural diversity. We operationalize the meaning as the perceived consequences of cultura...
Chapter
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Parent–child value similarity is often considered a hallmark of successful intergenerational socialization. Traditional approaches to the study of relationships among generations view value socialization as a top-down phenomenon in which parents transmit their values to their children in a unidirectional and often deterministic manner. Instead, in...
Article
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We assessed how religiosity is related to desired emotions. We tested two competing hypotheses. First, religiosity could be associated with a stronger desire for emotions that strengthen foundational religious beliefs (i.e., more awe and gratitude and less pride). Second, religiosity could be associated with a stronger desire for emotions that prom...
Article
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The theory of human values discriminated 10 basic values arrayed in a quasicircular structure. Analyses with several instruments in numerous samples supported this structure. The refined theory of human values discriminates 19 values in the same circle. Its support depends on one instrument, the revised Portrait Values Questionnaire. We introduce a...
Article
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People higher (vs. lower) in religiosity differ in the emotions they typically experience, but do they also differ in how they deal with their emotions? In this investigation, we systematically tested links between religiosity and elements of emotion regulation, including beliefs regarding the controllability of emotion, the motivation to feel bett...
Article
Objective: We examined patterns of change and stability in the whole set of ten Schwartz values over two years during early adolescence. Method: Participants completed the Portrait Values Questionnaire repeatedly throughout the junior high school years. The study involved six waves of data and a total of 382 respondents aged 10 years at the firs...
Article
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We identified behavioral signatures of the values distinguished in the Schwartz et al. refined value theory (2012). We examined behavioral signatures for two types of values, value states and value traits. We conducted two studies using innovative approaches. Study 1 used retrospective self-reports whereas Study 2 used self-reports in real time. In...
Article
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We examined the applicability of the hybrid model of creativity, which specifies distinct domains that all express an underlying general creativity factor, in data from representative samples from Central Russia and the North Caucasus (N = 2,046). Using multigroup confirmatory analysis, Study 1 supported the invariance of a model with the six unifa...
Article
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Chapter
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short biography
Article
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The circular structure of basic human values is the core element of the Schwartz value theory. The structure demonstrated high robustness across cultures. However, the specific correlations between values and the differences in these correlations across countries have received little attention. The current research investigated the within-country c...
Article
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The current study examines the extent to which religiosity account for ideological orientations in 16 countries from five continents (Australia, Brazil, Chile, Germany, Greece, Finland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Poland, Slovakia, Spain, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and the United States). Results showed that religiosity was consistently related...
Article
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This research is the first to assess directly Schwartz’s claim that the circular structure of values derives from value compatibilities or conflicts experienced in real-time behaviors. We differentiate two types of values: value traits guide perception and behavior over time and situations and value states guide real-time behavioral acts. We measur...
Chapter
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This chapter examines psychological and philosophical traditions in the study of values. It explores two perspectives on values that are useful for thinking about their role in understanding what it means to be human. The internal perspective focuses on the roles values play in the psychological functioning of people and how they relate to human es...
Article
Article impact statement: Conservation values are unlikely to change through intentional efforts.
Chapter
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Article
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We investigate the impact of the global financial crisis (GFC) on the personal values of youth and young adults (age 16–35 years) from 16 European countries. Using time series cross-sectional (TSCS) data from seven waves (2002–2014) of the European Social Survey (ESS), we examined (1) whether the GFC led to value shifts between cohorts of young peo...
Article
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The construct of values is central to many fields in the social sciences and humanities. The last two decades have seen a growing body of psychological research that investigates the content, structure and consequences of personal values in many cultures. Taking a cross-cultural perspective we review, organize and integrate research on personal val...
Article
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Which emotional experiences should people pursue to optimize happiness? According to traditional subjective well-being (SWB) research, the more pleasant emotions we experience, the happier we are. According to Aristotle, the more we experience the emotions we want to experience, the happier we are. We tested both predictions in a cross-cultural sam...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter introduces the refined theory of basic values, describes initial research with it, and presents the PVQ-RR that operationalizes it. The original theory of basic individual values (Schwartz, 1992) divided the value space into ten distinct values. This was an arbitrary scientific convenience. Nonetheless, for over 20 years, researchers h...
Chapter
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Since the theory of basic human values caught on in the mid-1990s, psychological research on values has expanded at a rapid pace. Values are finding their rightful place as an important aspect of personality. The current chapter discusses some of the more widely studied topics. Values are general beliefs about desirable goals, varying in importance...
Article
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The current study examines the contribution of left–right (or liberal–conservative) ideology to voting, as well as the extent to which basic values account for ideological orientation. Analyses were conducted in 16 countries from five continents (Europe, North America, South America, Asia, and Oceania), most of which have been neglected by previous...
Article
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In a recent article, De Raad and colleagues extended their lexical studies of the value vocabularies of single countries. They sought to attain both optimal coverage of the culturally unique values in three different countries and to find the structuring of the value domain that these countries share. The authors largely frame their lexical approac...
Article
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Background The article presents the first assessment of the structure and hierarchy of values using the Schwartz theory in Vietnam. Given the near-universal prevalence of the structure of values, we expected this to be found in Vietnam as well. Regarding the hierarchy of values, we expected the hierarchies in the Vietnamese samples to be quite dif...
Article
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We examined relations of 10 personal values to life satisfaction (LS) and depressive affect (DEP) in representative samples from 32/25 countries (N=121,495). We tested hypotheses both for direct relations and cross-level moderation of relations by Cultural Egalitarianism. We based hypotheses on the growth vs. self-protection orientation and person-...
Article
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The current study examines the contribution of right-left (or conservative-liberal) ideology to voting, as well as the extent to which basic values account for ideological orientation. Analyses were conducted in 16 countries from 5 continents (Europe, North-America, South-America, Asia, and Oceania), most of which have been neglected by previous st...
Article
Full-text available
The theory of human values (Schwartz, 1992) discriminated 10 basic values arrayed in a quasi-circular structure. Analyses with several instruments in numerous samples supported this structure (Schwartz, 2015). The refined theory of human values (Schwartz et al. 2012, in press) discriminates 19 values in the same circle. Its support depends on one i...
Article
Full-text available
Values are a central personality construct and the importance of studying them has been well established. To encourage researchers to integrate measures of values into their studies, brief and ultrabrief instruments were developed to recapture the 10 values measured by the 40-item Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ; Schwartz, 2003 Schwartz, S. H. (...
Article
Available online xxxx Recently, Schwartz et al. (2012) proposed a refined theory of human values distinguishing between 19 values, instead of the original 10, some of which derive from a finer partitioning of previously broader values. Alongside these refinements in the theory a new questionnaire PVQ-RR was developed and has been tested and validat...
Article
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The hope for creating widespread change in social values has endured among conservation professionals since early calls by Aldo Leopold for a “Land Ethic”. However, there has been little serious attention in conservation to the fields of investigation that address values, how they are formed, and how they change. We introduce a social-ecological sy...
Article
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The refined theory of 19 basic human values was presented in 2012. Its discriminative validity and utility were associated with attitudes and beliefs, but not with behaviors, introducing an instrument for measuring the 19 values in different countries, but not in Brazil. Two studies, with three independent Brazilian samples, introduced this instrum...
Article
We examined four types of stability and change in values during young adulthood. 270 respondents (aged 20-28, 54% female) completed the Portrait Values Questionnaire at three time points, separated by 4 years. Rank-order stability coefficients of the 10 values averaged .69 (T1-T2) and .77 (T2-T3). The mean importance of conservation, self-transcend...
Preprint
Full-text available
Congruence between own and reference group values promotes life satisfaction. Does this effect extend to value congruence with others with whom one does not interact but who share socio-demographic characteristics? We constructed 36 socio-demographic categories in a representative Russian national sample (N=961). Correlations of individuals' values...
Chapter
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Article
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This study presents a new scale to measure work values. The Work Values questionnaire (WVal) consists of 10 sets of 5 value items that respondents rank for importance. Each item expresses 1 of the 10 basic values of the Schwartz theory in the work context. Seven hundred fifty-nine employees from 94 organizations responded to the WVal. Confirmatory...
Code
This is a manual for working with the PVQ-RR, the revised scale for measuring the 19 values in the refined theory of basic human values. It provides instructions for scoring the items into the 19 values, the earlier 10 values, and the higher order value types. It explains the use of centering and specifies which types of analysis should use centeri...
Chapter
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Article
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We assess the predictive and discriminant validity of the basic values in the refined value theory (Schwartz et al., 2012) by examining how value tradeoffs predict behavior in Italy, Poland, Russia, and the USA. 1857 respondents reported their values and rated their own and a partner’s behavior. Multigroup CFA supported the distinctiveness of the 1...
Chapter
Psychologists view values as an aspect of personality that underlies and motivates attitudes and behavior. We present overviews of Allport's motivational theory and Rokeach's cognitive theory, and elaborate on Schwartz's integration of earlier approaches. Schwartz defines values as transsituational goals, varying in importance, that serve as guidin...
Article
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Objective: To test whether the Schwartz (1992) value circle exists within individuals, not only across individuals, thereby providing evidence for the within-person rationale underlying the value circle. Method: We analyze responses from five samples (a representative sample in Britain, a general population sample in the USA, and university stud...
Article
We broaden the developmental focus of the theory of universals in basic human values (Schwartz, 1992, Advances in Experimental Social Psychology) by presenting supportive evidence on children's values from six countries: Germany, Italy, Poland, Bulgaria, the United States, and New Zealand. 3,088 7–11-year-old children completed the Picture-Based Va...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter presents the dominant theory of individual values in social psychology and sociology. Values are broad motivational goals that express what is important to people. The chapter identifies ten basic, motivationally distinct values that people in virtually all cultures implicitly recognize. It then presents the circular continuum that cap...
Article
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Values reflect how people want to experience the world; emotions reflect how people actually experience the world. Therefore, we propose that across cultures people desire emotions that are consistent with their values. Whereas prior research focused on the desirability of specific affective states or one or two target emotions, we offer a broader...
Chapter
Full-text available
Psychologists view values as an aspect of personality that underlies and motivates attitudes and behavior. We present overviews of Allport’s motivational theory and Rokeach’s cognitive theory, and elaborate on Schwartz’s integration of earlier approaches. Schwartz defines values as transsituational goals, varying in importance, that serve as guidin...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter briefly outlines my theory of cultural value orientations. Next, I use these orientations to map 77 national and ethnic groups around the world into cultural regions. I then turn to the key question: How do national scores on the cultural value orientations around 1995 relate to various indicators of progress over the next decade? For...
Article
Researchers recently introduced a refined theory of 19 basic human values. They demonstrated its utility and discriminant validity through associations with attitudes and beliefs, but not with behaviors. We assess the discriminant and predictive validity of the theory by examining associations of each value with everyday behaviors in a Russian samp...
Article
Although research has revealed a trend toward liberalization of ttitudes toward homosexuality in Western countries, acceptance of homosexuality differs remarkably among individuals and across countries. We examine the roles of individual value priorities and of national laws regarding homosexuality and the interaction between them in explaining app...
Article
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Gouveia et al. (2014) presented a functional theory of basic human values which they describe as an improvement on current dominant value models, in particular, the theory of Schwartz (1992). This comment responds to their unwarranted criticisms of the Schwartz theory. It emphasizes the centrality of the idea of a motivational continuum for a parsi...
Article
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One of the most frequently used procedures for measurement invariance testing is the multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA). Muthén and Asparouhov recently proposed a new approach to test for approximate rather than exact measurement invariance using Bayesian MGCFA. Approximate measurement invariance permits small differences between param...