Shaina M. Short

Shaina M. Short
University of Utah | UOU · Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy

PhD

About

25
Publications
3,106
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397
Citations
Citations since 2016
13 Research Items
294 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202201020304050
Introduction
Shaina M. Short currently works at the Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Utah.

Publications

Publications (25)
Preprint
Full-text available
In mammalian olfaction, inhalation drives the temporal patterning of neural activity that underlies early olfactory processing. However, it remains poorly understood how the neural circuits that process incoming olfactory information are engaged in the context of inhalation-linked dynamics. Here, we used artificial inhalation and two-photon calcium...
Article
Full-text available
In mammalian olfaction, inhalation drives the temporal patterning of neural activity that underlies early olfactory processing. It remains poorly understood how the neural circuits that process incoming olfactory information are engaged in the context of inhalation-linked dynamics. Here, we used artificial inhalation and two-photon calcium imaging...
Article
Full-text available
Respiration plays an essential role in odor processing. Even in the absence of odors, oscillating excitatory and inhibitory activity in the olfactory bulb synchronizes with respiration, commonly resulting in a burst of action potentials in mammalian mitral/tufted cells (MTCs) during the transition from inhalation to exhalation. This excitation is f...
Data
Inhibition of sensory evoked excitation following burst respiratory firing. (A) Example polar plot data of stimulated (red, pink: ±SE) and control (black, grey: ±SE) activity from a simulation with periglomerular and granule cell inhibition. (B) Diagram of circuit with neurons colored to match corresponding traces below. Color-coded voltage traces...
Data
Polar plots comparing periglomerular and mitral cell activity with and without stimulation. Three polar plots of neuronal activity across the respiratory cycle corresponding to the circuit diagram in Fig 7A. Respiration was set to produce 200 excitatory inputs and the sensory input was varied to produce 60, 120, and 180 excitatory inputs. Black lin...
Data
Increased glomerular column interconnectivity allows periglomerular inhibition to effectively shift mitral cell activity in response to small sensory inputs. (A) Diagrams of circuits corresponding to their polar plots in B. As in Fig 9, the black circle represents the column receiving the additional sensory synaptic events, whereas the white circle...
Data
Diagram of the optical stimulus paradigm. (A) A schematic of a series of 5 images that were similar to the ~3000–5000 images that were projected onto the dorsal surface of that olfactory bulb during each MTC extracellular recording. Single blocks of light were individually projected onto unique regions of the dorsal OB to avoid repeatedly stimulati...
Data
Comparison of intra- and inter-periglomerular inhibition. Three simulations were performed where (A) both lateral and reciprocal PG synapses were intact (same as in Fig 7), (B) the interglomerular lateral PG synapse was removed, or (C) the reciprocal intraglomerular PG synapse was removed. Below these models are their corresponding polar plots in (...
Data
Addition of external tufted cells did not affect phase gating of sensory evoked responses. (A) A simple circuit diagram of the neural model with external tufted cells (ETC). (B) Polar plots of stimulated (red, pink: ±SE) and control non-simulated (black, grey: ±SE) conditions with all synaptic connections as shown in (A) but without GC inhibition....
Data
Lateral inhibition decreases respiratory activity when multiple secondary glomeruli are activated. (A) Schematic of the circuit model. One recording is obtained from one mitral cell (black, left). This neuron received only respiratory inputs at its glomerulus. A second mitral cell (grey) receives both respiratory and additional sensory inputs (mimi...
Data
Computational model input strengths. Inputs to the models for both the respiration and light stimulus were modeled as synaptic events in the olfactory sensory neurons generated by Gaussians of Poisson distributed processes. The Gaussian peaks were varied while their half widths were always 30 milliseconds. (A) The table gives the average number of...
Article
Full-text available
Thin basal dendrites can strongly influence neuronal output via generation of dendritic spikes. It was recently postulated that glial processes actively support dendritic spikes by either ceasing glutamate uptake or by actively releasing glutamate and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). We used calcium imaging to study the role of NR2C/D-containing N-met...
Article
Full-text available
Author Summary Olfactory receptor neurons respond to odors in the olfactory epithelium located in the nasal cavity in mammals. Each olfactory receptor neuron expresses only one olfactory receptor, out of several hundred encoded in the mammalian genome. Olfactory receptor neurons expressing the same olfactory receptor are scattered throughout the ol...
Article
Full-text available
The mammalian olfactory system processes odorants presented orthonasally (inhalation through the nose) and also retronasally (exhalation), enabling identification of both external as well as internal objects during food consumption. There are distinct differences between ortho- and retronasal air flow patterns, psychophysics, multimodal integration...
Article
Full-text available
In neocortical pyramidal neurons, action potentials (APs) propagate from the axon into the dendritic tree to influence distal synapses. Traditionally, AP backpropagation was studied in the thick apical trunk. Here, we used the principles of optical imaging developed by Cohen to investigate AP invasion into thin dendritic branches (basal, oblique, a...
Article
Full-text available
Molecular genetic studies are typically performed on homogenized biological samples, resulting in contamination from non-neuronal cells. To improve expression profiling of neurons we combined patch recordings with single-cell PCR. Two iPSC lines (healthy subject and 22q11.2 deletion) were differentiated into neurons. Patch electrode recordings were...
Article
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) contains neural networks essential for cognitive, emotive, and executive function. Cortical layer 1 is densely innervated by axonal afferents projecting from the association cortices, thalamus, and midbrain. These layer 1 axons intercept the apical tuft dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5P) and release a variety o...
Article
Full-text available
Optimal dopamine tone is required for the normal cortical function; however it is still unclear how cortical-dopamine-release affects information processing in individual cortical neurons. Thousands of glutamatergic inputs impinge onto elaborate dendritic trees of neocortical pyramidal neurons. In the process of ensuing synaptic integration (inform...
Article
Full-text available
We tested if dopaminergic drugs can improve the protocol for in vitro differentiation of H9 hESC into dopaminergic neurons. The expression of 5 dopamine receptor subtypes (mRNA and protein) was analyzed at each protocol stage (1-Undifferentiated hESC, 2-Embryoid bodies, 3-Neuroepithelial rosettes, 4-Expanding neuroepithelium and 5-Differentiating n...
Article
Full-text available
Repetitive synaptic stimulation overcomes the ability of astrocytic processes to clear glutamate from the extracellular space, allowing some dendritic segments to become submerged in a pool of glutamate. This dynamic arrangement activates extrasynaptic NMDA receptors located on dendritic shafts. We used voltage-sensitive and calcium-sensitive dyes...
Article
Full-text available
Neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells hold promise for the therapy of neurological diseases. Quality inspection of human embryonic stem cell-derived neurons has often been based on immunolabeling for neuronal markers. Here we put emphasis on their physiological properties. Electrophysiological measurements were carried out systematically...
Article
Full-text available
In the field of cortical cellular physiology, much effort has been invested in understanding thick apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons and the regenerative sodium and calcium spikes that take place in the apical trunk. Here we focus on thin dendrites of pyramidal cells (basal, oblique, and tuft dendrites), and we discuss one relatively novel form...
Article
This study focused on a sugar and nitrogen uptake symbiotic relationship between Medicago truncatula legumes and Sinorhizobium meliloti rhizobia bacteria through cultivation, plant fitness, and data collection. Different genomic populations of legumes were studied to find variations in the mutual responses of each population towards rhizobia strain...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
Subpopulations of inhibitory interneurons are hypothesized to control mechanisms of information processing in the brain, such as gain, tuning, normalization, and sensitivity, yet across neural systems, the unique roles of inhibitory cell types remain unclear and largely unstudied. As in all sensory systems, the olfactory bulb must conduct stimulus intensity coding, because without the ability to process odorant intensity, animals are unable to effectively forage, mate, and avoid predation, resulting in decreased survival rates and diluted social interactions. This work expands on previous in vitro experiments and tests predictions from computational neural circuit models for the first time in vivo. New two-photon imaging techniques will be optimized to assess inhibitory (periglomerular) and excitatory (mitral and tufted) cell intensity response functions simultaneously in vivo in the same anesthetized or awake animal and the same glomerulus during stimulation with the same panel of odorants. This new method will reduce data variability that arises when conducting experiments and comparing data across different animals, neural circuits, and odorant stimulations. This proposal will enable direct and novel comparisons across different cell populations. This proposal will also establish the unique roles of two inhibitory interneuron populations (periglomerular and granule cells) in shaping excitatory mitral and tufted cell responses during awake odor intensity dependent processing. Recently published methods for subtype specific expression of DREADDs (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs) will be applied in this proposal to manipulate periglomerular and granule cell inhibition in awake mice while they sample odorants varying in intensity. This proposal will elucidate fundamental circuit mechanisms and the roles of inhibitory interneurons used in odor intensity dependent processing in the olfactory bulb.
Project
Dopamine is known to control mechanisms of information processing throughout the brain, including gain control, tuning, and sensitivity modulation. The role of dopamine signaling is particularly important in the olfactory bulb since there is a dense population of dopaminergic local interneuron and dopamine receptors are expressed on nearly all cell types. Behaviorally, pharmacological manipulations of dopamine receptor activity is known to influence odor discrimination and detection thresholds. However, where, when, and how in vivo dopamine release shapes neural circuit function to process odor information is not well understood. Building upon earlier in vitro experiments, this proposed work tests predictions about patterns of dopamine release in the olfactory bulb in vivo for the first time using cutting edge genetically encoded optical probes to monitor dopamine release. Spatiotemporal patterns of odor-evoked dopamine transmission in awake mice will be monitored to assess how stimulus intensity, frequency and experience-dependent plasticity shape dopamine transmission in the olfactory bulb. Experiments will test the levels of dopaminergic interneuron activity required to trigger dopamine release. In addition to measuring dopamine release, I will use a novel dual-color imaging approach to capture both dopamine transmission and dopaminergic interneuron dynamics simultaneously during awake odor processing.