Shahzad Malik

Shahzad Malik

About

71
Publications
30,505
Reads
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927
Citations
Citations since 2017
24 Research Items
620 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150

Publications

Publications (71)
Article
Full-text available
The paradigm of dynamic shared access aims to provide flexible spectrum usage. Recently, Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has proposed a new dynamic spectrum management framework for the sharing of a 3.5 GHz (3550–3700 MHz) federal band, called a citizen broadband radio service (CBRS) band, which is governed by spectrum access system (SAS)....
Article
Full-text available
Spectrum access system (SAS) is a three-tier layered spectrum sharing architecture proposed by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for Citizens Broadband Radio Service (CBRS) 3.5 GHz band. The available 150 MHz spectrum is dynamically shared among Incumbent Access (IA), Primary Access Licensees (PAL) and General Authorized Access (GAA) user...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose an innovative self-organizing medium access control mechanism for a distributed cognitive radio network (CRN) in which utilization is maximized by minimizing the collisions and missed opportunities. This is achieved by organizing the users of the CRN in a queue through a timer and user ID and providing channel access in an...
Article
Full-text available
Blind-spots, where wireless signals do not reach within the coverage range, often emerge in a dynamic environment due to obstacles, geographical location or mobility of cellular users (CUs). Thus greatly reducing the overall system performance in terms of coverage and throughput. Relay-aided cognitive Device to Device (cD2D) communication system un...
Preprint
Full-text available
Fog devices are beginning to play a key role in relaying data and services within the Internet-of-Things (IoT) ecosystem. These relays may be static or mobile, with the latter offering a new degree of freedom for performance improvement via careful relay mobility design. Besides that, power conservation has been a prevalent issue in IoT networks wi...
Article
Full-text available
A cognitive radio network can be employed in any wireless communication systems, including military communications, public safety, emergency networks, aeronautical communications, and wireless-based Internet of Things, to enhance spectral efficiency. The performance of a cognitive radio network (CRN) can be enhanced through the use of cooperative r...
Data
Wolfram mathematica simulation files of "Enhanced Spectrum Access for QoS Provisioning in Multi-Class Cognitive D2D Communication System"
Article
Full-text available
Integration of Device-to-Device (D2D) communication into the cellular network can greatly enhance the spectrum utilization as well as creating additional communication opportunities. D2D can be combined with cognitive radio to further enhance spectrum utilization and cellular network performance. Unlike the traditional D2D communication approach wh...
Article
Full-text available
The focus of research efforts in cognitive radio networks (CRNs) has primarily remained confined to maximizing the utilization of the discovered resources. However, it is also important to enhance the user satisfaction in CRNs by finding a suitable match between the secondary users and the idle channels available from the primary network while taki...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive radio networks (CRNs) rely on sensing of the licensed spectrum of a primary network to dynamically ascertain underutilized portion of the spectrum, thus affording additional communication opportunities. In a CRN, a single homogeneous spectrum access, such as interweave only deprives the secondary users (SUs) of channel access during hando...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive radio networks have emerged to exploit optimally the scarcely-available radio spectrum resources to enable evolving 5G wireless communication systems. These networks tend to cater to the ever-increasing demands of higher data rates, lower latencies and ubiquitous coverage. By using the buffer-aided cooperative relaying, a cognitive radio...
Article
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This research focuses on a decomposed-weighted-sum particle swarm optimization (DWS-PSO) approach that is proposed for optimal operations of price-driven demand response (PDDR) and PDDR-synergized with the renewable and energy storage dispatch (PDDR-RED) based home energy management systems (HEMSs). The algorithm for PDDR-RED-based HEMS is develope...
Article
Full-text available
A demand response (DR) based home energy management systems (HEMS) synergies with renewable energy sources (RESs) and energy storage systems (ESSs). In this work, a three-step simulation based posteriori method is proposed to develop a scheme for eco-efficient operation of HEMS. The proposed method provides the trade-off between the net cost of ene...
Article
Full-text available
The Internet-of-Things (IoT) is the future of the Internet, where everything will be connected. Studies have revealed that Fog/Edge Computing (FEC)-based services will play a major role in extending the cloud by carrying out intermediary services at the edge of the network. Fog/Edge Computing-based IoT’s (FECIoT) distributed architecture enhances s...
Article
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Over the years, vertical handover necessity estimation has attracted the interest of numerous researchers. Despite the attractive benefits of integrating different wireless platforms, mobile users are confronted with the issue of detrimental handover. This paper uses extensive geometric and probabilistic techniques to develop a realistic and novel...
Article
Full-text available
Finding holes from the underutilized portion of spectrum at various times and locations is the most important function in cognitive radio networks (CRNs). This requires efficient sensing policy at the MAC layer that can discover more idle channels in less time. Whereas, the sensing policy depends on the channel sensing order that decides how a seco...
Article
Full-text available
A cognitive radio network has a high promise to improve spectrum utilization, through exploitation of spectrum holes from the primary network. However, in a distributed environment, employing contention based random access, collisions and unattempted slots result in waste of the discovered holes. This waste is even costlier for a CRN as resources a...
Article
Full-text available
Self-calibrating GRAPPA operator gridding (SC-GROG) is a method by which non-Cartesian (NC) data in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are shifted to the Cartesian k-space grid locations using the parallel imaging concept of GRAPPA operator. However, gridding with SC-GROG becomes computationally expensive and leads to longer reconstruction time when...
Article
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GRAPPA (Generalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel Acquisition) is a widely used parallel MRI reconstruction technique. The processing of data from multichannel receiver coils may increase the storage and computational requirements of GRAPPA reconstruction. Random projection on GRAPPA (RP-GRAPPA) uses random projection (RP) method to overcome t...
Article
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Goal The aim of this paper is to conduct a comprehensive comparative analysis between five different controllers for a drug infusion system in total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) administration. Methods The proposed method models a dilution chamber with first order exponential decay characteristics to represent the pharmacokinetic decay of a drug....
Article
Hypnosis-level regulation is the major goal of anesthesia infusion during surgical activities. Anesthesia involves maintaining the suitable hypnosis level and pain-free feeling by injecting several drugs in combination creating a synergistic effect. This research work focuses on the analysis of two nonlinear control techniques, i.e., sliding mode c...
Article
Full-text available
With the advancement in technology, there was need for efficient and high speed internet through which we could have access to multiple networks as per the user requirement. WLAN met this need to some extent but, due to its low range it was not recommended commercially. With the introduction of WiMAX there was an emerging need to select the best ne...
Article
Full-text available
We present a control strategy for nonlinear nontriangular uncertain systems. The proposed control method is a synergy between the dynamic adaptive backstepping (DAB) and integral sliding mode (ISM) and is referred to as DAB-ISMC. Our main objective is to find a recursive procedure to transform a nontriangular system into an implementable form that...
Article
Iris localization plays a decisive role in the overall iris biometric system’s performance, because it isolates the valid part of iris. This study proposes a reliable iris localization technique. It includes the following. First, it extracts the iris inner contour within a sliding-window in an eye image using a multi-valued adaptive threshold and t...
Article
Full-text available
The authors propose a new tracking control design strategy for uncertain non-linear systems which are convertible to Semi-Strict Feedback Form (SSFF). The system in SSFF is first converted into new variables via existing adaptive backstepping control techniques. The control law is obtained by combining adaptive backstepping procedure and higher ord...
Article
Full-text available
Pakistan has been facing the problem of energy shortages and the problem has deteriorated under successive governments. A burning need of the hour is to devise proper strategy for utilizing the available resources and making Pakistan self-sufficient in energy requirements. Different segments of the society have discussed on the feasible issues and...
Article
The iris biometric recognizes a human based on his/her iris texture, which is a stable and unique feature for every individual. A typical iris biometric system performs better for the ideal data, which is acquired under controlled conditions. However, its performance degrades when localizing iris in non-ideal data containing the noisy issues, e.g.,...
Article
Full-text available
These days most of the research work in the area of filter-antenna design is focused on having high quality factor for certain frequency band. These type of filter-antennas are difficult to design as the design engineers are required to have low quality factor for the radiating band of frequency. Hence a precise value of $Q$ -factor is required t...
Article
In this work, we devise a vertical handover necessity estimation (HNE) method to minimize unnecessary handovers for a mobile node (MN) entering a WLAN cell. The method relies on a new model for prediction of dwell time and computation of certain threshold values. By comparing the predicted dwell time with those thresholds, a MN is able to make deci...
Article
Low power and real time very large scale integration (VLSI) architectures of motion estimation (ME) algorithms for mobile devices and applications are presented. The power reduction is achieved by devising a novel correction recovery mechanism based on algorithms which allow the use of reduced bit sum of absolute difference (RBSAD) metric for calcu...
Article
This paper presents the simulation study of “Host based autonomous Mobile Address Translation” using NCTUns simulator. It is a network layer, end-to-end vertical handover solution, based upon modification of “Mobile IP with address Translation”. Vertical handover approaches generally require new network elements, a new layer in TCP/IP stack, or fix...
Article
Full-text available
The vibrant cellular mobile business in Pakistan is proving one of the most opportunistic environments for mobile operators, and, as such, its development is of increasing interest to network operators around the world. Devising strategies for the introduction of 3G/4G/Long Term Evolution (LTE) is paramount, however, and must take into account a nu...
Article
It is desirable to maximize the WLAN usage in integrated heterogeneous network environment due to its high speed access and low access cost. We have modeled under geometry and mobility effects to dynamically estimate the distance of a mobile terminal from the access point at which the handover must be triggered to keep probability of handover failu...
Article
Full-text available
Channel Equalization plays an important role in reducing distortion and Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) to improve the quality of transmission in Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) channel. Many equalization techniques have been proposed in the past but the proposed techniques in this paper describes Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) equalizer architecture which...
Article
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Least Mean Square (LMS) has been the most popular scheme in the realization of adaptive beamforming algorithms. In this paper a Robust Least Mean Square (R-LMS) algorithm is proposed which uses ratio parameters to control the contribution of product vectors in the weight upgrading process. The idea behind the proposed scheme is inclusion of previou...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we suggest a host based, end-to-end selfreliant scheme for handover in heterogeneous network environment. It directly involves the correspondent node in the handover process. The proposed scheme imitates the Network Address Translation. It maps a logical address to another logical address. It modifies the address information in the he...
Article
Full-text available
Prognostic utility of microvolt T-wave alternans (TWA) has been established since its clinical acceptance as marker for malignant ventricular arrhythmias, leading to sudden cardiac death. Accurate detection of TWA from surface ECG is a challenge because of invisible nature of the phenomenon. A novel TWA detection scheme based upon analysis of conti...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we have provided a model to minimize the unnecessary handovers from a cellular network to a WLAN. Exploiting traveling distance prediction method, the proposed handover necessity estimation mechanism uses distance threshold parameters to avoid unnecessary handovers. Our analysis and simulation results suggest that the proposed mechan...
Article
Due to the limited bandwidth and large propagation delays experienced in underwater sensor networks, the challenges and planning requirements are different compared to their terrestrial counterparts. Underwater sensor networks can be deployed for industrial and scientific benefits such as pollution monitoring. The designing and working of an underw...
Article
In this paper, we present a detailed framework consisting of modeling of routing overhead generated by three widely used proactive routing protocols; Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Fish-eye State Routing (FSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR). The questions like, how these protocols differ from each other on the basis of imple...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, mobile devices with multihoming capabilities i.e. equipped with multiple network interfaces have gained large scale popularity. This multihoming capability enables the mobile devices to connect with multiple diverse access networks simultaneously. However, networking protocol stack implemented in current devices is not capable of e...
Article
In this paper, we have modeled the routing over- head generated by three reactive routing protocols; Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and DYnamic MANET On-deman (DYMO). Routing performed by reactive protocols consists of two phases; route discovery and route maintenance. Total cost paid by a protocol for efficie...
Article
This paper presents a novel approach for the automatic localization of pupil and iris. Pupil and iris are nearly circular regions, which are surrounded by sclera, eyelids and eyelashes. The localization of both pupil and iris is extremely important in any iris recognition system. In the proposed algorithm pupil is localized using Eccentricity based...
Article
Full-text available
There have been various emerging trends in the deployment of telecom networks recently. Due to liberalization and technological advancements a common core network for voice and data based on MPLS has been implemented by Telecom service providers. By offering a variety of data and multimedia services, the revenue generating process can also be maxim...
Article
Full-text available
Long Term Evolution (LTE) represents the standardization efforts by 3GPP for developing a new high data rate radio access technique for the mobile cellular communication systems. Long Term Evolution provides a smooth evolutionary for the existing 2 and 3 generation (2G and 3G) n d rd systems and is the next step towards the next generation known as...
Article
Full-text available
A key component in cognitive radios systems is the spectrum sensing. Cognitive radios are increasingly being considered to overcome the shortage and inefficiency of current static spectrum allocations. Spectrum sensing involves the detection of the primary user transmissions on a pre-assigned frequency band. If this particular band is not currently...
Article
Full-text available
Following the worldwide success of GSM/EDGE, the 3GPP is in the process of standardizing EDGE Evolution that will be a step further in improving performance, efficiency and other capabilities. Evolved EDGE delivers data rates comparable to 3G networks, using the same GSM spectrum. W ith EDGE Evolution service performance can be improved, thus enabl...
Article
Full-text available
IEEE802.11 working group has provided an enhancement to previous IEEE802.11 WLAN standard designated as IEEE802.11e to offer improved quality of service (QoS) to multimedia and other real time applications. The focus of this work is to analyze and compare the QoS performance of IEEE802.11e and IEEE802.11 WLAN medium access protocols. Latency, Throu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With a variety of access technologies available, the demand for mobile multimedia applications has increased enormously. Supporting these multimedia applications with varied quality of service (QoS) requirements while maximizing the resource utilization is a challenging task. One important factor is the transport protocol that significantly affects...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
IEEE recently standardized 802.21-2008 Media Independent Handover (MIH) standard. MIH is a key milestone toward the evolution of integrated heterogeneous 4G wireless networks. MIH provides number of link layer events in a unied way that facilitate upper layer proto- cols in making handover decisions. One such event is Link Going Down (LGD) trigger....
Chapter
Full-text available
Vertical handover decision algorithm that is based on user preferences and coupled with Media Independent Handover (MIH) local triggers have not been explored much in the literature. We have developed a comprehensive cross-layer solution, called Vertical Handover Decision (VHOD) approach, which consists of three parts viz. mechanism for collecting...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Whenever a mobile node moves across different networks, service disruption occurs thus making mobility management a key issue. In order to ensure the continuity of TCP session between communicating nodes, a number of protocols have been proposed so far. These protocols may be classified into two main categories: end-to-end and network-centric. As e...
Article
Full-text available
Mobile IP is the IETF's default standard for provision of mobile communication. An issue related to the QoS of Mobile IP is the Handoff procedure, which results in more latency and data loss for moving nodes. This is primarily due to the delay in Registration process, slower movement detection and longer path taken by the data to reach the Mobile N...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As the internet continues to grow and mature, transmission of multimedia content is expected to increase and comprise a large portion of overall data traffic. The internet is becoming increasingly heterogeneous with the advent and growth of diverse wireless access networks such as WiFi, 3G Cellular and WiMax. The provision of quality of service (Qo...