Severino Zara

Severino Zara
Università degli Studi di Sassari, Sassari, Italy · Dipartimento di Agraria

PhD

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67
Publications
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1,130
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Publications

Publications (67)
Article
A multifunctional and sustainable packaging was developed based on a potato starch matrix loaded with a cyanidin-rich freeze-dried onion extract (OE) anchored on a halloysite-layered double hydroxide filler. Due to a distinct colour change that varies according to the environmental pH, the extract acts as a visual sensor of food quality and is stab...
Article
Virgin olive oil (VOO) provides an important source of healthy compounds. Its high concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds contribute toward its nutritional, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. VOO is used in the preparation of many dishes worldwide and forms a staple of the Mediterranean diet; however, the antim...
Article
Effects of 3 commercial lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants and 6 single strains of LAB on fermentation and levels of aflatoxins and other mycotoxins in high-moisture corn (HMC) silage were examined. Corn plants were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus at silk emergence and wet corn kernels were harvested at black layer stage (dry matter [DM]: 704...
Article
Effects of commercial and pure lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants on fermentation and levels of aflatoxins and other mycotoxins in corn silage that was experimentally contaminated in the field with a toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus (ITEM 8069) were determined. Late-season corn hybrid plants were inoculated with A. flavus at silk emergence...
Article
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From a ‘farm to fork’ perspective, there are several phases in the production chain of fruits and vegetables in which undesired microbial contaminations can attack foodstuff. In managing these diseases, harvest is a crucial point for shifting the intervention criteria. While in preharvest, pest management consists of tailored agricultural practices...
Article
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The production of saffron spice generates large quantities of plant by-products: over 90% of the plant material collected is discarded, and a consideration fraction of this waste is plant stamens. This work investigated the chemical composition and the antimicrobial activities of the non-polar fraction extracted from four different saffron flower s...
Article
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Sixty-four corn silages were characterized for chemicals, bacterial community, and concentrations of several fungal metabolites. Silages were grouped in five clusters, based on detected mycotoxins, and they were characterized for being contaminated by (1) low levels of Aspergillus- and Penicillium-mycotoxins; (2) low levels of fumonisins and other...
Article
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The soil yeast Tetrapisispora phaffii secretes a killer toxin, named Kpkt, that shows β-glucanase activity and is lethal to wine spoilage yeasts belonging to Kloeckera/Hanseniaspora, Saccharomycodes and Zygosaccharomyces. When expressed in Komagataella phaffii, recombinant Kpkt displays a wider spectrum of action as compared to its native counterpa...
Article
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Red yeasts grow on food wastes, show antagonistic activity against food-spoilage microorganisms, produce food supplements, and may be utilized as feed-supplements themselves to positively modulate the quali-quantitative composition of intestinal microbiota. Therefore, they show a variety of possible biotechnological applications in agri-food-relate...
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This Special Issue collects original contributions in the form of review or research articles, dealing with different aspects of the preservation, characterization and exploitation of the biodiversity of bacteria, yeast, algae and filamentous fungi of different origins [...]
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Brewers’ spent grain (BSG) is the most abundant by-product of brewing. Due to its microbiological instability and high perishability, fresh BSG is currently disposed of as low-cost cattle feed. However, BSG is an appealing source of nutrients to obtain products with high added value through microbial-based transformation. As such, BSG could become...
Article
Kpkt is a yeast killer toxin, naturally produced by Tetrapisispora phaffii, with possible applications in winemaking due to its antimicrobial activity on wine-related yeasts including Kloeckera/Hanseniaspora, Saccharomycodes and Zygosaccharomyces. Here, Kpkt coding gene was expressed in Komagataella phaffii (formerly Pichia pastoris) and the biorea...
Article
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In natural environments, microorganisms form microbial aggregates called biofilms able to adhere to a multitude of different surfaces. Yeasts make no exception to this rule, being able to form biofilms in a plethora of environmental niches. In food realms, yeast biofilms may cause major problems due to their alterative activities. In addition, yeas...
Article
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Vermicomposting is a cost-effective biotechnology for the management of organic wastes that relies on the activity of earthworms and their associated microbiota. Here, the microbiotas of the earthworm Eisenia fetida fed with brewers’ spent grains (FBSG), cow manure (FCM) and a mix of brewers’ spent grains/cow manure (FMIX), were identified by high-...
Article
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Bacterial diversity of 15 extra virgin olive oils, obtained from different Italian varieties, including Frantoio, Coratina, Bosana, and Semidana, was analyzed in this study. All bacterial isolates were genotyped using RAPD and REP-PCR method and grouped by means of cluster analyses. Sequencing of 16S rDNA of 51 isolates, representative of 36 cluste...
Article
Contamination by Listeria monocytogenes is a particularly challenging problem in the food industry due to the ability of the bacterium to develop under conditions normally used for food preservation. Here, we show that the gaseous phase of Citrus limon var pompia leaf essential oil (hereafter PLEO) exerts specific anti-Listeria activity on ricotta...
Chapter
Yeast have a fundamental role in winemaking. They carry out alcoholic fermentation and they contribute to the quality of the wine, although they can also cause spoilage during grape must transformation and in the final product. To detect and identify wine yeast and control their activities, a plethora of different methods can be utilized. As report...
Article
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In order to contribute to the elucidation of the biological role of carotenoids, the cellular response to hydrogen peroxide was analyzed in the red yeast R. mucilaginosa. For that, the wild strain C2.5t1, that produces β-carotene, torulene, and torularhodin, and the albino mutant 200A6 that is incapable of producing detectable amounts of these caro...
Article
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Microbial biofilms are undesired in food manufacturing, drinking water distribution systems, and clinical realms. Yeast biofilms are particularly problematic because of the strong capacity of yeast cells to adhere to abiotic surfaces, cells, and tissues. Novel approaches have been developed over recent years to prevent the establishment of microbia...
Article
Essential oils (EOs) have long been recognized for their medicinal properties. Application of EOs in food preservation has gained recent interest as natural alternatives to conventional chemicals. Even though the properties of EOs are extensively documented, their effect on several food‐related microorganisms is yet to be explored. In this study, s...
Article
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Under anaerobic/hypoxic conditions, Saccharomyces cerevisiae relies on external lipid supplements to modulate membrane lipid fraction in response to different stresses. Here, transcriptomic responses of two S. cerevisiae wine strains were evaluated during hypoxic fermentation of a synthetic must with/without ergosterol and oleic acid supplementatio...
Article
Killer toxins are proteins that are often glycosylated and bind to specific receptors on the surface of their target microorganism, which is then killed through a target-specific mode of action. The killer phenotype is widespread among yeast and about 100 yeast killer species have been described to date. The spectrum of action of the killer toxins...
Article
This paper reports the preparation of green pesticides based on nano-hybrids composed of a Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) with cinnamate anion. The dispersion into a pectin matrix was obtained using high energy ball milling in wet conditions. Structure and physical properties of the fillers and the composites films were evaluated. Controlled releas...
Article
The olives are rich in microorganisms that, during the extraction process may persist in the oils and can influence their physicochemical and sensory characteristics. In this work, and for the first time, we isolated and identified microbial species, yeast and bacteria, present during the production process in four Sardinian (Italy) oleic ecosystem...
Article
Saffron may be spoiled by a variety of microorganisms during cultivation, harvesting, and post harvesting. As saffron can be dried and stored in different ways, this preliminary study explored the natural microbiota present in Moroccan saffron when subjected to different drying techniques. An analysis of the carotenoid-derived volatiles present in...
Article
Essential oils from 8 Cuminum cyminum local populations collected in Morocco were investigated for their chemical composition and antimicrobial activity. The chemical composition, investigated by gas chromatographic technique, revealed a common fingerprint in all Moroccan samples: twenty-five compounds were identified with γ-terpinen-7-al being the...
Article
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The chemical composition, antimicrobial activity and antioxidant activity of Mentha (M.) requienii, M. pulegium L. and M. aquatica (L.) Huds from Sardinia, Italy were tested. The chemical composition was determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) analysis. The antiradical activity was assess...
Article
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The use of natural antimicrobials from plants, animals and microorganisms to inhibit the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms is becoming more frequent. This parallels the increased consumer interest towards consumption of minimally processed food and ‘greener’ food and beverage additives. Among the natural antimicrobials of microbial o...
Article
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The most important dogma in white-wine production is the preservation of the wine aroma and the limitation of the oxidative action of oxygen. In contrast, the aging of Sherry and Sherry-like wines is an aerobic process that depends on the oxidative activity of flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under depletion of nitrogen and fermentable car...
Article
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Flor yeasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have an innate diversity of FLO11 which codes for a highly hydrophobic and anionic cell-wall glycoprotein with a fundamental role in biofilm formation. In this study, 380 nitrogen compounds were administered to three S. cerevisiae flor strains handling FLO11 alleles with different expression levels. S. cerevi...
Article
Background and AimsInteractions between different yeast species used as starters may lead to inconsistent results in mixed fermentations. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different nutrients on the association between a wine strain of Candida zemplinina (CDZ1) and a commercial wine strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (EC1118) in...
Article
Unlabelled: The aim of this work was to determine the chemical constituents and in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil (EO) of the aerial parts of Mentha sueveolens spp. insularis grown in Sardinia (Italy) against probiotic and starter microorganisms. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis allowed to identified 34...
Article
Tetrapisispora phaffii produces a killer toxin known as Kpkt that has extensive anti-Hanseniaspora/ Kloeckera activity under winemaking conditions. Kpkt has a β-glucanase activity and induces ultrastructural modifications in the cell wall of sensitive strains, with a higher specific cytocidal activity and a selective action towards target yeast cel...
Article
Pichia fermentans DiSAABA 726 is a dimorphic yeast that reversibly shifts from yeast-like to pseudohyphal morphology. This yeast behaves as a promising antagonist of Monilia spp. in the yeast-like form, but becomes a destructive plant pathogen in the pseudohyphal form thus raising the problem of the biological risk associated with the use of dimorp...
Article
Saccharomyces cerevisiae “flor” yeasts have the ability to form a buoyant biofilm at the air-liquid interface of wine. The formation of biofilm, also called velum, depends on FLO11 gene length and expression. FLO11 encodes a cell wall mucin-like glycoprotein with a highly O-glycosylated central domain and an N-terminal domain that mediates homotypi...
Article
Acetic acid inhibition of yeast fermentation has a negative impact in several industrial processes. As an initial step in the construction of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with increased tolerance for acetic acid, mutations conferring resistance were identified by screening a library of deletion mutants in a multiply auxotrophic genetic backgro...
Article
When inoculated in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the yeast Lachancea thermotolerans determines a reduction of volatile acidity and an increase in the production of glycerol, 2-phenylethanol, and polysaccharides. Moreover, L. thermotolerans is a natural L-lactic acid producer, thus it contributes to wine acidification and microbiologica...
Article
In this work eighteen red yeasts were screened for carotenoids production on glycerol containing medium. Strain C2.5t1 of Rhodotorula glutinis, that showed the highest productivity, was UV mutagenized. Mutant 400A15, that exhibited a 280 % increase in β-carotene production in respect to the parental strain, was selected. A central composite design...
Article
Air-liquid biofilm formation is largely dependent on Flo11p and seems related to cell lipid content and composition. Here, it is shown that in the presence of cerulenin, a known inhibitor of the fatty acid synthase complex, biofilm formation is inhibited together with FLO11 transcription in a flor strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while the admin...
Article
Pichia fermentans DiSAABA 726 is a biofilm-forming yeast that undergoes dimorphic transition. Under yeast-like morphology it controls brown rot caused by Monilia spp. on apple fruit, while under pseudohyphal form, it shows pathogenic behaviour itself on peach fruit. The present study investigates the nutritional factors that induce and separate yea...
Article
Air-liquid biofilm formation appears to be an adaptive mechanism that promotes foraging of Saccharomyces cerevisiae flor strains in response to nutrient starvation. The FLO11 gene plays a central role in this phenotype as its expression allows yeast cells to rise to the liquid surface. Here, we investigated the role of ammonium depletion in air-liq...
Article
The influence of fenamidone ((S)-1-anilino-4-methyl-2-methylthio-4-phenylimidazolin-5-one), pyraclostrobin (methyl 2-[1-(4-chlorophenyl)pyrazol-3-yloxymethyl]-N-methoxycarbanilate), indoxacarb (methyl 7-Chloro-2,5-dihydro-2-[[(methoxycarbonyl) [4- (trifluoromethoxy) phenyl] amino] carbonyl] indeno[1,2-e][1,3,4] oxadiazine-4a(3H)-carboxylate), and d...
Article
Full-text available
Flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae form a biofilm on the surface of wine at the end of fermentation, when sugar is depleted and growth on ethanol becomes dependent on oxygen. Here, we report greater biofilm formation on glycerol and ethyl acetate and inconsistent formation on succinic, lactic, and acetic acids.
Article
During fermentation of high-sugar-containing medium lacking lipid nutrients, wine yeasts undergo oxidative stress and oxidative damage to cell membranes and proteins. Considering that cell membranes are important stress sensors, and that under hypoxic conditions wine yeasts modulate cell membranes composition by incorporating lipids available in th...
Article
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In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, FLO11 encodes an adhesin that is associated with different phenotypes, such as adherence to solid surfaces, hydrophobicity, mat and air-liquid biofilm formation. In the present study, we analysed FLO11 allelic polymorphisms and FLO11-associated phenotypes of 20 flor strains. We identified 13 alleles of different lengths...
Article
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAS2 gene switches on cAMP-PKA and MAPK pathways (Sengupta et al ., 2006) that, in turn, regulate FLO11 gene. This gene is involved in many cell-cell adhesion phenotypes like pseudohyphae formation, adhesive growth and biofilm formation (Reynolds and Fink, 2001; Zara et al ., 2005; Fidalgo et al ., 2006). The aim of this...
Article
The importance of lipid nutrition and lipid metabolism during must fermentation has been recently recognized by some authors (Belviso et al. , 2004; Mannazzu et al. , 2008; Zara et al. , 2008 and references therein). In particular it has been shown that during the first hours of fermentation in the absence of exogenous lipids, the induction of key...
Article
To verify a possible correlation between cell lipid composition, expression of key genes in lipid metabolism and fermentative behaviour of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains. The fermentative abilities of two commercial wine strains of S. cerevisiae were tested under stressful conditions. Cell number, glucose and fructose concentrations, express...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Fermentation by autochthonous yeasts may produce wines with enological properties that are unique of a specific area or variety of grape must. In order to identify yeast starter strains for the production of the Sardinian wine Cannonau DOC, 66 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, isolated from musts and wines Cannonau of six vitivinicole areas in Sard...
Article
Full-text available
Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram positive bacterium that is used for the production of biopesticides. The toxic action of different strains and serovars ofB. thuringiensis can be extremely selective towards specific pests, or, in contrast, it can affect a wide variety of non-target organisms such as insects, vertebrates or humans. A reliable charac...
Article
A gas chromatographic ion-trap mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS) method was developed for the determination of the fungicide zoxamide in grape, must, wine, and spirits. Samples were extracted with hexane and analyzed without any clean up. The gas chromatograph was fitted with a carbofrit inserted into the glass liner to allow large volume injections. Ana...
Article
Saccharomyces cerevisiae flor yeasts, which are subjected to stressful conditions during wine ageing, exhibit a number of characteristics which distinguish them from non-flor S. cerevisiae wine strains. In the present work, 22 flor and 14 non-flor S. cerevisiae wine strains are compared, in order to elucidate other possible peculiarities of these y...
Article
Full-text available
Sardinian wine strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae used to make sherry-like wines form a biofilm at the air-liquid interface at the end of ethanolic fermentation, when grape sugar is depleted and further growth becomes dependent on access to oxygen. Here, we show that FLO11, which encodes a hydrophobic cell wall glycoprotein, is required for the ai...
Article
Several mutations in genes involved in Saccharomyces mating type switching may affect the homothallic behaviour in wine yeasts. In this study the semi-homothallic (Hq) segregation of a flor wine yeast strain was analysed. We aimed to understand the molecular basis of this behaviour in a flor autochthonous strain, verifying the MAT locus status by a...
Article
Sardinian sherry strains of S. cerevisiae form a biofilm on the surface of wine at the end of the ethanolic fermentation, when grape sugar is depleted and when further growth becomes dependent on access to oxygen. A point mutation in HSP12 or deletion of the entire gene results in inability to form this film. HSP12 encodes a heat-shock protein prev...
Article
Sardinian sherry strains of S. cerevisiae form a biofilm on the surface of wine at the end of the ethanolic fermentation, when grape sugar is depleted and when further growth becomes dependent on access to oxygen. A point mutation in HSP12 or deletion of the entire gene results in inability to form this film. HSP12 encodes a heat-shock protein prev...

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Projects (2)
Project
We work on flor yeast that are able to form a biofilm or pellicle on the top of sherry wines. We are using these special yeast as model for yeast biofilm and we are trying to control the biofilm formation by the utilization of small molecules as amino acids or small peptides.