Research Items (34)
Objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of partial substitution of barley grain with bread by-product (BB) on performance of Awassi ewes and their lambs. Forty Awassi ewes rearing single lambs were randomly allotted into four experimental diets containing various levels of BB. The experimental diets contained 0 (BB0), 10 (BB10), 15 (BB15), and 20% (BB20) of BB on dietary dry matter (DM). The study lasted for eight weeks, in which the first week was used as an adaptation period and seven weeks of data collection. Ewes and their lambs were penned individually where they were fed their lactating diets ad libitum. Ewes and lambs body weights were measured at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. However, milk production and composition were evaluated biweekly. Feeding BB had no effect (p>0.05) on dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) intakes. However, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake was the lowest (p
Bakery waste (BW) is much cheaper than barley (20 to 40% the price of barley). Bakery waste and barley grain have similar chemical composition; they contain 99 and 97% organic matter (OM), 1.1 and 1.8% fat, 18 and 15% neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and 14.0 and 14.5% crude protein (CP), respectively (DM basis). The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of substituting BW for barley grain in high concentrate fattening diets for lambs on nutrient intake, growth and carcass characteristics. Forty Awassi lambs (21.751 kg) weaned at the age of 65 days were assigned randomly to four experimental fattening diets differing in BW ratio in a completely randomized design. The control diet (CON) contained 20, 60, 11, 7, and 2% (DM basis) wheat straw, barley grain, soybean meal, corn grain, and minerals and vitamin mix, respectively. Bakery waste substituted barley grain by 10, 20 and 30% of the diet DM in the LBW, MBW and HBW diets, respectively. The experiment lasted for 56 days. Dry matter intake (DMI) decreased (p
- Feb 2009
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of wheat straw level on growth performance and carcass parameter of lambs fed high concentrate diets. Thirty-six Awassi lambs (17.9±1kg) were randomly assigned to four experimental high concentrate diets with various wheat straw levels in a completely randomized design for 58 days. The experimental diets were isonitrogenous (16% CP) and contained 0, 5, 10 and 15% wheat straw. Results gained indicated that intake of dry matter; crude protein and metabolizable energy of the high wheat straw diets (10 and 15%) were similar (P>0.05) and significantly higher (P
- Oct 2007
Our objective was to study the positive effects of partial replacement of barley grain for corn in high concentrate diets on growth performance of growing lambs, and to determine the minimum amount of corn needed to produce such effects. Thirty-three male Awassi lambs weaned at 60 days of age were divided into three groups of 11 according to their live weight and offered three isonitrogenous diets. The control diet (B) contained 81 and 14% barley grain and wheat straw, respectively (DM basis). Corn grain replaced barley grain at 10 and 20% of dietary DM for low (LC) and high (HC) corn diets, respectively. Barley had a higher (P
- Sep 2007
The objective of this study was to study the effect of fibrolytic enzyme (FE) inclusion on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of Awassi lamb fed on a high concentrate diet. Thirty weaned Awassi lambs (initial body weight=20.4±3.0 kg) were fed a high concentrate diet (with or without the addition of FE (15 lambs/treatment)) for 60 d in a completely randomized design. The diet contained 17, 7, 58.5, 15, and 2.5% wheat straw, wheat bran, barley grain, soybean meal and minerals, respectively. Lambs were fed ad libitum twice daily at 08:00 and 15:00 h. Dry matter, OM, CP, and NDF intakes were all similar (P>0.05) for lambs fed diet with or without the FE and averaged 1078, 941, 171, and 432 g/d, respectively. Metabolizable energy intake was also not affected (P>0.05) by the enzyme supplementation and averaged 2.87 Mcal/d. Dry matter, OM, CP, and NDF digestibilities were all unaffected (P>0.05) by the enzyme inclusion and averaged 64.8, 67, 65.7 and 60.4%. Final body weight, average daily gain, and feed to gain ratio were all unaffected (P>0.05) by the FE inclusion and averaged 34.9 kg, 222 g/d, and 5.4, respectively. In summary, FE treatment of high concentrate diet for lambs had no effect on nutrient intake or any of the growth performance parameters. Therefore, supplementing such diets with FE for fatting Awassi lambs is not recommended.
- May 2007
Fifteen Awassi lambs and 15 Baladi kids (males, averaging 14.3 kg) were used to study the differences in feeding behavior and performance of sheep and goats fed a concentrate finishing diet (CP = 16 kg/100 kg DM, ME = 2.85 Mcal/kg DM) in a complete randomized design experiment lasting 60 days. Dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intakes were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in lambs. Kids had higher (P < 0.05) apparent OM, crude protein (CP) and gross energy digestibilifies. No significant (P > 0.05) differences were observed in apparent neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility, eating, chewing and ruminating times. However, eating and ruminating times (as min/kg NDF intake) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in kids. Final body weight and average daily weight gain were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in lambs while kids had significantly (P < 0.05) lower feed to gain ratio. Feed cost per kilogram weight gain for kids was better than that for lambs. Results demonstrated that Awassi lambs consumed more feed and grew faster than Baladi kids. However, kids were more efficient feed converters than lambs. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- Sep 2006
Abstract New born male Awassi lambs were randomly assigned to one of two groups: intact (12 lambs) and castrated (12 lambs). After weaning (body weight = 21.0 kg) at the age of 70 days, lambs consumed a high concentrate diet ad libitum for 60 days after which all lambs were sacrificed. The metabolizable energy and CP content of the diet were 2.90 Mcal/kg and 16%, respectively (all in DM basis). Dry matter intake was higher for the castrated lambs as compared to intact animals. Castration had no effect on average daily gain (ADG). Feed to gain ratio for castrated lambs was significantly higher compared to intact lambs. Hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight and dressing percentages were all unaffected by castration. However, kidney fat for castrated lambs was significantly higher compared to the intact lambs. As a percentage of cold carcass weights, intact lambs had greater leg weights compared to the castrated lambs. Fat thickness on the loin area was higher for the castrated lambs. Castrated lambs’ legs had more total and subcutaneous fat compared to the intact lambs. Intact lambs had greater percentages of lean and bone in their legs as compared to the castrated lambs. In conclusion, castration did not affect ADG, cold carcass weight or dressing percentage of Awassi lambs. However, it reduced efficiency of feed utilization, increased subcutaneous fat and decreased carcass leanness. Therefore, due to local consumer preference of leaner carcasses with minimum subcutaneous fat, castration of Awassi lambs to be slaughtered approximately 130 days is not recommended under an intensive feeding system.
The objective was to compare the effects of royal jelly (RJ) and eCG treatments on reproductive performance of ewes synchronized using intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices. Forty-two cycling Awassi ewes were treated intramuscularly (i.m.) with 15 mg PGF2alpha. On the following day, all ewes were administered with CIDR-G for 12 days and were randomly allocated to three (RJ, eCG and control) groups of 14 ewes each. Ewes in the RJ-treated group received daily i.m. treatments of 400mg RJ during the period of CIDR-treatment. Each ewe in the eCG-treated group received an i.m. treatment of 500 IU eCG at the time of CIDR-G removal (day 0) and no further treatment was given to ewes in the control group. Ewes were exposed to four fertile rams for 72 h, from the time of CIDR-G removal, and checked for breeding marks at 6-h intervals. Blood samples were collected from day -13 until day 0 and thereafter until day 19 for progesterone analysis. Royal jelly treatment resulted in a greater rate of decline and lower (P<0.02) progesterone concentrations between days -10 and 0 than eCG-treated and control ewes. Expression of estrus was similar among the three groups and intervals to onset of estrus were shorter (P<0.01) in RJ-treated (31.3h) and eCG-treated (29.8h) than control (41.3h) ewes. First-cycle pregnancy and lambing rates were greater (P<0.05) in RJ-treated (71.4 and 71.4%) and eCG-treated (85.7 and 78.6%) than in control (42.9 and 35.7%) ewes, respectively. Results demonstrate that the treatments of RJ and eCG in conjunction with CIDR-G were similarly effective in induction of estrus and improvement of pregnancy and lambing rates.
- Feb 2006
Thirty-six male Awassi lambs, born within 8-day period, were reared on their mother's milk until they were weaned at 65 days of age. After weaning, lambs were divided into 3 groups of 12, according to their live weight, and housed in individual pens and offered three isonitrogenous experimental diets. The experimental diets consisted of a 15 to 85 forage to concentrate ratio differing in the proportions of soybean meal (SBM) and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) grain. Soybean meal and bitter vetch grain were present in the experimental diets in the following proportions: 14:0% (S), 7:8.4% (SV) and 0:15% (V), all on dry matter basis. The experiment lasted for 80 days in which lambs had ad libitum access to feed. Organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intakes were all unaffected (P>0.05) by the dietary treatment and averaged 875, 152 and 226 g/day, respectively. However, intake of rumen undegradable protein was decreased in the SV and V diets as compared to the S diet. Dry matter, OM, CP, NDF and energy digestibilities were all unaffected (P>0.05) by the dietary treatment. Average daily gain (ADG) of all lambs was not affected by the dietary treatment and averaged 196 g/day. Feed to gain ratio was also unaffected by the treatment and averaged 5.3. However, feed cost/kg body weight change was reduced by more than 9% with the substitution of SBM with bitter vetch grain. In conclusion, partial or complete substitution of SBM with bitter vetch grain did not affect nutrient intake or growth performance of Awassi lambs and resulted in a decrease in feed cost.
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of a 5-day progesterone priming prior to a GnRH-PGF2alpha treatment on reproductive performance of anestrous goats. Thirty-six Mountain Black goats were randomly assigned in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement and were administered intravaginally on day -12, either with 300 mg progesterone inserts (CGPE and CGP) or with 0 mg progesterone (GPE and GP) for 5 days. On day -6, the goats were injected with 100 microg GnRH, followed 6 days later by 15 mg PGF2alpha (day 0), the time at which the goats in the CGPE and GPE groups were administered 300 IU eCG injections and those in CGP and GP groups were administered the control solution. The goats were exposed to four fertile bucks at 0 h and were checked for breeding marks at 6-h intervals for 72 h. Blood samples were collected from all goats for progesterone analysis. Progesterone concentrations increased only in CGPE and CGP during the period of device insertion but remained low in GPE and GP groups (P < 0.001). Progesterone levels at the time of GnRH injection on day -6 were basal (0.2 +/- 0.04 ng.mL-1) among the groups and began to increase starting on day -2. Day 0 progesterone concentrations differed (P < 0.05) among groups and were significantly influenced by CIDR-G (P < 0.001). A similar proportion of goats expressed estrus and intervals to detected estrus were shorter (P < 0.05) in the CGPE and GPE groups than in GP with no difference between the CGPE, CGP and GPE or between CGP and GP groups. The number of goats ovulating based upon elevated progesterone levels on day 0 was significantly greater (P = 0.002) in CGPE (9/9) and CGP (9/9) than GPE (6/9) and GP (5/9) groups and was significantly influenced by CIDR-G (P = 0.03). All pregnant goats had elevated progesterone concentration on day 0 and none of the goats with basal progesterone levels became pregnant. Pregnancy and kidding rates, twinning percentage and the number of kids born per goat exposed were greater (P < 0.05) among goats treated with progesterone and eCG. In conclusion, progesterone priming and eCG are essential for producing higher rates of pregnancy and kidding in GnRH-PGF2alpha-treated anestrous goats.
- Jun 2005
The effect of feeding diets with varying levels of dietary undegradable protein (UP) on growth performance of Awassi lambs fed on high wheat straw diets was studied. Thirty lambs (17.2kg) were assigned randomly to three isocaloric (2.32Mcal/kg), isonitrogenous (16% CP) diets differing in their UP content in a completely randomized design. The experimental diets contained 16.1 (LUP), 22.9 (MUP) and 28.9% (HUP) of the dietary CP as UP. Lambs were housed in individual pens and fed the experimental diets ad libitum as total mixed diets. No significant difference was observed in DM and CP intakes for lambs fed the experimental diets, and averaged 985 and 157g/d, respectively. However, lambs fed the HUP diet consumed more (P0.05) difference was observed in estimated metabolizable energy intake (2.24Mcal/d). Dry matter digestibility was higher for lambs fed the MUP and HUP diets (average=60.4%) as compared with lambs fed the LUP diet (56.2%). Apparent CP digestibility increased (P>0.05) with the increase in dietary UP level (57.3, 60.1, and 63.6% for the LUP, MUP, and HUP diets, respectively). Final weight for lambs fed the HUP and MUP diets were higher (P
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary undegradable protein (UP) level on body weight change, nutrient intake, milk production and postpartum reproductive performance of Awassi ewes. Twenty-seven multiparous Awassi ewes (initial body weight = 53.31.6 kg) were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments (9 ewes/treatment) for 62 days using a completely randomized design. Experimental diets were isonitrogenous (15.5% CP), isocaloric, and were formulated to contain 17.9 (LUP), 27.1 (MUP), and 34.0% (HUP) of the dietary CP as UP. On day 103 (day 0 = parturition) ewes were housed in individual pens for 5 weeks. Feed offered and refused was recorded daily. At the end of this period, animals were removed from their pens and combined into 3 separate groups (LUP, MUP and HUP). One fertile, harnessed ram was allowed with each group for 34 days. Rams were rotated every 2 days among the three groups. Each group was offered the corresponding experimental diet. Organic matter, CP, UP and metabolizable energy intakes were higher (p
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of forage:concentrate ratio on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of growing Baladi (black) kids. Thirty-two male kids (initial body weight =15.3 ± 1.3 kg) were assigned randomly to four dietary treatments (8 kids/treatment) in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets were: (1) high forage (HF); (2) medium high forage (MHF); (3) medium low forage (MLF); (4) low forage (LF), and contained 60:40, 45:55, 30:70 and 15:85 forage:concentrate ratios, respectively. Metabolizable energy contents were 2.39, 2.56, 2.73, and 2.90 Mcal kg−1 for the HF, MHF, MLF, and LF diets, respectively. Diets were isonitrogenous (16% CP) and were fed twice daily for 68 days. Dry matter intake for kids fed the MLF diet was greater (P < 0.05) compared with kids fed the HF, MHF and LF diets. Metabolizable energy intake was higher (P < 0.05) for kids fed the MHF, MLF and LF diets (average = 1.73 Mcal day−1, S.E. = 0.1) compared with kids fed the HF diet (1.40 Mcal day−1). Average daily gain (ADG) for kids fed the LF diet (179 g day−1) was greater (P < 0.05) compared with kids fed the HF diet (78 g day−1). Kids fed the MHF and MLF diets had intermediate ADG (average 116 g day−1). Dry matter, OM and CP digestibilities increased (P < 0.05) with increasing the concentrate portion of the diets. The NDF and ADF digestibilities decreased (P < 0.05) with the increasing levels of concentrates in the experimental diets. Kids fed the HF and MHF diets had the greatest NDF and ADF digestibility (average = 60.1 and 53.8 %, respectively). Hot and cold carcass weights were greater (P < 0.05) for kids fed the LF diet compared with kids fed the HF diet. Kids fed the MHF and MLF diets had intermediate hot and cold carcass weights. Kids fed the LF diet had higher (P < 0.05) liver weights compared with kids fed the MLF diet. On the other hand kids fed the MLF diet had greater (P < 0.05) liver weights (498 g) compared with kids fed the HF diet (387 g). Kidney, spleen, heart and skin weights were not affected by the dietary treatment. Ruminal pH for kids fed the HF diet (6.92) was greatest (P < 0.05) and declined linearly for the MLF and LF diets to 6.09. This study indicates that increasing the concentrate portion of fattening diets increases ADG, improves feed efficiency and carcass characteristics of growing Baladi kids. Higher concentrate diets reduced production costs compared to higher forage diets as well.
A growth study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplying a yeast culture (YC; Diamond V® YC) containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae on nutrient intake, digestibility and growth performance of fattening Awassi lambs. Twenty-four Awassi lambs (20.6±0.2kg BW), housed in individual pens, were divided into three groups and fed a basal diet, where treatments were 0, 3 and 6g/d of YC supplementation. The metabolizable energy content of the basal diet was 11.8MJ/kg and the experiment lasted for 74d. Intake was similar in all groups and metabolizable energy intake was also not affected by YC supplementation. Dry matter, organic matter and apparent crude protein digestibilities were higher (P
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fat inclusion on nutrient intake, body weight, milk production, return to estrus, pregnancy and lambing of winter-lambing, postpartum Awassi ewes. Thirty multiparous, winter-lambing Awassi ewes (body weight=517.0 kg) were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments (n=10) for 62 days using a completely randomized design. Experimental diets were isonitrogenous, and were formulated to contain 0 (CON), 2.5 (MF), and 5% (HF) added fat, and 33% of the dietary crude protein (CP) as undegradable intake protein (UIP). On day 26 postpartum (day 0=parturition), ewes and their lambs were housed in individual pens for 28 days. Feed offered and refused was recorded daily. At the end of this period, ewes and their lambs within each treatment were combined into one group and fed their respective diet ad libitum. One fertile Awassi ram fitted with a marking harness was allowed with each group for 34 days. No significant (p>0.05) differences in dry matter intake, organic matter intake, and crude protein intake were observed for ewes fed the three experimental diets. No difference was observed in metabolizable energy intake (MEI) for ewes fed the CON and the MF diets (average 8.3 Mcal/d) diet. However, ewes fed the HF diet had greater(p
- May 2004
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy density on nutrient intake, growth performance and slaughtering characteristics of fattening Awassi lambs. Eighteen Lambs (16.7±1.5 kg) housed in individual pens were divided into two groups and offered two finishing diets (nine lambs per diet) that contained 15–85 (HC) and 60–40 (HF) forage to concentrate ratio for 62 days. Experimental diets were isonitrogenous (16% CP) and contained 2.92 and 2.40 Mcal kg−1 for the HC and HF diets, respectively. Feed was offered ad libitum as totally mixed diets. At the end of the experiment, lambs were sacrificed to obtain slaughtering data. Dry matter, OM, and CP intakes were not affected (P>0.05) by the dietary treatment and averaged 934, 895, and 153 g day−1, respectively. Metabolizable energy intake was higher (P<0.05) for lambs fed the HC diet (2.8 Mcal day−1) compared with lambs fed the HF diet (2.2 Mcal day−1). Dry matter, OM, and apparent CP digestibilities were higher (P<0.05) for the HC diet as compared with HF diet. Final body weights for lambs fed HC diet (33.4 kg) was greater (P<0.05) than lambs fed the HF diet (27.9 kg). Average daily gain (ADG) for lambs fed the HC diet was higher (P<0.05) as compared to lambs fed the HF diet (258 versus 178 g day−1 for HC and HF diets, respectively). Feed to gain ratio was improved (P<0.05) with the HC diet (3.8) as compared with the HF diet (5.4). Lambs fed the HC diet had higher (P<0.05) dressing percentage (48.5%) compared with the HF diet (43.5%). Lambs fed the HC diet had a greater (P<0.05) carcass weights (15.7 kg) compared with lambs fed the HF diet (12.3 kg). Lambs fed the HC diet had a lower (P<0.05) GI tract weight (6.0 kg) compared with lambs fed the HF diet (6.8 kg). These results demonstrate that finishing Awassi lambs on high-energy diets improves ME intake, feed efficiency, ADG, nutrient digestibility, slaughtering characteristics, and carcass weight.
The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of substituting bread by-product (BBP) for barley grain in high concentrate fattening diets for kids on nutrient intake, growth performance, and nutrient digestibility. Twenty-eight Baladi kids (body weight=17.11.0 kg) were assigned randomly to 4 experimental finishing diets (7 kids/treatment) in a completely randomized design for 70 days. The control (CON) diet contained 20, 60, 11, 7 and 2% (DM basis) alfalfa hay, barley grain, soybean meal, corn grain, and mineral and vitamin mix, respectively. Bread by-product substituted barley grain by 10, 20 and 30% of the diet DM in the LBBP, MBBP, and HBBP diets, respectively. Dry matter intakes for the CON, LBBP and MBBP diets were similar (p>0.05; avg.=592 g/day), however, kids fed the HBBP diet had a lower (p0.05) average daily gain for kids fed the CON, LBBP and MBBP diets (avg.=150 g/day). Final body weights for kids fed the CON, LBBP and MBBP diets (avg. 27.1 kg) were greater (p0.05) effect of the dietary treatment was observed for DM, OM and NDF digestibility. Substituting BBP for barley grain up to 20% of the diet DM did not affect nutrient intake, growth performance and nutrient digestibility of kids and resulted in a decrease in feed cost.
- Mar 2004
Twenty-one Awassi lambs (initial body weight 20.4±0.4 kg) were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of adding ruminally protected fat (Ultralac™ 100) to fattening Awassi lambs diets on nutrient intake, digestibility and growth performance. Lambs were fed ad libitum three isonitrogenous high concentrate fattening diets that contained: (1) no added fat (CON); (2) 2.5% added fat (LF); and (3) 5% added fat (HF). Dry matter (DM) intake was higher (P<0.05) for the CON diet than the HF diet and intermediate for the LF diet. Ether extract intake was higher (P<0.05) for the HF (66.7 g per day) diet than for the LF (58.7 g per day) and the CON (20.7 g per day) diets. Metabolizable energy intake was not affected by the dietary treatments (average=10.7 MJ per lamb per day). Dry matter digestibility was higher (P<0.05) for the HF and LF diets (average=76.1%) than for fed the CON (65%) diet. Digestibility results for CP, NDF and energy followed similar patterns to that observed for the DM, although ether extract digestibility was higher (P<0.05) for the HF diet versus the CON and LF diets. There was no difference in weight gain for lambs fed the three experimental diets. There are no advantages to using protected fat in high concentrate fattening diets for Awassi lambs, since the reduced dry matter intake negated the increased dietary energy density.
Abstract The animal production sector in Jordan is characterized by shortages of locally produced feedstuffs derived from rangeland, forage plants or from human food crops as by products. This is exacerbated by insufficient rainfall, overgrazing, early grazing and high stocking rate. Thus, subject to these constraints, other echnological improvements are highly desirable to meet the needs of crop growth and animal production. Alternative adapted technologies are also desirable in order to meet the increased demand for red meat in relation to population growth along with the changes in the price subsidy for feedstuff. The technologies are those, which have been introduced to the animal production sector, obtained in agricultural research stations besides on-farm demonstrations. They include technologies suited for increasing birth and twining rates, synchronizing the mating period, introducing the early weaning method, and animal feed and sheep production. Economic assessments conducted in this study demonstrate promising results of hormonal and nutritional practices in improving production efficiency of Awassi sheep in Jordan. Jordanian published data between 1991 and 1998 were used. The examined practices were: 1) use of PMSG in estrus synchronization in ewes, 2) introduction of early lamb weaning program, 3) supplementation with AD3E for ewes and 4) the use of agro-industrial feed block as a feed supplement for grazing lambs. Production data were then subjected to partial budgeting for economical evaluation. The use of PMSG outperformed the control groups in fertility and net returns per ewe by US$ 8.36/ewe. The early weaning of lambs increased the net returns by US$ 3.90/lamb. The injection with vitamin AD3E showed an average additional net return of US$ 5.66/ewe. Feeding agriculture by-product blocks improved weight gain in the feed block groups and resulted in additional net returns of US$ 3.5/lamb. The economic viability and reproductive performance indicators demonstrate that efforts should be undertaken to disseminate these new practices in the development program.
- Aug 2001
The objectives of this study. were to evaluate: the effects of feeding undegradable: intake protein (UIP) on body weight changes and the return to estrus of Awassi ewes during the early postpartum period. Twenty multiparous Awassi ewes (BW=57.4 +/-3.0 kg) were randomly assigned to two dietary treatment (10 ewes per treatment) for 4 weeks in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets were isonitrogenous. isocaloric. and were formulated to contain tither 20% (CON) or 35% (SBM) of the dietary CP as UIP. On day 9 +/-3 postpartum (day 0=parturition) ewes were housed in individual pens. Feed intake was recorded daily. Dry matter intake (DMI), organic matter intake (OMI), crude protein intake (CPI). undegradable protein intake (UPI) and metabolizable energy intake (MEI) were higher (p <0.05) for ewes on SBM diets compared with ewes on CON diet. Ewes receiving SBM diet gained more (p <0.05) weight than the controls (5.3 vs 0.5 kg). There was a tendency (p <0.10) for SBM ewes to have more luteal activity than the controls. Ewes in the SBM group came into estrus 4 days earlier than CON ewes (p <0.10). These results indicate that Awassi ewes receiving adequate nutrition are capable of returning to estrus one month postpartum thus posing the possibility of being able to lamb every 6 months.
- Jun 2001
The objective of this study was to compare the nutritive value of lentil straw (LS) and vetch straws (VS) with alfalfa hay (AH) and wheat straw (WS). Forty Awassi ewes (body weight (BW)=56.2kg) were assigned randomly to four dietary treatments (10 ewes per treatment) for 6 weeks using a complete randomize design. In each dietary treatment, ewes were fed 550g per day of concentrate mix formulated to supply 40% of the metabolizable energy requirement. After the consumption of the concentrate mix, ewes had ad libtum access to AH, LS, VS, or WS. Forage intake, total dry matter intake (DMI), and organic matter intake (OMI) were higher for AH and LS and lowest for WS. Final weight of ewes fed AH and LS diets were higher (P<0.05) than VS and WS diets. However, ewes fed VS diet gained more weight (2.5kg) than ewes on WS diet (0.2kg). Dry matter digestibility was higher for the AH and LS diets (59.4%), and lowest for WS diet (49.6%). The VS diet had an intermediate value (54.4%). Ruminal passage rate was higher for AH and LS (3.4% per hour) compared with WS (1.9% per hour). Eating time for the AH diet was lowest compared with the rest of the forages. Eating time, expressed as minutes per kilogram NDF intake, was highest for WS and VS diets (680min) compared with AH and LS diets (535min). WS diet required more time for rumination (395min per day) compared to AH, LS, and VS diets. However, ewes on VS diet spent more time ruminating per kilogram NDF consumed (954min) compared with WS, LS, and AH diets (901, 617, and 597min, respectively). These results were significant and demonstrate that the nutritive value of LS is greater than VS and close to the nutritive value of AH. VS nutritive value is slightly greater than WS.
- Jan 2001
Awassi is a multi-purpose sheep breed. Awassi lambs being finished are usually offered an 18% crude protein (CP) diet. The growth rate of Awassi lambs is lower than other meat breeds. Therefore, this high content of dietary CP is questionable. The objective of this study was to estimate the optimum CP level for finishing Awassi lambs. Fifty male Awassi lambs (23.0+/-1.2kg) were fed five high concentrate isocaloric diets (10 lambs per diet) that contained 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18% CP in a totally mixed diets for 9 weeks using a completely randomized design. Lambs were fed twice daily, and feed offered and feed refusals recorded for each feeding. Individual lamb intakes were calculated using daily feed offered and feed refused averaged over the interval of the experiment. Digestibility estimates were measured by total fecal collection. Lambs fed diets that contained 10, 12, and 14% CP gained less weight than those fed the 16 and 18% CP diets (P<0.05). Dry matter and CP intakes increased (P<0.05) with increasing levels of dietary CP. No difference (P>0.10) was observed in feed-to-gain ratio between diets except for the diet that contained 10% CP (P<0.05) which had a lower ratio. Organic matter and CP digestibility were lowest in lambs fed the 10% CP diet. Results suggest that the optimum CP concentration is 16% and that any increase above this level will not result in any improvement in production.
- Oct 2000
The objectives of these experiments were to study the positive associative effects of supplementing barley straw-based diets with different levels of alfalfa hay on nutrient intake, rumen environment, and nutrient digestibility and to evaluate the minimal amount of alfalfa hay needed to produce such an effect in ewes. In experiment one, 15 Awassi ewes (five ruminally fistulated; body weight=54kg±1.5) were fed five barley straw-based diets in a 5×5 Latin square design with 3-week periods. Dietary treatments were as follows: diet 1, barley straw (no supplement), diet 2, barley straw supplemented with 1% urea (dry matter basis), diets 3, 4, and 5 barley straw supplemented with 150, 300, and 450g of alfalfa hay, respectively. In experiment 2, the same experimental diets were fed to 50 ewes (10 ewes/diet) for 50 days in a complete randomized design. In experiment 1, dry matter intake (DMI) was increased (P
- Sep 2000
Food composition tables are instrumental for nutritionists. Each country might construct its own food tables to overcome the variation in food values reported in the food tables of other countries. The purpose of this investigation was to initiate food tables in the Middle East and to compare the composition of the most commonly consumed cereals and legumes in Jordan with food values reported previously in the FAO, Moroccan, East Asia and Latin American food tables. Barley, durum wheat, peas, lentils and chickpeas samples were obtained from Maru and Ramtha Agricultural Stations (north Jordan) in the growing season 1997/1998. Samples were analyzed for moisture, protein, fat, ash, energy, Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn contents. These values were compared (on dry weight basis) with previously reported values. Results showed that there were significant variations in protein, fat, carbohydrates, energy values, and mineral concentration of Jordanian foods when compared with the FAO, Morocco, East Asia and Latin American food tables. Data also, showed that the extrapolation of international food data to regional levels is not accurate and requires caution. The use of some tables may results in nutritional problems in other countries.
- Jul 2000
We quantified the effect of dietary nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) concentration (30, 35, 40, or 45% of DM) on in vitro digestion kinetics of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from alfalfa and corn silages at pH 5.8 or 6.8. The objective was to simulate the effect of diets differing in effective fiber content on the optimal NFC-to-NDF ratio that resulted in maximal fiber digestion. Ash-free NDF was determined at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, 72, and 96h of fermentation. Kinetic parameters were estimated using logarithmic transformation and linear regression. The optimal NFC-to-NDF ratio for maximal NDF digestion differed between the two forages. For alfalfa fermented at pH 6.8, apparent extent of ruminal NDF digestion was greatest between 30 and 40% NFC, but at pH 5.8 NDF digestion was greatest at 35% NFC. For corn silage fermented at either pH 6.8 or 5.8, apparent extent of NDF digestion was greatest at 30% NFC. An NFC-to-NDF ratio of 0.70–1.20 maximized NDF digestion for alfalfa only when fermentation pH was maintained at 6.8. These in vitro results demonstrate that the optimal dietary NFC content for maximum NDF digestion in the rumen for a particular forage will be a function of fermentation pH that reflects the physically effective NDF content of the diet.
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of wheat straw treated with alkali on ruminal function and lactational performance of dairy cows. In Experiment 1, four ruminally fistulated Holsteins cows (X = 57 d of lactation) were fed four diets that contained 0, 20, 30, or 40% (dry basis) wheat straw treated with 3% NaOH plus 3% Ca(OH)2 in a 4 x 4 Latin square. The diets contained 60, 40, 30, and 20% (dry basis) prebloom alfalfa haylage to result in a 60: 40 ratio of forage to concentrate. In Experiment 2, 12 (X = 149 d of lactation) midlactation Holstein cows were fed diets containing 0 or 20% treated wheat straw to measure lactational performance during a 12-wk period. In Experiment 1, no effect of diet was observed on ruminal pH, osmolality, digestion of neutral detergent fiber of straw, or 4% fat-corrected milk. However, the dry matter intake of cows fed diets containing the two highest concentrations of treated straw was depressed and was associated with a significant body weight loss. The ruminal rate of passage of treated straw was not affected by diet; however, rate of passage of alfalfa haylage decreased when straw was included in the diet. In Experiment 2, no effect on cow performance was observed when straw treated with alkali was included at 20% of the diet. Inclusion of up to 20% wheat straw treated with 3% NaOH plus 3% Ca(OH)2 in diets of lactating cows resulted in ruminal function and performance that were similar to those of cows fed diets that contained alfalfa haylage only.
- Jun 1998
An experiment was conducted over 18 wk of lactation to determine the effect of supplemental feather and blood meals (85:15, wt/wt, dry matter basis) fed at two dietary concentrations of crude protein (CP) on dry matter intake and milk protein production. Forty-eight Holstein cows were grouped by parity and assigned randomly at 3 wk postpartum to one of four diets following a 2-wk covariate period. Diets consisted of 50% alfalfa silage and 1) no feather or blood meals, 17.6% CP, and 5.1% ruminally undegradable protein (RUP); 2) 4% mixture of feather and blood meals, 17.6% CP, and 6.3% RUP; 3) no feather or blood meals, 19.6% CP, and 6.3% RUP; and 4) 4% mixture of feather and blood meals, 19.6% CP, and 6.9% RUP. According to the National Research Council, diet 1 was deficient in RUP, diets 2 and 3 were adequate in RUP, and diet 4 contained excessive CP and RUP. Intakes of dry matter and CP were depressed by 11% for cows fed the 19.6% CP diet supplemented with feather and blood meals. For cows fed the 17.6% CP diet, the supplementation of feather and blood meals increased RUP intake, but the supplementation of feather and blood meals to the 19.6% CP diet had no effect on RUP intake. Supplemental feather and blood meals increased the production of milk protein and 3.5% solids-corrected milk by cows fed the 17.6% CP diet. Diets 2, 3, and 4 resulted in similar efficiencies of solids-corrected milk production, but the efficiency of milk protein production specifically was increased by the supplementation of feather and blood meals to the 17.6% CP diet only. Results of this experiment indicate that a mixture of feather and blood meals improves the production of milk protein when supplemented to a diet that meets, but does not greatly exceed, the requirements established by the National Research Council for RUP and that contains alfalfa as the sole forage.
- Aug 1997
Whole raw soybeans and soybean hulls were evaluated as a dietary replacement for whole cottonseed as determined by rumination and total chewing activity, milk fat percentage, and efficiency of 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production. Twenty-six Holstein dairy cows (14 multiparous; 35 +/- 12 d of lactation) were assigned randomly to one of two total mixed rations (TMR) for 15 wk. The whole cottonseed TMR and the soybean plus soybean hull TMR contained 40% of a 45:55 mixture of alfalfa and corn silages (dry matter basis) and either 15% cottonseed or 15% soybeans, 8% soybean hulls, and 0.7% sodium bicarbonate. Both TMR provided 60% of dietary neutral detergent fiber from forage. The TMR, fed twice daily, were isonitrogenous (17.5% crude protein) and equal in neutral detergent fiber (30%). The TMR had no effect on dry matter intake (24.8 kg/d). The cottonseed TMR stimulated greater rumination and total chewing activity. Although milk production was greater for cows fed the cottonseed TMR (35.7 vs. 34.1 kg/d), milk fat production was unaffected by TMR (3.72%). The efficiency of 4% FCM production was similar for cows fed the cottonseed and soybean plus soybean hull TMR (1.33), and both TMR resulted in a positive net energy balance (10.9 Mcal/d). A combination of soybeans, soybean hulls, and sodium bicarbonate was an effective alternative to whole cottonseed as measured by the efficiency of FCM production.
- Jan 1996
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Nebraska--Lincoln, 1996. Includes bibliographical references.
- Oct 1995
Brown midrib sorghum silage was compared with alfalfa, corn, and normal sorghum silages for its effect on performance, ruminal metabolism, and digestive kinetics of Holstein dairy cows in midlactation. Twelve cows averaging 90 +/- 5 DIM were assigned to one of four diets in replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares with 4-wk periods. Additionally, 3 ruminally fistulated cows (95 +/- 20 DIM) were assigned to the same diets in a 3 x 4 Youden square for measurement of ruminal characteristics. Diets were fed as isonitrogenous TMR that contained 65% silage (DM basis). The DMI was greater for the corn and brown midrib sorghum (4% of BW/d) than for the alfalfa and normal sorghum diets (3.4% of BW/d). The brown midrib sorghum supported FCM production that was similar to that of cows on corn and alfalfa diets (25.8 kg/d), but cows fed normal sorghum produced less milk and fewer milk components. Source of silage had no effect on eating time, but rumination was least for the alfalfa diet. Ruminal pH and ammonia concentrations were similar for all diets. Total VFA concentrations were greatest for the corn and brown midrib sorghum diets. The brown midrib sorghum had greater in situ extent of ruminal NDF digestion than did the normal sorghum, which agreed with in vitro data. The brown midrib sorghum used in this experiment supported FCM production similar to the corn and alfalfa silages commonly fed to dairy cows in midlactation.
- Dec 1994
Three experiments were conducted to determine the effect of different alkali solutions on in vitro degradation and in vivo digestibility of wheat straw. In Exp. 1, ground wheat straw was treated with 15 different alkali solutions grouped as NaOH, NH4OH, urea, and Ca(OH)2. The greatest (P < .05) 48-h in vitro NDF degradability was obtained with 5% NaOH and the combination of 2.5% NaOH + 2.5% Ca(OH)2. In Exp. 2, chopped wheat straw was treated with one of the following: 1) untreated; 2) 2.5% NaOH; 3) 5% NaOH; 4) 2.5% Ca(OH)2 + 2.5% NaOH; or 5) 5% Ca(OH)2. Five Holstein heifers were fed diets that contained 60% straw, 20% alfalfa hay, and 20% concentrate mix (DM basis) fed as total mixed rations in a 5 x 5 Latin square design. The greatest in vivo NDF digestibility (P < .05) was obtained with the NaOH and NaOH+Ca(OH)2 treatments. The 5% Ca(OH)2 treatment had higher fiber digestibility than the control and was equivalent to the 2.5% NaOH and 2.5% NaOH+Ca(OH)2 treatments. Rate of passage of straw was not affected by chemical treatment, whereas rate of passage of dietary alfalfa hay increased with NaOH. In Exp. 3, wheat straw ground through a 2-mm screen was treated with one of the following chemicals: 1) untreated (control); 2) 5% NaOH; 3) 5% NH4OH; 4) urea supplying N equivalent to 5% NH4OH; and 5) 5% Ca(OH)2 (all on DM basis).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Feb 1994
- IEEE/PES 1993 Winter Meeting
The purpose of this report is to review the progress in the past 20 years or so pertaining to the effect of protection systems on the bulk power systems reliability evaluation. It is the intention of the Task Force that this report defines the state of the art as it exists in the early 1990s and serves as a starting point for those pursuing a further understanding and the development of the subject.
- Feb 1994
The purpose of this report is to review the progress in the past 20 years or so pertaining to the effect of protection systems on the bulk power systems reliability evaluation. It is the intention of the Task Force that this report defines the state of the art as it exists in the early 1990s and serves as a starting point for those pursuing a further understanding and the development of the subject.
All co-authors (43)