Sergio Escorial

Sergio Escorial
Complutense University of Madrid | UCM · Department of Methodology for Behavioral Science

Doctor of Psychology

About

70
Publications
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1,160
Citations
Citations since 2016
22 Research Items
713 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100

Publications

Publications (70)
Article
Full-text available
El objetivo de esta investigación es adaptar y validar la Escala de Personalidad de los Cinco Grandes OPERAS (Vigil-Colet et al., 2013a) en dos muestras independientes de seis universidades de Chile (validación cruzada): N=444, 74.5% de mujeres de 20.33 años y N=466, 76.0% de mujeres de 19.18 años. La evidencia de validez interna indica la presenci...
Article
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For the sake of prevention in high conflict families in process of separation or divorce who resolve situations by only attending court, and since there is no instrument to identify this trend, this paper aims to create a questionnaire for measuring characteristics predicting judicialization. This paper focuses on C-JUDIFA questionnaire’s content a...
Article
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Children and people with intellectual disability (ID) are considered to be highly vulnerable and in need of special protection against sexual abuse (SA). The objective of this work was to analyze the characteristics of cases of SA in children with typical development and in people with ID in Spain. To do so, 25 cases of each type that had been inve...
Article
The present study aims to analyze the effect of the passage of time on the phenomenological characteristics of the memory of a traumatic event of social relevance. The terrorist attack that took place in Barcelona (Spain) in August 2017 was taken as the traumatic event. A priori, this event meets the criteria to produce a flashbulb memory (level of...
Article
Biological (BA) and chronological (CA) age may or may not fit. The available evidence reveals remarkable individual differences in the overlap/mismatch between BA and CA. Increased mismatch can be interpreted as delayed (BA/CA<1) or accelerated biological aging (BA/CA>1). Body and brain health are correlated and both predict aging outcomes associat...
Article
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Resting state functional connectivity research has shown that general cognitive ability (GCA) is associated with brain resilience to targeted and random attacks (TAs and RAs). However, it remains to be seen if the finding generalizes to structural connectivity. Furthermore, individuals showing performance levels at the very high area of the GCA dis...
Article
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Purpose This study examined the effects of Speech Intelligibility Treatment (SIT) on intelligibility and naturalness of narrative speech produced by francophone children with dysarthria due to cerebral palsy. Method Ten francophone children with dysarthria were randomized to one of two treatments, SIT or Hand–Arm Bimanual Intensive Therapy Includi...
Code
Questionnaire to assess phenomenological characteristics of autobiographical memory.
Article
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Background: Articulatory excursion and vocal intensity are reduced in many children with dysarthria due to cerebral palsy (CP), contributing to the children's intelligibility deficits and negatively affecting their social participation. However, the effects of speech-treatment strategies for improving intelligibility in this population are underst...
Code
Cuestionario para evaluar las características fenomenológicas de la memoria autobiográfica. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.29923.71201/1
Preprint
Children and people with intellectual disability (ID) are considered to be highly vulnerable and in need of special protection against sexual abuse (SA). The objective of this work was to analyze the characteristics of cases of SA in children with typical development and in people with ID in Spain. To do so, 25 cases of each type that had been inve...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Are cognitive and biological variables useful for predicting future behavioral outcomes? Method: In two independent groups, we measured a set of cognitive (fl uid and crystallized intelligence, working memory, and attention control) and biological (cortical thickness and cortical surface area) variables on two occasions separated by six...
Preprint
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Cortical surface area variations within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are better predictors of future cognitive performance than fluid ability and working memory Abstract Here we ask if a set of cognitive and biological variables measured in two times separated by six months, predict behavioral outcomes of interest measured twelve and eighteen...
Article
Differential reliability associated with ability level has been proposed as a possible (partial or total) explanation of personality differentiation across ability levels: that is to say, high ability individuals have more differentiated personalities. Recent studies have shown that person reliability is related to general intelligence, which is ne...
Article
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Research findings suggest that sex offenders show worse performance than the general population in neuropsychological tests. Nevertheless, moderators such as age of the victim, use of antisocial control groups, and characteristics of administered measures have been highlighted. Here, 100 participants completed a battery of cognitive measures tappin...
Article
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Here we analyze the simultaneous relationships among five variables. Two refer to childhood (episodes of various forms of maltreatment and externalizing behaviors), whereas three refer to early adulthood (intelligence, personality, and socialization difficulties). The 120 individuals considered for the present report were invited from the 650 schoo...
Article
The analysis of the relationships between cortical and intellectual development is a complex matter. Greater brain plasticity in brighter individuals has been suggested, but the associations between developmental cortical changes and variations in the general factor of intelligence (g) across time at the latent level have not been addressed. For fi...
Article
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Resumen Antecedentes Las aproximaciones teóricas sobre el bienestar laboral lo identifican con variables como la satisfacción, la motivación y el estrés. A su vez, en estas variables influyen los factores de riesgo psicosocial del entorno laboral, los cuales se relacionan con la salud de los trabajadores. Objetivo El objetivo de este estudio fue...
Article
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Estudios en el área de la personalidad han encontrado que los hombres y las mujeres difieren sistemáticamente en el grado en que buscan o necesitan experimentar nuevas sensaciones. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar estas diferencias en el instrumento SSS-V utilizando técnicas de Funcionamiento Diferencial de los ítems (DIF), con el fin de det...
Article
Global structural brain connectivity has been reported to be sex-dependent with women having increased interhemispheric connectivity (InterHc) and men having greater intrahemispheric connectivity (IntraHc). However, (a) smaller brains show greater InterHc, (b) larger brains show greater IntraHc, and (c) women have, on average, smaller brains than m...
Article
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Background: In spite of the verifiable achievements obtained in gender equity, one wonders if they still exist in our societies gendered activities (roles) at the household level. This study states an affirmative prediction. Gender role is here organized in four different nuclei: instrumentality inside and outside home for men; expressiveness and...
Article
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Psychobiological models of personality are of great use in clinical and research settings given their potential to construct working hypotheses on biological and behavioural correlates, as well as to predict vulnerability to mental disorders. Two personality models are rooted in this psychobiological tradition: Zuckerman's Alternative Five Factors...
Article
Full-text available
Psychobiological models of personality are of great use in clinical and research settings given their potential to construct working hypotheses on biological and behavioural correlates, as well as to predict vulnerability to mental disorders. Two personality models are rooted in this psychobiological tradition: Zuckerman`s Alternative Five Factors...
Article
As is the case in social animals that seek social status, pursuit of status is also a motivational imperative for humans because a favorable group position benefits survival and reproduction. Evolutionary perspectives in anthropology and psychology have acknowledged the existence of two status-seeking strategies in humans: Dominance and cultural pr...
Article
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As is the case in social animals that seek social status, pursuit of status is also a motivational imperative for humans because a favorable group position benefits survival and reproduction. Evolutionary perspectives in anthropology and psychology have acknowledged the existence of two status-seeking strategies in humans: Dominance and cultural pr...
Article
Intelligence is composed of a set of cognitive abilities hierarchically organized. General and specific abilities capture distinguishable, but related, facets of the intelligence construct. Here, we analyze gray matter with three morphometric indices (volume, cortical surface area, and cortical thickness) at three levels of the intelligence hierarc...
Article
Background: The Resistance to trauma Test: TRauma is an instrument designed to assess six dimensions involving personal strengths or resources that promote coping with difficult life situations. In addition, an overall score is obtained that is conceptually equivalent to the concept of resilience. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychomet...
Article
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Background: Gender roles have been assessed by explicit measures and, recently, by implicit measures. In the former case, the theoretical assumptions have been questioned by empirical results. To solve this contradiction, we carried out two concatenated studies based on a relatively well-founded theoretical and empirical approach. Method: The fi...
Article
Neuroimaging studies provide evidence for organized intrinsic activity under task-free conditions. This activity serves functionally relevant brain systems supporting cognition. Here, we analyze changes in resting-state functional connectivity after videogame practice applying a test-retest design. Twenty young females were selected from a group of...
Article
The aim of this study was to explore the relationships of the dimensions and facets of the Zuckerman–Kuhlman–Aluja Personality Questionnaire (ZKA-PQ) with other psychobiological personality measures: the EPQ-RS (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised, shortened version), I7 (Impulsiveness Questionnaire) and SPSRQ-20 (Sensitivity to Punishment an...
Article
Here gray and white matter changes after four weeks of videogame practice were analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), cortical surface and cortical thickness indices, and white matter integrity computed from several projection, commissural, and association tracts relevant to cognition. Beginning with a sample of one hundred young f...
Article
This research was planned to assess the predictive power of dimensions and facets of the Zuckerman–Kuhlman–Aluja Personality Questionnaire in relation to the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III 10 personality disorder (PD) scales in healthy subjects. The sample was composed of 529 subjects from the general population. The average age was 44.51...
Article
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Assortative mating is the individuals' tendency to mate with those who are similar to them in some variables, at a higher rate than would be expected from random. This study aims to provide empirical evidence of assortative mating through the Big Five model of personality and two measures of intelligence using Spanish samples. The sample consisted...
Article
García, Ó., Aluja, A., García, L.F., Escorial, S. & Blanch, A. (2012). Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire (ZKA-PQ) and Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory Revised (TCI-R): A comparative study. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. The aim of this study was to compare the psychometric properties (normal distribution values,...
Article
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Aluja, Kuhlman, and Zuckerman (2010) developed an instrument for American and Spanish populations (Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire [ZKA-PQ]) that includes 4 facets for each 5 basic traits of Zuckerman's psychobiological personality model. This new instrument is intended to improve the previous measure based on the same personality...
Article
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Sexual attraction was considered a component of sexual orientation from the beginning of the second half of the 20th century to present times. However, some recent researchers have studied sexual attraction as an independent field measuring it by the Sexual Attraction Questionnaire (SAQ). This study analyzes sexual attraction through the SAQ in 400...
Article
It has been proposed that males would show higher mean scores than females in general intelligence (g) because (1) men have, on average, larger brains than women, and (2) brain volume correlates with g. Here we report a failure to support the conclusion derived from these premises. High resolution MRIs were acquired in a sample of one hundred healt...
Article
Much is written regarding the associations between human intelligence and cognition. However, it is unusual to find comprehensive studies. Here twenty four measures tapping eight cognitive abilities and skills are considered for assessing a sample of one hundred and eighty five young adults. The simultaneous relationships among fluid, crystallized,...
Article
Executive processes are usually defined by the control and regulation of cognitive functioning. Impairments on these executive processes may have damaging effects on behavior. The present study focuses on antisocial behavior. Research regarding the relationships between antisocial behavior and executive function suffers from several methodological...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
JUSTIFICACIÓN: En la actualidad sigue debatiéndose el porqué de la mayor semejanza entre algunos hermanos más allá de la conocida contribución de los factores genéticos y se propone ahondar en las fuentes de varianza debidas al ambiente no compartido (Harris, 2006) pero no se ha contemplado que un rasgo cuyas diferencias se deben en un 70% a factor...
Article
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Studies in the field of personality have systematically found gender differences in two of the three dimensions of the Eysenck model: neuroticism and psychoticism. This study aims to analyze these differences in the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire—Revised (EPQ-R) scales using differential item functioning (DIF) techniques to determine whether the...
Article
There are several candidate measures when asking which psychological construct significantly predicts academic performance. Hundreds of studies have addressed this issue by measuring intelligence, basic cognitive processes, or personality. However, the simultaneous consideration of a broad and varied array of measures is much less common. Here we c...
Article
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Many studies have shown that IQs have been increasing over the last half century. These increases have come to be known as "the Flynn effect". The "Flynn effect" represents a difference on ability-level between groups of the same age but different cohort. The ability-level differentiation hypothesis represents a difference on the relevance of cogni...
Article
The aim of this work is to analyze the gender differences in the scales of a recently constructed test: the so-called EDTC. This test measures the following traits: sensation seeking, fearlessness, and impulsivity. Gender differences will be studied using Differential Item Functioning (DIF) techniques, in order to determine whether these difference...
Article
Research about changes in the structure of intelligence has generally not focused on the possible role played by personality traits. However, previous findings suggest that some personality traits (especially Neuroticism) could affect the structure of intelligence. Recently, there is a renewed interest in developing links between personality and in...
Article
The general (g) factor is the most general and relevant cognitive ability. This factor is considered to be one of the most important predictors of academic achievement and of many other socially relevant behavioral outcomes. In the last decades, many researchers have investigated the possible changes in the relevance of the g factor from childhood...
Article
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El trabajo de Guillén y Jiménez (2001) con una muestra de árbitros de 21 deportes diferentes puso de manifiesto la existencia de una serie de características necesarias para la correcta labor arbitral, según la propia opinión de los árbitros. Entre esos aspectos destacaron aspectos como «imparcialidad/justicia», «conocimiento del reglamento», «sabe...
Article
The Progressive Matrices Test (PM) is considered an excellent measure of general intelligence or g. There are several studies showing that, on average, males score higher than females on the PM. However, some investigations have demonstrated that there are no sex differences in g. Why are there these contradictory findings? The visuo-spatial format...
Article
There are no sex differences in general intelligence or g. The Progressive Matrices (PM) Test is one of the best estimates of g. Males outperform females in the PM Test. Colom and Garcı́a-López (2002) demonstrated that the information content has a role in the estimates of sex differences in general intelligence. The PM test is based on abstract fi...
Article
In the last decade, changes in the structure of intelligence across the life-span has become a central topic in the research on human intelligence. One of the main hypotheses that has arisen to account for such changes has been the age de-differentiation hypothesis [Balinsky, Genetic Psychology Monographs 23 1941, 191]. It predicts an increase in t...
Article
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Despite the increasing importance of the ability-level differentiation hypothesis, no study has been conducted to clarify the role played by sex regarding this issue. A battery of cognitive tests was administered to a sample of 10247 participants (6,068 males and 4,179 females). Results show a differentiation effect in males (around 2%) but not in...
Article
Intelligence test's scores decline with age, but such decline change for fluid and crystallized tests. However, little effort has been put to investigate what cognitive abilities are responsible for such decline. The present paper focuses on that issue. A hierarchical factor analysis (performed through the Schmid-Leiman transformation) followed by...
Article
There is a renewed interest in the so-called age differentiation hypothesis—and the related age dedifferentiation hypothesis. The former states a reduction in the size of g at the first stage of life until early maturity. The latter hypothesized an increase in the importance of g at late adulthood and a decrease in the number of factors. The Spanis...
Article
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Las puntuaciones en los tests de inteligencia declinan con la edad, aunque el grado de declive depende de la naturaleza, fluida o cristalizada, de los tests. Sin embargo, pocas investigaciones han abordado la pregunta de qué aptitudes cognitivas son responsables de tal declive. El presente estudio se centra en esta cuestión. La combinación del anál...
Article
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Diferenciación por nivel de habilidad en varones y mujeres adultos. A pesar de la importancia creciente de la hipótesis de la diferenciación por nivel, ningún estudio se ha dirigido a clarificar el papel que la variable sexo juega con respecto a este asunto. En el presente estudio, una batería de pruebas cognitivas se administró a una muestra de 10...
Article
Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Psicología, Departamento de Psicología Biológica y de la Salud, Fecha de lectura:17 de abril de 2008

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Projects (3)
Project
The aim of this project is the study of the relation between the individual differences in cognition and brain.
Archived project
to explore differences between sexual offenders' subtypes in updating, switching and inhibition processes.
Archived project
To test a video games battery, consisting of video games from different genres, to assess intelligence. Obtained results support the association between video-games performance, irrespect of their genre, and intelligence-tests scores at the latent level. Thus, not only brain games can assess intelligence differences.