# Sergey G. FedosinPerm scientific site

12.32

· Specialist, Perm state universityAbout

131

Research items

5,375

Reads

210

Citations

Research Experience

Sep 1978 - Sep 2003

Current institution

Perm scientific site

Current position

- Editor

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Following

Projects

Projects (11)

Project

The relativistic uniform system differs from the classical uniform system in many ways. It helps us to understand the action of virial theorem, calculate energy and forces in bounded bodies.

Project

Introduction of the theory of relativity that can be used in non-inertial reference frames and does not depend on which alternative theory of gravitation is used.

Research

Research Item (131)

- Apr 2018

For the relativistic uniform system with an invariant mass density the exact expressions are determined for the potentials and strengths of the gravitational field, the energy of particles and fields. It is shown that, as in the classical case for bodies with a constant mass density, in the system with a zero vector potential of the gravitational field, the energy of the particles, associated with the scalar field potential, is twice as large in the absolute value as the energy defined by the tensor invariant of the gravitational field. The problem of inaccuracy of the use of the field’s stress-energy tensors for calculating the system’s mass and energy is considered. The found expressions for the gravitational field strengths inside and outside the system allow us to explain the occurrence of the large-scale structure of the observable Universe, and also to relate the energy density of gravitons in the vacuum field with the limiting mass density inside the proton. Both the Universe and the proton turn out to be relativistic uniform systems with the maximum possible parameters. The described approach allows us to calculate the maximum possible Lorentz factor of the matter particles at the center of the neutron star and at the center of the proton, and also to estimate the radius of action of the strong and ordinary gravitation in cosmological space.

Project - Infinite hierarchical nesting of matter

- Dec 2017
- Infinite hierarchical nesting of matter

Update

Main source is the book: Fedosin S.G. Nositeli zhizni : proiskhozhdenie i ėvoliutsiia. – S.-Peterburg: Dmitriĭ Bulanin, 2007, 104 pages. ISBN 978-5-86007-556-6. The book covers the basic forms of the living, from prions and viruses to large mammals, communities and biocenoses. All of them belong to 6 intermediate levels of matter, closely corresponding by masses and sizes to the similar levels for the non-living matter. Reasoning by induction, the conclusion can be made that the living and non-living develop in a parallel way in the Universe, penetrating each other at all levels of matter.

Project - Infinite hierarchical nesting of matter

- Sep 2017
- Infinite hierarchical nesting of matter

Update

The theory of infinite hierarchical nesting of matter reduces the fundamental forces, acting at some level of matter, to the action of the minute particles of the vacuum field, belonging to the lower levels of matter and moving at relativistic velocities. In particular, the gravitational and electromagnetic forces at the level of planets and stars are explained with the help of the Le Sage’s model. In this model, the minute charged particles (praons) penetrate the bodies and interact with the matter nucleons. Around the nucleons there is a strong magnetic field and gravitational torsion field (gravitomagnetic field), which deflect the motion of the praons from the initial direction. This leads to the momentum transfer to the matter of bodies almost without changing the energy of the praons’ motion. This solves the problem of occurrence of gravitational and electromagnetic forces without significant heating of bodies under the action of fluxes of gravitons and praons. The vacuum field particles are similar by their properties to the cosmic rays, since they move almost at the speed of light and have high energy. Each main level of matter generates its own cosmic rays in the form of fluxes of relativistic particles. These fluxes of particles become the vacuum field components and cause the occurrence of the fundamental forces for the massive objects of the higher levels of matter. The main sources of the vacuum field particles are the densest objects of each matter level: neutron stars, nucleons, praons, graons, etc. These objects have the highest density of the electromagnetic and gravitational fields, which allows them to accelerate the particles to very high energies. Thus, the vacuum field particles are generated by the more massive bodies and then they themselves form even more massive bodies from the scattered matter.

Project - Infinite hierarchical nesting of matter

- Dec 2017
- Infinite hierarchical nesting of matter

Update

The SPФ-theorem (proved in 1999) shows the invariance of action of the physical laws at different scale levels of matter. With the help of the combined SPФ-symmetry the meaning of the fifth (scale) dimension and scale relativity is clarified. In particular, the lower the matter level is, the faster the same type processes are at this level. If the observer moves down the scale, he should accelerate his perception of events and adjust the clock in order to perceive the processes in the same rate as in the laboratory on the Earth. The scale relativity occurs on condition of SPФ-transformation, that is with simultaneous transformation of the speeds of processes, scales and masses of objects. In this case the observer will not notice the transition from one level of matter to another level of matter from the physical point of view. The presence of the scale dimension causes the need to add the fifth scale coordinate and the five-dimensional spacetime. At each level of matter we can introduce its own Dirac constant as the characteristic angular momentum (spin) and the quantum of action of typical objects, as well as write its own uncertainty principle. Each main level of matter has its own set of constants that characterizes it, including its own gravitational constant, intrinsic elementary charge, Planck constant, Boltzmann constant, etc. The characteristic feature of the existence and motion of degenerate objects at the level of atoms and particles is discreteness of their parameters and quantization of the angular momentum, magnetic moment, charge, energy levels, and orbital parameters. The stellar level of matter is not an exception. Already in the planetary systems of stars we can see quantization of the planets’ orbits, proportional to the corresponding stellar Planck constant, and similar quantization of the specific orbital moments of the planets’ moons. The specific angular momenta of the proper rotation of uninhibited planets (the rotation of which is not inhibited by the gravitational tides of other massive objects) are also quantized.

Project - Infinite hierarchical nesting of matter

- Nov 2017
- Infinite hierarchical nesting of matter

Update

A neutron corresponds to a typical uncharged neutron star and a proton corresponds to a charged magnetar. Neutron stars of minimum mass (about 0.2 Solar masses) correspond to pions, these stars collapse over time and turn into such objects as white dwarfs with the mass of about 0.16 Solar masses, which are the analogues of muons. These objects are also unstable and disintegrate similarly to muons. In the described picture hadrons are similar to the neutron stars in unstable, stable or excited states. The latter refers mainly to the particles-resonances, which by their short lifetime correspond to the massive, very hot and unstable neutron stars. The electrons in an atom correspond to discs discovered near the X-ray pulsars, which are the main candidates for magnetars. In this case the dimensions of the disks coincide with the Roche radius near the neutron stars, while the Roche radius at the level of atoms corresponds to the Bohr radius. All these correspondences are determined quantitatively using the coefficients of similarity: in mass Ф = 1.62∙1057 , in sizes Р = 1.4∙1019 , in speeds of similar processes S = 0.23. In the course of evolution all stars turn into either white dwarfs or neutron stars. Similarly, the free matter at the atomic level is compressed by the fundamental forces into such compact objects as nucleons. In addition, the analogue of a white dwarf at the level of atoms is nuon. Dividing the mass and radius of the observed white dwarfs by the coefficients of similarity in mass and sizes we can estimate the mass and radius of the corresponding nuons. With the help of the similarity relations we can also estimate the binding energy, characteristic angular momentum (characteristic spin), charge, magnetic moment and many other parameters of the corresponding objects, including the stellar Planck constant, the stellar Boltzmann constant, etc. There are many interesting examples of similarity in the atomic and stellar systems, with their own similarity coefficients. For example, a hydrogen atom is similar to a main-sequence star with the lowest possible mass of 0.056 Solar masses, around which a planet with the mass of 10.1 Earth masses revolves. The Solar mass corresponds to the mass of oxygen nuclide with atomic number A = 18, and the stars of the spectral class B1 with the mass of about 11.6 Solar masses are similar to the nuclides – from gold and lead to ruthenium. Lead is stable with respect to radioactive decay, the majority of more massive nuclides are unstable and their number is small. Similarly, the number of massive stars of the spectral classes B0, O9 and O8 is extremely small. Thus, it turns out that for each nuclide or chemical element we can find one or another corresponding main sequence star and assign the corresponding atomic number to it. Interestingly, the quantitative distribution of the observed stars, depending on the atomic number, coincides with the distribution of the nuclides abundance depending on the atomic number for the Sun’s matter, stars and planetary nebulae. In addition, the largest magnetic fields are found in those main-sequence stars, which correspond to the nuclides with the highest magnetic moments.

Project - Acceleration field

- Nov 2017
- Acceleration field

Update

Project - Infinite hierarchical nesting of matter

- Oct 2017
- Infinite hierarchical nesting of matter

Update

In order to explain the strong interaction the gravitational model of strong interaction is involved, according to which the main mechanism is the action of strong gravitation, consisting of two components. One of these components attracts the nucleons to each other and keeps the nucleons’ matter from decay. The other component is the gravitational torsion field (gravitomagnetic field), repelling the nucleons from each other in the atomic nuclei. The balance of these forces ensures the integrity of the atomic nuclei and constituent particles, similar to some mesons and baryons.

The weak interaction of elementary particles is again reduced to the weak interaction in the matter of the particles that is at the lower level of matter. For example, a nucleon is assumed to consist of praons, just like a neutron star consists of nucleons. As a result, the neutron beta-decay occurs because in the process of beta-decay of praons the neutron’s charge configuration changes in the neutron matter, where a large number of positively charged praons and negatively charged praelectrons is accumulated. This leads eventually to rapid modification of the magnetic field’s configuration with ejection of the charged matter in the form of an electron and to emission of an antineutrino. The analysis shows that each neutrino or antineutrino is two-component, consisting of an electron neutrino and an antineutrino of the praon level of matter.

The gravitational, electromagnetic, strong and weak interactions, as well as the acceleration field, pressure field, dissipation field and other similar vector fields for macroscopic bodies can be considered as the general field components.

Question - Does spacetime possess the properties of a "relativistic aether"?

- Sep 2017

Answer

@John Macken,

We know the main problem of general relativity where the gravitation is connected with the metric and geometric space has additional physical property to be curved near of massive bodies. It is too complex for understanding and we need to simplify the model. The Le Sage’s model of gravitation is a great theory where the space is only a void where a lot of relativistic particles can generate both gravitation and electromagnetic interaction between bodies. The Lorentz factor, the mass and charge of the particles can be calculated as far as their space energy density. The modernized Le Sage’s model take off the problems of the model describing the way of interaction of particles of force vacuum field with the matter. As such the aether is the vacuum field of relativistic particles.

Question - What is the property of the matter that is responsible for the gravitational field? whould you mind not to say imediatly - the mass?

- Sep 2017

Answer

@I.C. Teixeira,

I suppose the force dynamic vacuum field is the explanations of the gravitation and action of electric forces. See the papers https://www.researchgate.net/publication/284032224_The_Graviton_Field_as_the_Source_of_Mass_and_Gravitational_Force_in_the_Modernized_Le_Sage%27s_Model

In the paper ‘The substantial model of the photon’ was found that the speed of light is speed of charged particles (praons) of vacuum field.

Project - Macroscopic theory of everything - General field

- Sep 2017
- Macroscopic theory of everything - General field

Update

Project - Covariant theory of gravitation (CTG)

- Sep 2017
- Covariant theory of gravitation (CTG)

Update

Project - Acceleration field

- Sep 2017
- Acceleration field

Update

Project - Relativistic uniform system

- Sep 2017
- Relativistic uniform system

Update

Project - Infinite hierarchical nesting of matter

- Sep 2017
- Infinite hierarchical nesting of matter

Update

Project - Force vacuum field

- Sep 2017
- Force vacuum field

Update

Project - Construction of substantial models of particles

- Sep 2017
- Construction of substantial models of particles

Update

Project - Infinite hierarchical nesting of matter

- Sep 2017
- Infinite hierarchical nesting of matter

Update

1. Comments to the book: Fedosin S.G. Fizicheskie teorii i beskonechnaia vlozhennost’ materii. – Perm, 2009, 844 pages, Tabl. 21, Pic. 41, Ref. 289. ISBN 978-5-9901951-1-0. (in Russian).

2. Fedosin S.G. The generalized Poynting theorem for the general field and solution of the 4/3 problem. Preprint, February 2016.

3. Fedosin S.G. (1999), written at Perm, pages 544, Fizika i filosofiia podobiia ot preonov do metagalaktik, ISBN 5-8131-0012-1.

4. Fedosin S.G. Sovremennye problemy fiziki: v poiskakh novykh printsipov. Moskva: Editorial URSS, 2002, 192 pages. ISBN 5-8360-0435-8.

5. Fedosin S.G. Osnovy sinkretiki: filosofiia nositeleĭ. – Moskva: Editorial URSS, 2003, 464 pages. ISBN 5-354-00375-X. in Russian.

6. Fedosin S.G. Nositeli zhizni : proiskhozhdenie i ėvoliutsiia. – S.-Peterburg: Dmitriĭ Bulanin, 2007, 104 pages. ISBN 978-5-86007-556-6.

7. Fedosin S.G. The binding energy and the total energy of a macroscopic body in the relativistic uniform model. Preprint, June 2016.

8. Project Gravitational model of strong interaction https://www.researchgate.net/project/Gravitational-model-of-strong-interaction

9. Project Construction of substantial models of particles https://www.researchgate.net/project/Construction-of-substantial-models-of-particles

10. Project Macroscopic theory of everything. General field https://www.researchgate.net/project/Macroscopic-theory-of-everything-General-field

11. Project Force vacuum field https://www.researchgate.net/project/Force-vacuum-field

12. Characteristic speed https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Characteristic_speed

13. Discreteness of stellar parameters https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Discreteness_of_stellar_parameters

14. Field mass-energy limit https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Field_mass-energy_limit

15. General field https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/General_field

16. Hydrogen system https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Hydrogen_system

17. Quantization of parameters of cosmic systems https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Quantization_of_parameters_of_cosmic_systems

18. Scale dimension https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Scale_dimension

19. Similarity of matter levels https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Similarity_of_matter_levels

20. SPФ symmetry https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/SP%D0%A4_symmetry

21. Stellar constants https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Stellar_constants

22. Vacuum constants https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Vacuum_constants

Project - Force vacuum field

- Sep 2017
- Force vacuum field

Update

In the modernized Le Sage’s model it is shown how the relativistic particles of the vacuum field lead to the gravitational and electromagnetic forces. In this case it is possible to calculate the energy density and the energy fluxes of the vacuum field, to find the masses, sizes, charges and concentrations of the vacuum field particles. Both the gravitational constant and the electric constant can be expressed in terms of the parameters of the vacuum field.

Project - Macroscopic theory of everything - General field

- Sep 2017
- Macroscopic theory of everything - General field

Update

Some additional references:

1. Fedosin S.G. (1999), written at Perm, pages 544, Fizika i filosofiia podobiia ot preonov do metagalaktik, ISBN 5-8131-0012-1., http://lccn.loc.gov/2009457349 .

2. Comments to the book: Fedosin S.G. Fizicheskie teorii i beskonechnaia vlozhennost’ materii. – Perm, 2009, 844 pages, Tabl. 21, Pic. 41, Ref. 289. ISBN 978-5-9901951-1-0. (in Russian). http://sergf.ru/com.htm.

3. Fedosin S.G. Fizicheskie teorii i beskonechnaia vlozhennost’ materii. – Perm, 2009, 844 pages, Tabl. 21, Pic. 41, Ref. 289. ISBN 978-5-9901951-1-0. (in Russian). http://sergf.ru/knen.htm.

4. Fedosin S.G. The generalized Poynting theorem for the general field and solution of the 4/3 problem. Preprint, February 2016.

5. Project: Force vacuum field https://www.researchgate.net/project/Force-vacuum-field .

6. Project Covariant theory of gravitation https://www.researchgate.net/project/Covariant-theory-of-gravitation-CTG .

7. Project Relativistic uniform system https://www.researchgate.net/project/Relativistic-uniform-system-2 .

8. Project Acceleration field https://www.researchgate.net/project/Acceleration-field .

9. Project Pressure field https://www.researchgate.net/project/Pressure-field .

10. Project Dissipation field https://www.researchgate.net/project/Dissipation-field .

11. Coupling constant https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Coupling_constant .

12. De Broglie wavelength https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/De_Broglie_wavelength .

13. Fine structure constant https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Physics/Essays/Fedosin/Fine_structure_constant .

14. Four-force https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Four-force .

15. General field https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/General_field.

16. Gravitoelectromagnetism https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Gravitoelectromagnetism .

17. Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Infinite_Hierarchical_Nesting_of_Matter .

18. Strong gravitation https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Strong_gravitation .

19. Strong gravitational constant https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Strong_gravitational_constant .

20. Vacuum constants https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Vacuum_constants .

Project - Macroscopic theory of everything - General field

- Sep 2017
- Macroscopic theory of everything - General field

Update

With the help of the general field theory the general field equations, the equations of the matter motion, the equations for the metric are derived and the expression of the relativistic energy of macroscopic bodies is given.

The relationship between the general field components in the matter is determined, as well as the relationship between the gravitational constant and the similar constants of other fields acting in the matter. The peculiarity of this approach is that the gravitational field, pressure field, acceleration field, dissipation field and the fields of strong interaction and weak interaction of large cosmic bodies are considered as vector fields, similarly to the electromagnetic field. All of these fields have their proper four-potentials, the respective field tensors and stress-energy tensors.

Question - What happens to the photon when it is absorbed? Does it die out or does it just loose its energy and keep alive?

- Jul 2017

Answer

The photon has non zero rest mass.

When the photon is absorbed it just loose some of its energy (rotational part of energy) and keep alive. See https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312136114_The_substantial_model_of_the_photon

Question - Any (non-standard) opinions about the problem of the missing 'rest frame' of a photon?

- Jul 2017

Answer

The photon has a rest frame. See https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312136114_The_substantial_model_of_the_photon

Project - Pressure field

- Jul 2017
- Pressure field

Update

1. Fedosin S.G. The generalized Poynting theorem for the general field and solution of the 4/3 problem. Preprint, February 2016.

2. Pressure field https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Pressure_field

3. Four-force https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Four-force

Project - Pressure field

- Jul 2017
- Pressure field

Update

With the help of the principle of least action and the four-potential of the field the covariant equations of the vector pressure field are derived, the pressure field tensor is determined, and the stress-energy tensor of the pressure field is found. Next, in the curved spacetime the pressure force and the contribution of the pressure field into the relativistic energy of the system are calculated. In the static system, in the weak field limit, the isotropic scalar pressure, used in mechanics, is obtained.

Project - Force vacuum field

- Jun 2017
- Force vacuum field

Update

1. Fedosin S.G. (1999), written at Perm, pages 544, Fizika i filosofiia podobiia ot preonov do metagalaktik, ISBN 5-8131-0012-1., http://lccn.loc.gov/2009457349

2. Comments to the book: Fedosin S.G. Fizicheskie teorii i beskonechnaia vlozhennost’ materii. – Perm, 2009, 844 pages, Tabl. 21, Pic. 41, Ref. 289. ISBN 978-5-9901951-1-0. (in Russian).

3. Fedosin S.G. Fizicheskie teorii i beskonechnaia vlozhennost’ materii. – Perm, 2009, 844 pages, Tabl. 21, Pic. 41, Ref. 289. ISBN 978-5-9901951-1-0. (in Russian).

4. Gravitational constant https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Gravitational_constant

5. Field mass-energy limit https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Field_mass-energy_limit

6. Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Infinite_Hierarchical_Nesting_of_Matter

8. Similarity of matter levels https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Similarity_of_matter_levels

9. Vacuum constants https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Vacuum_constants

Project - Force vacuum field

- Jun 2017
- Force vacuum field

Update

According to the theory of infinite hierarchical nesting of matter, at the basic levels of matter the densest and most magnetized objects are located – neutron stars, nucleons, praons, graons, etc. Each of these objects consists of similar objects of the lower level of matter. Thus, a neutron star consists of nucleons, similarly nucleons must consist of praons and praons must consist of graons. The vacuum field includes all the particles, the masses of which are substantially less than the electron mass, and therefore they cannot be directly found in experiments. A special role in the vacuum field is played by the relativistic particles, since they are the cause of the fundamental interactions between the bodies at a distance. These particles become relativistic in the same way as the cosmic rays, composed mainly of nucleons and nuclei and accelerated in processes near neutron stars, become relativistic. Similarly, praons are accelerated by the strong fields near nucleons, and graons are accelerated by the fields near praons. Numerous fluxes of relativistic graons, praons and corresponding photons form the structure of the vacuum, filling the empty space. Such objects as neutrinos and photons are also composed of the particles of the vacuum field.

Project - Construction of substantial models of particles

- May 2017
- Construction of substantial models of particles

Update

Some additional references:

1. Fedosin S.G. (1999), written at Perm, pages 544, Fizika i filosofiia podobiia ot preonov do metagalaktik, ISBN 5-8131-0012-1.

2. Comments to the book: Fedosin S.G. Fizicheskie teorii i beskonechnaia vlozhennost’ materii. – Perm, 2009, 844 pages, Tabl. 21, Pic. 41, Ref. 289. ISBN 978-5-9901951-1-0. (in Russian).

3. Федосин С.Г. Проблемы фундаментальной физики и возможные пути их решения // Сознание и физическая реальность, Т. 9, №. 2, 2004, С. 34 - 42.

4. Fedosin S.G. Osnovy sinkretiki: filosofiia nositeleĭ. – Moskva: Editorial URSS, 2003, 464 pages. ISBN 5-354-00375-X. in Russian.

5. Project Covariant theory of gravitation https://www.researchgate.net/project/Covariant-theory-of-gravitation-CTG

6. Project Gravitational model of strong interaction https://www.researchgate.net/project/Gravitational-model-of-strong-interaction

7. Gravitational model of strong interaction https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Gravitational_model_of_strong_interaction

8. Model of quark quasiparticles https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Model_of_quark_quasiparticles

9. Substantial electron model https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Substantial_electron_model

10. Substantial neutron model https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Substantial_neutron_model

11. Substantial proton model https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Substantial_proton_model

12. Nuon https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Nuon

Project - Construction of substantial models of particles

- May 2017
- Construction of substantial models of particles

Update

Within the project the substantial models are constructed of the proton, neutron, electron, photon, neutrino, nuon, and praon. Quarks are considered as quasiparticles. The strong interaction is explained through the strong gravitation with the help of the gravitational model of strong interaction. The substantial electron model describes the state of the electron matter and its origin, acting fields, form of electron, generation of electromagnetic radiation in the atom, explains the electron spin, quantization of energy and angular momentum, multiplicity, magnetomechanical phenomena, the Lamb experiment, electron diffraction, etc. In the substantial photon model its structure is presented, the photon’s constituent particles are identified, the magnetic moment, the photon rest mass and the speed of its motion are calculated.

Project - Gravitational model of strong interaction

- May 2017
- Gravitational model of strong interaction

Update

Some additional references:

1. Fedosin S.G. (1999), written at Perm, pages 544, Fizika i filosofiia podobiia ot preonov do metagalaktik, ISBN 5-8131-0012-1., http://lccn.loc.gov/2009457349.

2. Comments to the book: Fedosin S.G. Fizicheskie teorii i beskonechnaia vlozhennost’ materii. – Perm, 2009, 844 pages, Tabl. 21, Pic. 41, Ref. 289. ISBN 978-5-9901951-1-0. (in Russian).

3. Project Covariant theory of gravitation. https://www.researchgate.net/project/Covariant-theory-of-gravitation-CTG.

4. Gravitational model of strong interaction https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Gravitational_model_of_strong_interaction

5. Strong gravitation https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Strong_gravitation

6. Strong gravitational constant https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Strong_gravitational_constant

7. Gravitational torsion field https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Gravitational_torsion_field

8. Gravitational induction https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Gravitational_induction

9. Gravitoelectromagnetism https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Gravitoelectromagnetism

Project - Gravitational model of strong interaction

- May 2017
- Gravitational model of strong interaction

Update

Project goal

Providing explanation for strong interaction with the help of strong gravitation and the gravitational torsion field in the framework of gravitoelectromagnetism, taking into account the gravitational induction phenomenon.

Background and motivation

It is assumed that at the atomic level the strong gravitation acts, while the strong gravitational constant is much greater than the ordinary gravitational constant. The stability of nucleons in the atomic nucleus and of some hadrons as the constituent particles is caused by the balance the two oppositely directed forces – the gravitational attraction of particles in the field of strong gravitation and the repulsion from each other due to the gravitational torsion field, arising from the rotation of particles. The gravitational induction increases the gravitomagnetic repulsion force, since as the particles approach each other it increases the speed of their spin rotation. The strong gravitation acts not only between the particles, but also inside their matter. Therefore, the model helps to explain the reason of the integrity and stability of particles, as well as the nature of the rest energy of particles as their total energy in the field of strong gravitation. Hence it follows that for the emergence of the particles’ mass the Higgs mechanism is not needed, it suffices to use the Le Sage’s theory of gravitation. With the help of the strong gravitational constant we can calculate the proton radius in agreement with the experimental data and the dependence of the binding energy of atomic nuclei. In neutron stars the ordinary gravitation brings together a great number of nucleons. However the gravitomagnetic repulsion forces of the strong gravitation field act between the nucleons much stronger than the ordinary gravitation. Due to this, formation of black holes is impossible.

Question - How many types of explanations are there for the spin angular momentum?

- May 2017

Answer

There is an article Substantial electron model at https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Substantial_electron_model . You can see that the electron spin is a part of angular moment of the electron disc in atom. The spin appears during of interaction of electron for example with photon, and the spin is absent in the main atom state. When the center electron disc is shifted in relation of the atom center we see the spin and radiation of rotating electron charge. See also https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312136114_The_substantial_model_of_the_photon

Question - What kind of space time structure will explains repulsive and attraction in electrical charges??

- Apr 2017

Answer

Dear Manoj Sithara,

Instead of the space time I prefer the dynamic vacuum field for explanations of the gravitation and action of electric forces. See the papers https://www.researchgate.net/publication/284032224_The_Graviton_Field_as_the_Source_of_Mass_and_Gravitational_Force_in_the_Modernized_Le_Sage%27s_Model

In the paper ‘The substantial model of the photon’ was found that the speed of light is speed of charged particles (praons) of vacuum field.

Project - Covariant theory of gravitation (CTG)

- Apr 2017
- Covariant theory of gravitation (CTG)

Update

Some additional references:

1. Fedosin S.G. Fizika i filosofiia podobiia ot preonov do metagalaktik, Perm, pages 544, 1999. ISBN 5-8131-0012-1.

2. Fedosin S.G. Sovremennye problemy fiziki: v poiskakh novykh printsipov. Moskva: Editorial URSS, 2002, 192 pages. ISBN 5-8360-0435-8.

3. Comments to the book: Fedosin S.G. Fizicheskie teorii i beskonechnaia vlozhennost’ materii. – Perm, 2009, 844 pages. ISBN 978-5-9901951-1-0. (in Russian).

4. Project Metric theory of relativity https://www.researchgate.net/project/Metric-theory-of-relativity

5. Project Acceleration field https://www.researchgate.net/project/Acceleration-field

6. Covariant theory of gravitation https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Covariant_theory_of_gravitation

7. Gravitational torsion field https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Gravitational_torsion_field

8. Gravitational field strength https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Gravitational_field_strength

9. Gravitational four-potential https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Gravitational_four-potential

10. Gravitational induction https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Gravitational_induction

11. Gravitational phase shift https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Gravitational_phase_shift

12. Gravitational stress-energy tensor https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Gravitational_stress-energy_tensor

13. Gravitational tensor https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Gravitational_tensor

14. Gravitoelectromagnetism https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Gravitoelectromagnetism

15. Heaviside vector https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Heaviside_vector

16. Metric theory of relativity https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Metric_theory_of_relativity

17. Operator of proper-time-derivative https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Operator_of_proper-time-derivative

Project - Covariant theory of gravitation (CTG)

- Apr 2017
- Covariant theory of gravitation (CTG)

Update

Project goal

Development of the theory of gravitation alternative to the general theory of relativity.

Background and motivation

Reduction of gravitation to metric, that is to the spacetime curvature, allowed the general theory of relativity (GTR) to describe a number of gravitational phenomena. However, the following problem arises – how do massive bodies curve the spacetime far away from them? In recent years, as the GTR tests are adjusted, the phenomenon start to appear that cannot be explained by this theory. In GTR still there is an insoluble problem with the inertial mass of separate parts of an arbitrary physical system, because there is no expression for the stress-energy tensor of the gravitational field, which should make contribution to the relativistic energy. The difficulties with development of the quantum theory of gravitation on the basis of GTR leads to the fact that the structure and the very possibility of formation of hypothetical black holes, admitted in GTR, continue to remain a mystery.

The covariant theory of gravitation (CTG) must resolve all the above-mentioned contradictions and problems of GTR. Similarly to electrodynamics, CTG is developed as a vector field theory, based on the principle of least action. The peculiarity of CTG is its own equation for the spacetime metric and the unique equation of the matter particles’ motion in the surrounding fields. The uniqueness of the equation of motion is associated with the fact that for kinematical description of the particles’ motion and their relativistic energy the acceleration field is used, which, by means of the proper time derivative operator, specifies the four-acceleration in the curved spacetime. In CTG the cosmological constant serves as the gauge term required for gauging of the relativistic energy of the physical system, with consideration of the contributions of the energies of particles and fields, acting in the system. In this case the gravitational field is a separate field, it has its own four-potential and forms the gravitational field tensor and the stress-energy tensor of the gravitational field.

CTG includes the gravitational torsion field, which is similar to the gravitomagnetic field in GTR and the magnetic field in electrodynamics. Due to the torsion field the effect of gravitational induction is possible. With the help of this field such effects are explained, which in GTR refer to the dragging of inertial reference frames near moving and rotating bodies (frame-dragging). The gravitational field in CTG is part of the mass component of the general field.

Question - Is there contradiction in describing of gravitation as tensor field in general relativity, and in describing of gravitation as vector field in CTG?

- Mar 2017

Answer

It is a comment of Felix Lev (https://arxiv.org/find/physics/1/au:+Lev_F/0/1/0/all/0/1 ), in relation of the paper ”Two components of the macroscopic general field”.

The main objection of the referee is as follows: "However, it is well known that the gravitational field, as well as its source, are tensor fields, and not in any way be reduced to vector fields.” This statement is erroneous for several reasons.

First of all, let us consider a known case of electrodynamics where the electromagnetic field is vectorial and consists of photons. Consider the situation when the dipole moment of a system is zero. This happens when the charge/mass ratio is the same for all particles in the system. Then the radiation can be only quadrupole and of higher orders and this does not contradict the fact that the photon is a vector particle. It is also well known in atomic physics that photons emitted in transitions between different atomic levels are not necessarily dipole.

Consider now the case of gravity. Here the role of charge is played by the mass and so for any particle the charge/mass ratio is 1. Therefore the gravitational dipole moment of any system consisting of two or more particles is zero. A single particle can radiate only if it is moving with acceleration and therefore in this case the particle necessarily interacts with other particles. As a consequence, the dipole gravitational radiation cannot exist, and, as it clear from the above remarks, the existence of quadrupole radiation does not contradict the possibility that the gravitational field is vectorial. The above explanation is given by the author.

The referee says that “it is well known that the gravitational field, as well as its source, are tensor fields”. General Relativity (GR) is a pure classical theory and here the radiation can be quadrupole and/or of higher orders. The usual assumption is that on quantum level the gravitational field consists of gravitons which have spin 2. However, all efforts to quantize gravity have not been successful yet because perturbation theory for quantum gravity contains strong divergences which cannot be removed by renormalization. The statements that the data on binary pulsars indirectly indicate to the existence of gravitational waves and that in recent LIGO experiments such waves have been detected are based, in particular, on classical Einstein’s quadrupole formula in GR, and, as follows from the above remarks, the existence of classical gravitational radiation does not necessarily imply that this radiation consists of particles with spin 2.

This problem is widely discussed in the literature. For example, a famous physicist F. Dyson notes in his paper “Is a Graviton Detectable?” (Poincare Prize Lecture at International Congress of Mathematical Physics, Aalborg, Denmark, August 6, 2012) that the existence of classical gravitational radiation does not automatically imply that gravitons exist and are detectable. He writes: “The conclusion of our analysis is that we are still a long way from settling the question whether gravitons exist. But the question whether gravitons are in principle detectable is also interesting and may be easier to decide.”

In the author’s approach all fields are vectorial. This is reasonable in view of the fact that in all fundamental quantum theories (QED, QCD and electroweak theory) the interaction is transmitted by fields consisting of vector particles (photons, gluons, W and Z bosons).

In summary, the main objection of the referee is not correct. Moreover, this objection contradicts scientific ethics. He believes that gravitons exist but until their existence is unambiguously proven (directly or indirectly) this is only his belief. Rejecting a paper only because the author has other preferences should be fully unacceptable in scientific community.

The author calls his approach covariant theory of gravity and the description of the theory is given at https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Covariant_theory_of_gravitation . The theory is constructed from the minimum action principle what guarantees that mathematically the theory is correct. A strong theoretical result of the theory is that here the gravitational field is described by a real energy-momentum tensor, i.e. not by a pseudotensor as in GR. The latter creates problems because, as shown by L.D. Faddeev (“The energy problem in Einstein’s theory of gravitation”, Soviet Physics Uspekhi, 25, 130, 1982), calculations with the pseudotensor can be consistent only if the metric is asymptotically Lorentz at infinity.

Project - Acceleration field

- Mar 2017
- Acceleration field

Update

In order to kinematically describe the motion the four-velocity and the four-acceleration are usually used. However, another approach is possible, in which the four-force density and, consequently, the four-acceleration are described with the help of the acceleration field tensor. This means that the acceleration field replaces all the existing fields in the system, leading to the acceleration of particles. The acceleration field is a vector field that has the four-potential, acceleration field tensor and stress-energy tensor, which can be found using the principle of least action. In this case, in the expression for the energy a term is automatically obtained, which is associated with the rest energy. Due to the relationship between the acceleration field tensor and the four-acceleration in the equation of motion, the acceleration field coefficient can be expressed in terms of the coefficients of other fields.

Project - Metric theory of relativity

- Mar 2017
- Metric theory of relativity

Update

A question: How can the distinguished reference frame be defined?

Project - Metric theory of relativity

- Mar 2017
- Metric theory of relativity

Update

A reference:

Fedosin S.G. The Pioneer Anomaly in Covariant Theory of Gravitation. Canadian Journal of Physics, Vol. 93, No. 11, pp. 1335-1342 (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjp-2015-0134.

as an example of using the Metric theory of relativity.

Project - Metric theory of relativity

- Mar 2017
- Metric theory of relativity

Update

Additional references:

Fedosin S.G. Fizicheskie teorii i beskonechnaia vlozhennost’ materii. – Perm, 2009, 844 pages, Tabl. 21, Pic. 41, Ref. 289. ISBN 978-5-9901951-1-0. (in Russian).

Metric theory of relativity https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Metric_theory_of_relativity

Extended special theory of relativity https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Extended_special_theory_of_relativity

Scale dimension https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Scale_dimension

Project - Metric theory of relativity

- Mar 2017
- Metric theory of relativity

Update

In the general theory of relativity, the theory of gravitation is combined with the general relativity of phenomena in non-inertial reference frames as a result of substitution of the action of the gravitational field with the curvature of spacetime and the respective change of the metric tensor. In the covariant theory of gravitation, the action of gravitation is described by the covariant gravitational tensor. This facilitates division of the theory of gravitation and the general relativity of phenomena. The metric theory of relativity is formulated on the axiomatic basis and in the weak field limit it changes to the extended special theory of relativity (ESTR). In this case ESTR is fully equivalent to the ordinary special theory of relativity, although it differs from the latter by one of its postulates about the existence of an isotropic reference frame, in which the speed of light is equal in all directions.

Project - Dissipation field

- Mar 2017
- Dissipation field

Update

- Mar 2017

Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1750002, 9 pages (2017). The general field, containing all the macroscopic fields in it, is divided into the mass component, the source of which is the mass four-current, and the charge component, the source of which is the charge four-current. The mass component includes the gravitational field, acceleration field, pressure field, dissipation field, strong interaction and weak interaction fields, other vector fields. The charge component of the general field represents the electromagnetic field. With the help of the principle of least action we derived the field equations, the equation of the matter’s motion in the general field, the equation for the metric, the energy and momentum of the system of matter and its fields, and calibrated the cosmological constant. The general field components are related to the corresponding vacuum field components so that the vacuum field generates the general field at the macroscopic level.

Question - Is the constancy of light speed in vacuum a physical reality or merely a convention?

- Feb 2017

Answer

About one way speed of light. There is a citation from the article at https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Metric_theory_of_relativity.

It is possible to use a geostationary satellite, which emits waves in one direction towards the telescope on the ground, with a fixed distance between the transmitter and the receiver. The Earth with this satellite revolves around the Sun, the Solar system revolves around the galactic center, and the Galaxy itself is moving relative to an isotropic reference frame in which the speed of light is the same in all directions. In the observation of the satellite we should consider the effect of aberration, which is dependent of the absolute velocity of the Earth relative to the isotropic frame. Experiments show the orbital velocity of the Earth around the Sun and the absolute velocity of the Solar system, about 600 km/s, the speed and direction of which is sufficiently close to the axis of the dipole microwave background radiation. [5]

Another example is the experiments of Stefan Marinov on measuring the speed of light from lasers with the help of rotating discs with small holes in them. [6] In these experiments, the measured speed of light varied depending on the diurnal cycle of the Earth's rotation and the corresponding change of position measuring system in space and change the direction of light propagation. For the absolute velocity of the Earth, there were obtained about 360 km/s.

[5] Eugene I. Shtyrkov. Observation of Ether Drift in Experiments with Geostationary Satellites. Proceedings of the NPA, 2005, Vol.2, No 1, P. 201-205.

[6] Stefan Marinov (1983). The interrupted 'rotating disc' experiment. Journal of Physics A. 16: 1885–1888.

[7] Marinov S (2007). "New Measurement of the Earth's Absolute Velocity with the Help of the Coupled Shutters Experiment". Progress in Physics 1: 31–37. http://www.ptep-online.com/index_files/2007/PP-08-05.PDF.

Question - How can the distinguished reference frame be defined?

- Feb 2017

Answer

@Sergey Shevchenko: “(ii) – that every material object always moves in Matter’s 4D [3 spatial dimensions and 1 “coordinate time” dimension] sub-spacetime with identical by absolute value 4D speeds, when this absolute value is equal to the standard speed of light value”.

The four-velocity of every body has time component \gamma c, and space component \gamma v, where \gamma is Lorentz factor, c is the speed of light and v is a coordinate velocity. So the body move in direction of time with the speed of \gamma c, which is more than the speed of light as you claimed.

Question - Is the constancy of light speed in vacuum a physical reality or merely a convention?

- Feb 2017

Answer

Dear Mohamed Hassani,

In my opinion for the special relativity (STR), the speed of light is a convention. It is seen firstly in analyses of the main axiom of STR. There is Extended STR (ESTR) where the axiom of constancy of light speed is replaced by the axiom of existence of isotropic frame of reference, where speed of light is constant in all directions. In ESTR we can see that if we want make space-time measurement with a fixed procedure it is results in that we must assume the constancy of light speed in all inertial frames, and use length contraction in calculation, and so on. Al of it is convention.

Another side of the question – the speed of light as a limiting speed. Really all physical measurements use electromagnetic signals. Also, all the forces may have electromagnetic nature. If so we will believe that speed of light, as a speed of electromagnetic signals, is a limiting speed for motions of all bodies.

In the paper ‘The substantial model of the photon’ was found that the speed of light is more than the speed of photon. The speed of light in the paper is speed of charged particles (praons) of vacuum field.

Question - How can the distinguished reference frame be defined?

- Feb 2017

Answer

@Eduardo Flores:"However, if this physical structure were Lorentz invariant it would not be detectable."

As far as I know, according to equivalence principle a test body in fall near the Earth has proper reference frame, which is close to inertial reference frame by its properties. The difference appear may be due to proper gravitational field of the body which is small relative to the field of the Earth. Is the proper reference frame of the body Lorentz invariant or inertial frame? As inertial frame it cannot be a natural absolute reference frame?

On the other hand all the objects and observers of the Universe are in free fall near each other and so they are almost inertial frames. Every body is unique and has its proper gravitational field and gravitational acceleration. As such there is no inertial reference frames in nature, all of the frames are accelerated. We can exclude gravitation with the help of free fall and do not see any distinguished reference frame. But every fixed point of the Earth feels a gravitational acceleration. It means the existence of the distinguished reference frames as local phenomenon, in every point of spacetime there is a such frame. Is free falling observer in a rest, in relation of such local distinguished reference frame which is distinguished for the observer as a result of absence of gravitational effects?

Question - How can the distinguished reference frame be defined?

- Feb 2017

Answer

Dear J. G. von Brzeski, Jerry Decker and Sergey Shevchenko, thank you for your comments.

Question - How can the distinguished reference frame be defined?

- Feb 2017

Answer

According to the Mach’s principle, the inertia of bodies, including the phenomenon of free inertial motion and the force of inertia, depends on all the other physical bodies in the Universe, so that we can choose such a reference frame, in which a body can be really at rest. Unlike Newton, according to Mach, specific things – the matter of the Universe – act as the equivalent of the absolute space marks. The program of geometrization of physics led Einstein to replacement of the gravitation by the curvature of spacetime, which depends on the density of the available masses. However, in the chain of reasoning, according to which the mass produces the curvature of spacetime, the necessary additional link was lost, according to which such curvature, in turn, produces the mass. Maybe the mass is produced in the Big Bang or through the Higgs mechanism? Then we need to find the connection between the Big Bang, the Higgs field and the curvature of spacetime, so the situation is getting more tangled.

On the other hand, if we take into account the theory of infinite nesting of matter and the similarity of matter levels, gravitons, generating the force of ordinary gravitation, may be generated as quanta, emitted by particles (praons) that make up the nucleon matter. Then gravitons are scattered throughout the Universe, and when a body is moving with acceleration relative to a certain reference frame, in which graviton fluxes are isotropic, the force of inertia emerges as the force of gravitons’ resistance to the acceleration.

Project - Relativistic uniform system

- Feb 2017

Question

There are different views on this issue. Newton believed that the distinguished reference frame was associated with the absolute space and time. When a body is accelerated relative to such a reference frame, the phenomenon of inertia arises as the body’s resistance to the accelerating force. According to Mach, the distinguished reference frame is associated with the distribution of matter in the Universe. According to Einstein, the distinguished reference frame does not exist. In my opinion, the distinguished reference frames can be determined by the reference frames, in which the graviton fluxes at the current moment are spatially isotropic. We can arrive at this conclusion by studying the Le Sage’s theory of gravitation, the extended special theory of relativity, and the Lorentz-invariant theory of gravitation.

Question - Does relativistic Newton's second law need to review?

- Feb 2017

Answer

As it was shown the photon has a mass. See the link

- Feb 2017

Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 411-467 (2017). It is shown that the angular frequency of the photon is nothing else than the averaged angular frequency of revolution of the electron cloud's center during emission and quantum transition between two energy levels in an atom. On assumption that the photon consists of charged particles of the vacuum field (of praons), the substantial model of a photon is constructed. Praons move inside the photon in the same way as they must move in the electromagnetic field of the emitting electron, while internal periodic wave structure is formed inside the photon. The properties of praons, including their mass, charge and speed, are derived in the framework of the theory of infinite nesting of matter. At the same time, praons are part of nucleons and leptons just as nucleons are the basis of neutron stars and the matter of ordinary stars and planets. With the help of the Lorentz transformations, which correlate the laboratory reference frame and the reference frame, co-moving with the praons inside the photon, transformation of the electromagnetic field components is performed. This allows us to calculate the longitudinal magnetic field and magnetic dipole moment of the photon, and to understand the relation between the transverse components of the electric and magnetic fields, connected by a coefficient in the form of the speed of light. The total rest mass of the particles 2 making up the photon is found, it turns out to be inversely proportional to the nuclear charge number of the hydrogen-like atom, which emits the photon. In the presented picture the photon composed of praons moves at a speed less than the speed of light, and it loses the right to be called an elementary particle due to its complex structure.

Question - Is real gravitational field of sub atomic particles?

- Feb 2017

Answer

Strong gravitation is real and more important for subatomic particles than usual gravitation. See Gravitational model of strong interaction.

Question - Is there contradiction in describing of gravitation as tensor field in general relativity, and in describing of gravitation as vector field in CTG?

- Jan 2017

Answer

Dear Stam,

As far as I know the principle of equivalence do not necessary for substantiation of GTR. The general relativity can be deduced without of the principle of equivalence. On the other hand, when a test body is in free fall there is a gravitational Lorentz force which in weak field is known in GTR as gravitoelectromagnetic force. In GTR and in CTG in the absence of charges and electromagnetic forces the mass of test body disappears in equations of motions. In GTR this means the equality of gravitational and inertial masses and gives the principle of equivalence. But in CTG it is not enough to equate gravitational and inertial masses as consequence of disappearing of mass in equation of motions. In CTG both masses are calculated in different ways. The inertial mass is related with the relativistic energy, and the gravitational mass is calculated as the mass in gravitational four-potential and in gravitational force. And it is found that inertial mass do not coincide with the gravitational mass. The difference of the masses is about of mass-energy of gravitational field of test body and too small for detection in experiments for the principle of equivalence. More precisely the gravitational mass exceeds the inertial mass on the value of mass-energy of total energy of test body. And as it was said the four-acceleration in free fall do not depend on the mass for uncharged test bodies and we see the principle of equivalence. But the four-accelerations in GTR and CTG are different in small extent.

It is well known that gravitomagnetic force of general relativity depends on the velocity of the test body and on the gravitomagnetic field near the test body. The force can be repulsive and attractive according to the sign of vector product of velocity and gravitomagnetic field. In the paper https://www.researchgate.net/publication/276505766_The_Pioneer_Anomaly_in_Covariant_Theory_of_Gravitation?ev=prf_pub we can compare the equations of motions of GTR and CTG in curved space-time. The difference is very small but it is enough to calculate the anomaly of Pioneer which is some problem for the GTR.

Question - Is there contradiction in describing of gravitation as tensor field in general relativity, and in describing of gravitation as vector field in CTG?

- Jan 2017

Answer

Dear Stam,

actually the question was raised by a reviewer as follows:

‘In the manuscript "Two sides of the macroscopic general field" the author makes an overview of his proposed "a macroscopic general field", or "The concept of the general force vector field, which includes the electromagnetic and gravitational fields, acceleration field, pressure field, dissipation field , strong interaction field, weak interaction field, and other vector fields".

However, it is well known that the gravitational field, as well as its source, are tensor fields, and not in any way be reduced to vector fields. Accordingly, the content of the manuscript is meaningless. The absence in the manuscript any concrete results substantiate the author's ideas, confirms the conclusion made above.’

I am not sure that we should reduce gravitation as tensor field in general theory of relativity (GTR), to gravitation as vector field in covariant theory of gravitation (CTG). The CTG is built in the same way as electromagnetic field theory in curved space-time with the metric. So the axiomatic bases of CTG and GTR are different. In my opinion only experiment can give answer what is better – GTR or CTG as an alternative. As such I do not understand the logic of reviewer in his review above.

Project - Relativistic uniform system

- Jan 2017

Question

The geometrical approach of general theory of relativity (GTR) leads to the idea that the gravitational field is a tensor (metric) field. Thus, the gravitation in GTR does not reduce to the vector field, and the tensor character of the field directly preconditions the absence of the dipole component in the gravitational radiation.

In order to describe the gravitation, we use the axiomatically constructed covariant theory of gravitation (CTG) with the vector four-potential, gravitational tensor and stress-energy tensor [1-3]. In this case the gravitation is an independent physical field that does not require full reduction to geometry. In CTG for each individual body the dipole gravitational radiation is admitted. Since for detection of gravitational effects at least two bodies are required, their dipole radiation mutually cancels out, and the system of bodies’ radiation always occurs in a quadrupole way or by higher multipoles. Thus, with respect to radiation the tensor field in GTR does not contradict the vector field in CTG. The difference between the basic postulates of the both theories does not prevent from describing in CTG all the standard effects of GTR [4], presenting the expression for the metric tensor [5], explaining the Pioneer anomaly [6], and considering for macroscopic systems the contribution of the gravitational field in the Navier-Stokes equation [7], in estimation of the parameters of cosmic bodies [8] and in the virial theorem [9].

Is there contradiction in describing of gravitation as tensor field in general theory of relativity, and in describing of gravitation as vector field in covariant theory of gravitation?

References:

1. Fedosin S.G. Fizicheskie teorii i beskonechnaia vlozhennost’ materii. (Perm, 2009). ISBN 978-5-9901951-1-0. http://sergf.ru/kn.htm.

Question - How do gravitons work?

- Nov 2016

Answer

Dear Hossein Javadi,

an idea how gravitons work may be found in the papers:

Fedosin S.G. The graviton field as the source of mass and gravitational force in the modernized Le Sage’s model. Physical Science International Journal, ISSN: 2348-0130, Vol. 8, Issue 4, P. 1-18 (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.9734/PSIJ/2015/22197.

Fedosin S.G. The charged component of the vacuum field as the source of electric force in the modernized Le Sage’s model. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 3, P. 971-1020 (2016). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jfas.v8i3.18 .

- Oct 2016

The virial theorem is considered for a system of randomly moving particles that are tightly bound to each other by the gravitational and electromagnetic fields, acceleration field and pressure field. The kinetic energy of the particles of this system is estimated by three methods, and the ratio of the kinetic energy to the absolute value of the energy of forces, binding the particles, is determined, which is approximately equal to 0.6. For simple systems in classical mechanics, this ratio equals 0.5. The difference between these ratios arises by the consideration of the pressure field and acceleration field inside the bodies, which make additional contribution to the acceleration of the particles. It is found that the total time derivative of the system’s virial is not equal to zero, as is assumed in classical mechanics for systems with potential fields. This is due to the fact that although the partial time derivative of the virial for stationary systems tends to zero, but in real bodies the virial also depends on the coordinates and the convective derivative of the virial, as part of the total time derivative inside the body, is not equal to zero. It is shown that the convective derivative is also necessary for correct description of the equations of motion of particles.

Question - How can we calculate the energy density of the gravitational field?

- Oct 2016

Answer

Dear Steve Mcgrew,

to calculate the energy density of the gravitational field you can use Covariant theory of gravitation. The time component of the stress-energy tensor in the theory is the energy density of the gravitational field. See the link .

- Sep 2016

Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 971-1020 (2016). The formula is derived for the electric force inside a uniformly charged spherical body, as well as for the Coulomb force between the charged bodies from the standpoint of the model of the vacuum field with charged particles. The parameters of the fluxes of charged particles are estimated, including the energy density, energy flux and cross section of interaction with the charged matter. The energy density of gravitons in the Le Sage's gravitation model is expressed in terms of the strong gravitational constant. The charge to mass ratio is determined for the charged particles that make up photons and the charged component of the gravitational field. These particles are identified as praons, while the praon level of matter is considered a lower level relative to the nucleon level of matter. The analysis of the main problems of the Le Sage's model shows that these problems can be eliminated in the modernized model.

- Aug 2016

Jordan Journal of Physics. Vol. 9 (No. 1), pp. 1-30, (2016). Based on the condition of relativistic energy uniqueness the calibration of the cosmological constant was performed. This allowed us to obtain the corresponding equation for the metric, to determine the generalized momentum, the relativistic energy, momentum and the mass of the system, as well as the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies. The scalar curvature at an arbitrary point of the system equaled zero, if the substance is absent at this point; the presence of a gravitational or electromagnetic field is enough for the space-time curvature. Four-potentials of the acceleration field and pressure field, as well as tensor invariants determining the energy density of these fields, were introduced into the Lagrangian in order to describe the system’s motion more precisely. The structure of the Lagrangian used is completely symmetrical in form with respect to the 4-potentials of gravitational and electromagnetic fields and acceleration and pressure fields. The stress-energy tensors of the gravitational, acceleration and pressure fields are obtained in explicit form, each of them can be expressed through the corresponding field vector and additional solenoidal vector. A description of the equations of acceleration and pressure fields is provided.

Question - How does Gravitons take part in the gravitational force between two masses? how the gravitons are produced?

- Jul 2016

Answer

Dear Agostino, I wish you success in your research. But there is a problem with quantum mechanics in which we have mathematical models for calculations and cannot see real interaction picture. And up to now it is not clear what the graviton in the quantum theory is. Also I do not agree when for graviton the Plank constant is used as a quantum of action. We can imagine that gravitons are particles of the lowest level of matter (see Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter) and then the particles have another value of the Plank constant.

Question - How does Gravitons take part in the gravitational force between two masses? how the gravitons are produced?

- Jun 2016

Answer

Dear Ravi,

You can find answers about gravitons and gravitational force in the paper: The Graviton Field as the Source of Mass and Gravitational Force in the Modernized Le Sage’s Model. More information is in the second paper about the origin of electromagnetic force: The Charged Component of the Vacuum Field as the Source of Electric Force in the Modernized le Sage’s Model.

- Mar 2016

A hypothesis is suggested that the fields associated with macroscopic bodies, such as classical electromagnetic and gravitational fields, acceleration field, pressure field, dissipation field, strong interaction field and weak interaction field, are the manifestations of a single general field. Using the generalized four-velocity as the four-potential of the general field, with the help of the principle of least action it is shown that each of these seven fields contributes linearly to the formation of the total four-force density. The general field equations, equation of the particles’ motion in this field, equation for the metric and the system’s energy are determined. It should be noted that the stress-energy tensor of the general field includes not only the stress-energy tensors of these seven fields, but also the cross terms with the products of various field strengths. As a result, the energy and momentum of the system with several fields can differ from the classical values, not taking into account such cross terms in the general field energy and momentum.

- Feb 2016

The motion equations of matter in the gravitational field, acceleration field, pressure field and other fields are considered based on the field theory. This enables us to derive simple formulas in the framework of the gravitational equilibrium model, which allow us to estimate the physical parameters of cosmic bodies. The acceleration field coefficient and the pressure field coefficient are a function of the state of matter, and their sum is close in magnitude to the gravitational constant . In the presented model the dependence is found of the internal temperature and pressure on the current radius. The central temperatures and pressures are calculated for the Earth and the Sun, for a typical neutron star and a white dwarf. The heat flux and the thermal conductivity coefficient of the matter of these objects are found, and the formula for estimating the entropy is provided. All the quantities are compared with the calculation results in different models of cosmic bodies. The discovered good agreement with these data proves the effectiveness and universality of the proposed model for estimating the parameters of planets and stars and for more precise calculation of physical quantities.

- Dec 2015

International Frontier Science Letters, ISSN: 2349-4484, Vol. 6, pp. 6 – 15 (2015).
Based on the similarity of properties of photons and money, and on the formula for the density of distribution of photon gas by energies, the corresponding mathematical formula for distribution of annual income per capita is obtained. Application of this formula for the data analysis reveals several independent groups of population with different average levels of their income. In particular four main groups of population contribute to the distribution of income in the economy of the USA. JEL Codes: C51, E01, E66.

- Oct 2015

Physical Science International Journal, ISSN: 2348-0130, Vol. 8, Issue 4, pp. 1 – 18 (2015).
The formula for the gravitational force inside a spherical body is derived, as well as for the Newtonian force of attraction between bodies from the standpoint of the gravitons’ model. The parameters of the graviton field are estimated, including its energy density, energy flux and the cross section of interaction with matter. The equation is derived, from which it follows that the body mass is proportional to the power of radiation energy of the body from those of gravitons that interacted with the matter and gave their momentum to the body. The conclusion is made based on the theory of infinite nesting of matter that gravitons are generated at all matter levels by the densest objects such as nucleons and neutron stars.

Question - Can Gravitoelectromagnetism equations be made invariant just as Lorentz transformations even in boost transformations?

- Sep 2015

Answer

Dear Sadeem Fadhil, see Gravitoelectromagnetism in Wikiversity and way, how the equations can be made invariant in LITG approach.

Question - Is Gravity a Push or a Pull?

- Sep 2015

Answer

Dear Shehab Khan, see preprint: The Graviton Field as the Source of Mass and Gravitational Force in the Modernized le Sage’s Model.

- Jun 2015

Advances in Physics Theories and Applications, Vol. 44, pp. 123 – 138 (2015).
Based on the assumption of separation of the charges in matter of cosmic bodies the possibility of obtaining the magnetic moment by these bodies is proved. The magnitude of the magnetic field appears proportional to the angular velocity of the body’s rotation and to the radius of convective layer. The periods of change of polarity of magnetic field of the Earth and the Sun are calculated by means of the size the convective layer and the convection speed. The solar activity appears the consequence of periodic transformation of the thermal energy into the electromagnetic form of energy.

- May 2015
- LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing

With the help of syncretiсs as a new philosophical logic, the philosophy of carriers, the theory of similarity and the theory of Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter, the problems of modern physics are analyzed. We consider the classical and relativistic mechanics, the special and general theories of relativity, the theory of electromagnetic and gravitational fields, of weak and strong interactions. The goal is axiomatization of these theories, building models of elementary particles and of their interactions with each other. The main obtained results are: description of the electrokinetic theory of the origin of magnetic fields in cosmic bodies; calculation of metric in the uniformly accelerated reference frame; the axiomatic construction of electrodynamics, Lorentz invariant (LITG) and covariant theories of gravitation (CTG); comparing CTG with the general theory of relativity and with the results of gravitational experiments. Among other results – the analysis of the properties of ether as the medium responsible for transfer of electromagnetic and gravitational waves, and derivation of the formula for entropy in a tensor form.
For students and researchers, as well as for those interested in physical and philosophical problems.

Question - Does a gravitational field have energy density like an electric field?

- May 2015

Answer

The energy density of graviton field was calculated in the paper http://vixra.org/abs/1503.0127 . And the energy density of charged particle field was calculated in the paper http://vixra.org/abs/1503.0126. Both fields are parts of vacuum field. The graviton field is the reason of gravitational field, and the charged particle field is the reason of electromagnetic field. The energy densities of the fields are in the same proportion as mass proton and electron. But energy density of gravitational field is not the energy density of graviton field, since the energy density of gravitational field is a function of body mass and distance. It is a measure of that part of graviton field energy density which involved in gravitational interaction between the body and test particle and contained in the volume of the particle.

Of course the gravitational field has energy density and stress-energy tensor, see https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Gravitational_stress-energy_tensor .

- May 2015

The difference of equations of motion in the covariant theory of gravitation and in the general theory of relativity is used for explanation of Pioneer anomaly. Calculation shows that the velocities of a spacecraft in both theories at equal distances can differ by several cm/s. This leads also to possible explanation of flyby anomaly and disturbances of comet which are not taken into account by the general theory of relativity.

- Mar 2015

From the principle of least action the equation of motion for viscous compressible and charged fluid is derived. The viscosity effect is described by the 4-potential of the energy dissipation field, dissipation tensor and dissipation stress-energy tensor. In the weak field limit it is shown that the obtained equation is equivalent to the Navier-Stokes equation. The equation for the power of the kinetic energy loss is provided, the equation of motion is integrated, and the dependence of the velocity magnitude is determined. A complete set of equations is presented, which suffices to solve the problem of motion of viscous compressible and charged fluid in the gravitational and electromagnetic fields.

Question - Are there only two relativities possible-- the special and the general? Or are there more to come in future??

- Jan 2015

Answer

Ok. I understand your approach. And I can imagine a lot of some other approaches to the problem. I hope you agree that the theory: 1. must explain phenomena. 2 predict new phenomena. 3. find new connections in nature and physics. If we have only 1 it is too little.

Question - Are there only two relativities possible-- the special and the general? Or are there more to come in future??

- Jan 2015

Answer

The reference frame is a part of physics. So first we need determine connection of physics and conscious with the help of philosophy.

Question - Are there only two relativities possible-- the special and the general? Or are there more to come in future??

- Jan 2015

Answer

The reference frame is apparatus for space-time measurements. If it uses a program as in computer it looks like conscious.

- Jan 2015

Answer

About TOE see the General field, https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/General_field .

- Jan 2015

Answer

Dear Rajat Pradhan and Clifford Chafin.

I my opinion the Metric theory of relativity is more common than special and general relativity, see https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Metric_theory_of_relativity . There is also Scale relativity in 5-dimension which is related to Scale dimension, see https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Scale_dimension .

I do not agree with absence of preferred reference frame in your Frame relativity. There is a preferred reference frame where the speed of light is isotropic. It is an axiom of Extended special theory of relativity , see https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Extended_special_theory_of_relativity .

- Jan 2015

Jordan Journal of Physics. Vol. 8 (No. 1), pp. 1-16 (2015).
Within the framework of the covariant theory of gravitation (CTG) the energy is calculated for a system with continuously distributed matter, taking into account the contribution of the gravitational and electromagnetic fields and the contribution of the pressure and acceleration fields. The total energy of all the fields is equal to zero, and the system’s energy is formed from the energy of the particles, which are under the influence of these fields. From the expression for the energy the inertial M and gravitational mg masses of the system are found. These masses are compared with mass mb, obtained by integrating the density over the volume, and with the total mass m’ of the body particles scattered to infinity in order to make the energy of macroscopic fundamental fields equal to zero. The ratio for the masses is obtained: m’ = M < mb = mg . From this the possibility of non-radiative ideal spherical collapse follows, when the system’s mass M does not change during the collapse. In addition, the mass of the system is less than the gravitational mass. In contrast, in the general theory of relativity (GTR) the ratio for masses is obtained in a different form: M = mg < mb < m’. In CTG the electromagnetic field energy reduces the gravitational mass and in GTR, on the contrary, increases. In order to verify the obtained results it is suggested to conduct an experiment on measuring the change of the gravitational mass of the body with increasing its electrical charge.

- Jan 2015

The vacuum field is considered as a force field, which consists of particles moving at speeds of the order of the speed of light, such as neutrinos, photons and charged cosmic rays. This distinguishes it from the classical static ether and some models of the quantum vacuum. In the presented model the occurrence of gravitational and electromagnetic force is substantiated, some vacuum field parameters are predicted, the sources that generate the vacuum field are suggested based on the theory of infinite nesting of matter.
http://wseas.org/wseas/cms.action?id=10178 .

Question - What physically changes when a particle is elevated and gains gravitational potential energy?

- Nov 2014

Answer

John Macken: After multiplication of dτ/dt ≈ Gm/c2r by dr/r we have: dr• dτ/(rdt) ≈ dr• Gm/c2r2 = dr•g/ c2, where g is the free fall acceleration. The Compton frequency is: ωc = me•c2/ħ. According your notation there is: ωc •dr• dτ/(rdt) = Δωc =( me•c2/ħ) • (dr•g/ c2)= me• dr•g /ħ. If dr=1 meter, then ħ• Δωc = me• dr•g=A, where A is a 1 meter elevation work.

But the problem here why we must consider exactly ωc •dr• dτ/(rdt) = Δωc as a right equation?

For explanation of this we can use the link http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Covariant_theory_of_gravitation#The_principle_of_least_action.

There we find: θ1 – θ2 = ( me/ħ) ∫ Dμ dxμ, where θ2 is quantum phase without the gravitational field, and θ1 the quantum phase in the field, and the phases were synchronized at the initial time point, Dμ is the gravitational 4-potential. If there is not motion, Dμ dxμ = ψ dt, where ψ is the gravitational scalar potential.We can change the integral equation by differential equation using dθ1/dt = ω1 , dθ2/dt = ω2 : ω1 - ω2 = me ψ1 / ħ. Let’s take another point in field which is higher 1 meter for which we have: ω3 - ω2 = me ψ3 / ħ. Subtraction gives: ω3 – ω1 =Δω31 = me (ψ3- ψ1) / ħ = A / ħ . What is Δω31 here? We can suppose that ω1 is the Compton frequency at point 1, then Δω31 will be the change of the Compton frequency when the electron elevated 1 meter from point 1 to point 3.

Question - Is the Gravitational interaction intimately connected with angular momenta (THE ACTION)??

- Nov 2014

Answer

I tell you about the same in other words.

Question - Is the Gravitational interaction intimately connected with angular momenta (THE ACTION)??

- Nov 2014

Answer

I only guess what you mean when you summing up to find action and may be gravitational force of the action. In my opinion the Dirac constant is a measure of angular momentum of particles such as nucleons and electrons. The angular momentum is the main source of gravitational torsion field (in general relativity it is gravitomagnetic field) of particles.

Question - Is the concept of field the proper way to describe physical processes?

- Nov 2014

Answer

Eugene, to avoid the problem, we can calculate the influence of the test particle on the massive body which changed its field. The situation is close to the problem of induced charges which appear in interaction of two charged bodies. The problem is solved by the method of imaginary charges.

Question - Is the Gravitational interaction intimately connected with angular momenta (THE ACTION)??

- Nov 2014

Answer

In the Gravitational model of strong interaction, the particles spins (rotating mass currents) produce the gravitational torsion force as rotating charge currents produce the magnetic force. See https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Gravitational_model_of_strong_interaction , https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Strong_gravitation , https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Gravitational_torsion_field .

The gravitational torsion force of nucleons in nucleus is balanced by strong gravitation. If you are interesting in such effect of gravitational action on particles, as phase shift, see https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Covariant_theory_of_gravitation#The_principle_of_least_action .

In general the quantum gravitation may be deduced from the Lorentz-invariant theory of gravitation , see https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Lorentz-invariant_theory_of_gravitation ,

after quantisation procedure just as for the quantum electrodynamics. You need also use the Strong gravitational constant in the equations, see https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Strong_gravitational_constant .

Question - What physically changes when a particle is elevated and gains gravitational potential energy?

- Nov 2014

Answer

It is well known that field action can deforms test bodies. The gravitational field strength depends on the distance between a massive body and a test body. The back and front of the test body have different distances from the massive body and different forces. In other words the test body is stretching by gravitational field strength. As a result we have deformation energy and additional internal pressure in the test body. If you want to calculate the gravitational energy and its distribution in space you can use the Covariant Theory Gravitation, see https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Covariant_theory_of_gravitation . In the theory you can find the stress-energy tensor of gravitational field, gravitational 4-potential and gravitational tensor.

Question - Is the concept of field the proper way to describe physical processes?

- Nov 2014

Answer

My answer to the question of Demetris Christopoulos is as follows. Yes, the concept of field is the proper way to describe physical processes. See the paper: The Procedure of Finding the Stress-Energy Tensor and Equations of Vector Field of Any Form . Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics, Vol. 8, 2014, no. 18, 771 - 779. http://dx.doi.org/10.12988/astp.2014.47101. With the help of field we can find the equation of motion, the energy of system and any other properties. In any cases there is not an infinite energy in the matter of particles or bodies as a consequence of specific spatial field distribution inside the bodies. In the concept of field the force acting on the test particle is calculated and the formula for the force do not depend on the position of the particle – it may be inside or outside the body generating the electromagnetic or gravitational field.

Question - Is Einstein group necessary to construct a Unified Field Theory?

- Oct 2014

Answer

In my opinion, everything is formed by matter particles similar to nucleons and electrons. According to Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter, https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Infinite_Hierarchical_Nesting_of_Matter

the analogues of the proton at the star level are magnetars, at lower level of matter - praons. We have also field particles such as neutrinos and photons which are components of graviton field and genereted by praons, nucleons, neutron stars and so on. The role of field particles is creation the matter particles with the help of gravitation in Lesage model of gravitation. See http://vixra.org/abs/1209.0076 .

The neutrinos and photons are the waves of graviton field. See the photon model at http://vixra.org/abs/1205.0044 and neutrinos model in the book: 'The physical theories and infinite hierarchical nesting of matter', Volume 1, LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, pages: 580, ISBN-13: 978-3-659-57301-9', at https://www.lap-publishing.com/catalog/details//store/gb/book/978-3-659-57301-9/the-physical-theories-and-infinite-hierarchical-nesting-of-matter-volume-1.

The different forces reflect different properties of particles interaction. For every such force we can construct the 4-potential and find field equations. See http://vixra.org/abs/1406.0135 . And it was found that field equations for all fields are similar to Maxwell's equations. See http://vixra.org/abs/1406.0173.

Question - Is Einstein group necessary to construct a Unified Field Theory?

- Oct 2014

Answer

As the general field has particular fields as its components. then the observables of these fields are observables of the general field.

Question - Is Einstein group necessary to construct a Unified Field Theory?

- Oct 2014

Answer

Dear Victor, thanks for ref. to GFT by Klotz. As I see at http://www.actaphys.uj.edu.pl/_old/vol19/pdf/v19p0533.pdf

in GFT the difference is used between metric tensor of general relativity and Riemannian metric tensor, and connection is from Schrodinger's equation. All of this is geometrical approach, when field properties connects to space-time.

In the concept pf general field all particular fields are independent on space-time and connect to different properties of matter interaction.

Question - Is Einstein group necessary to construct a Unified Field Theory?

- Oct 2014

Answer

Dear Victor Christianto, see the general field as a variant of Unified Field Theory,

Question - Could some of the fundamental constants be functions of the gravitational potential?

- Sep 2014

Answer

Dear Guoliang Liu ,

I think the gravitational constant is a function of the gravitational potential. See Model of Gravitational Interaction in the Concept of Gravitons at the link: http://vixra.org/abs/1209.0076

Question - Can an electromagnetic field affect spacetime curvature?

- Sep 2014

Answer

In Covariant theory of gravitation the EM field affects spacetime curvature, see https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Covariant_theory_of_gravitation

The EM field is a part of general field, see https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/General_field

and change the metric as other fields.

Question - Survey: what topics should be covered in Scholarpedia's encyclopedia of space-time and gravitation?

- Sep 2014

Answer

As an alternative theorie you can add Covariant theory of gravitation at https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Covariant_theory_of_gravitation .

Question - Could compton scattering in principle account for the Hubble redshift?

- Jul 2014

Answer

See the paper ' Cosmic Red Shift, Microwave Background, and New Particles ', Galilean Electrodynamics. 01/2012; 23(1):3, in which New Particles are reason for red shift and and loss of photon energy in space. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236135235_Cosmic_Red_Shift_Microwave_Background_and_New_Particles

- Jul 2014
- LAP Lambert Academic Publishing

With the help of syncretiсs as a new philosophical logic, the philosophy of carriers, the theory of similarity and the theory of Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter, the problems of modern physics are analyzed. We consider the classical and relativistic mechanics, the special and general theories of relativity, the theory of electromagnetic and gravitational fields, of weak and strong interactions. The goal is axiomatization of these theories, building models of elementary particles and of their interactions with each other. The main obtained results are: the model of bead lightning; an explanation of redshift of the spectra of galaxies; the derivation of the Newton law in the concept of gravitons; the calculation of nuclear forces and the structure of simplest nuclei with the help of the theory of strong gravitation; building the model of weak interactions of elementary particles; presentation of quarks as a particular type of quasiparticles; explanation of the electron spin. The book should be useful for students and researchers, as well as for those interested in physical and philosophical problems.

- Jun 2014

International Frontier Science Letters, ISSN: 2349 – 4484, Vol. 1, No. I (2014), pp. 41 – 46.
The metric outside a charged body is calculated. As part of the given approach it is shown that the gravitational and electromagnetic fields are equally involved in the formation of the metric tensor components. And the contribution of fields in the metric is proportional to the energy of these fields. From equations for the metric it follows that the metric tensor components are determined up to two constants.

Question - Why does the gravitational dipole moment vanish in general relativity (GR)?

- May 2014

Answer

In my opinion, if rwo bodies orbiting each other as the Earth and the Moon, and one of them has electric charge it should radiate as accelerating charge. In this case there is disbalance of gravitational radiations of bodies and in addition to quadruple radiation some dipole tipe radiation must be.

Question - How does the electric charge change body weight in a gravitational field?

- Mar 2014

Answer

Dear V. Toth.

I suppose that radius of the body and its electric potential may be fit to power of modern experiments, to test directly the change of body mass after charging of the body. Thanks for your opinion.