Sergey A. Sokratov

Sergey A. Sokratov
Lomonosov Moscow State University | MSU · Faculty of Geography

Ph D Environmental Science

About

87
Publications
18,183
Reads
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1,717
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2003 - present
Lomonosov Moscow State University
Position
  • Senior Researcher
October 2001 - April 2005
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL
Position
  • Research Associate
October 1999 - June 2001
University of Colorado at Boulder
Position
  • Research Associate
Education
October 1993 - March 1997
Hokkaido University
Field of study
  • Environmental Earth Sciences / Institute of Low Temperature Sciences
September 1983 - June 1988
Lomonosov Moscow State University
Field of study
  • Geography / Physical Geography: cryolithology & glaciology

Publications

Publications (87)
Article
The requirements of the debris flows’ parameters assessments vary from country to country. They are based on different theoretical and empirical constructions and are validated by data from different regions. This makes difficult comparison of the reported results on estimated debris flows activity and extent. The Russian normative documents for th...
Book
Full-text available
According to the observations of the Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University, different atmospheric characteristics and specific of weather conditions in 2018, which turned out to be as warm, dry, anomalously sunny, low-loud and high-light year, were investigated. A lot of meteorological parameters, Solar radiation, the chemical compo...
Article
Full-text available
The contribution of snow avalanches to the seasonal snow accumulation on a glacier is among the least studied components of the glacier’s mass balance. The methods for the numerical assessment of avalanche accumulation are still under development, which is related to poor avalanche data availability and difficulties in obtaining such data on most o...
Article
Full-text available
The legislation of the Russian Federation establishes the need to take into account hazardous natural processes and their parameters in territorial planning, as well as presentation of them in the relevant documentation in the form of maps. In a number of countries, there is a long-standing practice of mapping the avalanche zones basing on the defi...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the investigation was assessment of spatial variability of the characteristics of snowpack, including the snow water equivalent (SWE) as the main hydrological characteristic of a seasonal snow cover. The study was performed in Khibiny Mountains (Russia), where snow density and snow cover stratigraphy were documented with the help of the...
Book
Full-text available
According to the observations of the Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University, various atmospheric characteristics and specific of weather conditions in 2017, which turned out to be as anomalously rainy, cloudy and dark, were investigated. We discuss the unusually cool weather from April to July, snow cover and destructive squall in Mo...
Article
Full-text available
Te paper presents the results of studies aimed at investigation of the spatial and temporal variability of snow coverstructure on the basis of strength values and its variations obtained by means of the high-resolution penetrometer SnowMicroPen. Te possibilities of fast and independent from the observer identifcation of layers (including identifcat...
Article
Full-text available
The contributions of this special issue are centered on Russian natural hazard and risk research in the territory of the Russian Federation and the former Soviet Union. The overall aim is to promote the excellent research results in this scientific field which were, unfortunately, for decades only available to the Russian-speaking community. Despit...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We here introduce our cloud chamber which enabled us to grow snow crystals from water vapour under conditions similar to those in natural clouds. The snow crystals grew as a result of water vapour supersaturation as well as due to the interaction of ice crystals and water droplets within the cloud chamber. The cloud chamber, of cylindrical shape wi...
Article
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Snow is a critically important and rapidly changing feature of the Arctic. However, snow-cover and snowpack conditions change through time pose challenges for measuring and prediction of snow. Plausible scenarios of how Arctic snow cover will respond to changing Arctic climate are important for impact assessments and adaptation strategies. Although...
Article
Full-text available
A 182 m ice core was recovered from a borehole drilled into bedrock on the western plateau of Mt. Elbrus (43°20´53.9'' N, 42°25´36.0'' E; 5115 m a.s.l.) in the Caucasus, Russia, in 2009. This is the first ice core in the region that represents a paleoclimate record that is practically undisturbed by seasonal melting. Relatively high snow accumulati...
Chapter
After seasonally frozen ground, seasonal snow cover has the second largest extent of any component of the cryosphere, with a mean annual area of approximately 26 million km2most of it located in the Northern Hemisphere [1]. In many mountain ranges snow and ice are key components of the hydrological cycle with the duration and depth of the seasonal...
Article
Full-text available
A 182 m ice core has been recovered from a borehole drilled through the glacier to the bedrock at the Western Plateau of Mt Elbrus (43°20′53.9″ N, 42°25′36.0″ E; 5115 m a.s.l.), the Caucasus, Russia, in 2009. This is the first ice core in the region which represents a paleoclimate record practically undisturbed by seasonal melting. Relatively high...
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents examples of the change in snow avalanches and debris flows activity due to the anthropogenic pressure on vegetation and relief. The changes in dynamical characteristics of selected snow avalanches and debris flows due to the anthropogenic activity are quantified. The conclusion is made that the anthropogenic effects on the snow a...
Article
Full-text available
Winter tourism that is intensively developed in the Russian Federation in recent years strongly depends on the snow availability and properties in the region. Climate changes exert significant influence on the functioning of mountain ski resorts, especially if they are located in areas with relatively high air temperatures in winter season. At the...
Article
Full-text available
We modified a passive capillary sampler (PCS) to collect snowmelt water for isotopic analysis. Past applications of PCSs have been to sample soil water, but the novel aspect of this study was the placement of the PCSs at the ground-snowpack interface to collect snowmelt. We deployed arrays of PCSs at 11 sites in ten partner countries on five contin...
Article
Full-text available
Debris flows are the most frequent and disastrous natural hazards among other exogenic processes at the Black Sea coastal region of the North Caucasus. Numerous debris flow releases are reported every year between Novorossiysk and Krasnaya Polyana. The debris flows bring economic losses, and sometimes loss of human lives. Quantification of the econ...
Article
Full-text available
Laboratory researches of isotope structure of water and ice in the dispersed ground have been carried out. It has been established that the isotopic fractionation occurs during water interaction with ground and water migration and ice formation on freezing. The isotopic fractionation depends on ground composition and freezing conditions.
Article
Debris flows are the most frequent and disastrous natural hazards among other exogenic processes at the Black Sea coastal region of the North Caucasus. Numerous debris flow releases are reported every year between Novorossiysk and Krasnaya Polyana. The debris flows bring economic losses, and sometimes loss of human lives. Quantification of the econ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Snowpack is a reflection of different environmental factors, joining all three spheres: atmo-, hydro- and geosphere. Orographic diversity of Slovenia influences the climate and also snowpack characteristics in alpine part of Slovenia that differ of those in the other parts of the Alps. To improve our knowledge about characteristics of snowpack and...
Article
Full-text available
Starting with an overview on losses due to mountain hazards in the Russian Federation and the European Alps the question is raised why a substantial number of events still is recorded – despite considerable efforts in hazard mitigation and risk reduction. The main reason for this paradox lies in a missing dynamic risk-based approach, and it is show...
Article
Full-text available
Starting with an overview on losses due to mountain hazards in the Russian Federation and the European Alps the question is raised why a substantial number of events still is recorded - despite considerable efforts in hazard mitigation and risk reduction. The main reason for this paradox lies in a missing dynamic risk-based approach, and it is show...
Article
Basins of 118 watercourses where formation of mudflows is possible were identified at the Caucasian coast of the Black Sea between Novorossiysk and Adler cities. The following parameters were used for mudflow risk evaluation: probability of death as a result of mudflow event during a year at a particular territory (individual mudflow risk) and poss...
Article
Full-text available
Dry-snow metamorphism was the focus of extensive investigations in Russia over several decades. Large amounts of data were collected and used to construct a conceptual model based on crystallographic laws. The difference in terminology compared with the conventional model made these results less accessible to the wider international snow science co...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, the Government of the Russian Federation considerably increased attention to the exploitation of the Russian Arctic territories. Simultaneously, the evaluation of snow avalanches danger was enhanced with the aim to decrease fatalities and reduce economic losses. However, it turned out that solely reporting the degree of avalanche d...
Chapter
Full-text available
Laboratory tests on isotopic composition of water and ice in structure-forming soils were carried out. The results of the tests have shown that the interactions between water and soils, water migration, and ice formation during the freezing process cause isotope fractionation influenced by soil composition and freezing conditions.
Poster
Full-text available
In temperate humid catchments the storage of precipitation in snowpack, and the subsequent melting, both highly variable in space and time, substantially impacts the water cycle. Recent climate warming and changes in atmospheric circulation patterns have resulted in reductions in the duration of the snow cover season, the amount of water stored in...
Article
In temperate humid catchments the storage of precipitation in snowpack, and the subsequent melting, both highly variable in space and time, substantially impacts the water cycle. Recent climate warming and changes in atmospheric circulation patterns have resulted in reductions in the duration of the snow cover season, the amount of water stored in...
Article
Austria has the highest national added value from winter tourism in Europe, as well as worldwide. 15.7 million arrivals were counted in Austrian accommodation establishments in the 2010/11 winter season. There were more than 62 million overnight stays and 51.2 million skier-days were consumed. 588 million transports were carried out by more than 30...
Article
Mountain regions provide a significant proportion of areas used for human settlements, economic purpose, and recreation. Simultaneously, due to steep vertical gradients mountain areas are prone to mass movement processes. The intersection of such processes with areas used by human action turns them into hazards. In particular in arctic regions, whi...
Article
The first evaluations of the snow avalanches and debris flow danger in the region of Krasnaya Polyana (Winter Olympic Games 2014 site) were made by the staff of LSADF in 1960s. In those times the danger was estimated as medium and low. Active development of the region started in 2000, when the ski (mountain climatic health) resort Alpika Service wa...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, the Government of the Russian Federation considerably increased attention to the exploitation of the Russian Arctic territories. Simultaneously, the evaluation of snow avalanches danger was enhanced with the aim to decrease fatalities and reduce economic losses. However, it turned out that solely reporting the degree of avalanche d...
Article
Full-text available
Analysis of in situ and satellite data shows evidence of different regional snow cover responses to the widespread warming and increasing winter precipitation that has characterized the Arctic climate for the past 40–50years. The largest and most rapid decreases in snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow cover duration (SCD) are observed over maritime...
Article
A model for the effective heat conductivity of an anisotropic porous medium that includes solid-gas phase transitions is presented. The model satisfactorily reproduces the experimentally observed temporal change of the effective heat conductivity of snow caused by snow recrystallization (metamorphism). The input parameters for the model are snow po...
Article
Full-text available
We present results from cold-laboratory observations of changes in isotopic (δ18O and δD) content by sublimation in snow and ice samples under nearly isothermal conditions. The results show large increases in observed δ18O and δD in snow samples within several centimeters of the surface. They contradict the assumption of a non-changing isotopic con...
Article
Full-text available
Snow is the natural resource, like soil and water. It has specific properties which allow its use not just for skiing but also for houses cooling in summer (Swedish experience), for air fields construction (Arctic and Antarctic), for dams (north of Russia), for buildings (not only snow-houses of some Polar peoples but artistic hotel attracting tour...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The "International Classification for Seasonal Snow on the Ground" published in 1990 is now well accepted by most snow scientists and practitioners around the world. Nevertheless, the snow community felt some points needed to be revised. Most problems were spotted within the classification of wet snow and crusts, but also in conjunction with polar...
Chapter
Full-text available
The project focused on multi-scale and multidisciplinary aspects of seasonal snow cover in the landscape. The snow physics parameterization takes into account snow structure for use in the Global Circulation Models (GCM). The geographic classification of snow classes is based on snow types, snow layers and crystal types. Numerical experiments with...
Chapter
Full-text available
The contribution provides an overview of preliminary results of the INTAS and NATO projects focused on multiscale and multidisciplinary aspects of seasonal snow cover. Based on the extensive database, the snow physics parameterization taking into account snow structure for the use in the Global Circulation Models (GCM) and the geographic classifica...
Article
Full-text available
The relation between heat flow through snow and microstructure is crucial for the comprehension and modeling of thermophysical, chemical, and mechanical properties of snow. This relationship was investigated using heat flux measurements combined with a microstructural numerical approach. A snow sample was subjected to a temperature gradient and the...
Article
Full-text available
Temperature gradient metamorphism is one of the dominant processes changing the structure of natural dry snow. The structure of snow regulates the thermal and mechanical properties. Physical models and numerical simulations of the evolution of the snow cover require a thorough understanding of the interplay between structure and physical properties...
Article
Snowpack models assume that the ice and air phases of the snow matrix are in thermal equilibrium. This assumption is questionable for short time scales (15 min) and small layer heights (1 cm) required to model snow metamorphism and avalanche formation. In this paper, a nonequilibrium model is formulated, which contains: (1) two energy conservation...
Chapter
Full-text available
The heat flow through a snow cover profoundly changes its structure and thus the thermophysical and mechanical properties of snow. Despite the great amount of empirical data collected so far, the physical processes behind these changes are poorly understood because snow sinters and recrystallizes simultaneously at temperatures typical on earth. Hea...
Chapter
Full-text available
1 ABSTRACT: Temporal changes in snow structure and in effective heat conductivity during temperature gradient metamorphism are reported. The structure was measured by computed X-ray micro-tomography, the heat conductivity determined by measuring heat fluxes and temperatures. The structural parameters analyzed are: the sizes of ice structures and of...
Article
The understanding of the phase transitions at the surface of a growing crystal is mainly based on the data on ice crystals transformations. The relations of the growth rates and crystal habits to temperature and water vapor saturation in surrounding for ice are well established and are widely used. However, the processes of ice--vapor phase transit...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a model of snow structure (model of regular grain packing) that is based on experimental determination of various geometrical characteristics of fine-, medium- and large-grained granular snow. Data analysis supports the possibility of approximating the ice-matrix configuration as a regular lattice of nearly spherical ice grains...
Article
A number of discrepancies in the computer-simulated and observed snow cover features, such as the amplitude of snow density variability and the form of the texture index profiles, cannot be related to errors in input data. We could also exclude the effect of difference in parameterization of observed and modeled snow cover parameters. Some of the d...
Article
The SNOWPACK model is applied to an Alpine site where detailed snow pit obser- vations together with the snow cover stability tests were conducted for two winter seasons. Despite remaining discrepancies in quantitative snow structure parameters, a general agreement was found between the layering of snow predicted by the model and the observed snow...
Article
An influence of a climatic event on a glacier system can be divided on a synchronous impact, with a period and an intensity coinciding with those of the event, and an epichronous one, continuously released for as long as the corresponding change of the glacial mass balance remains inside the glacier. The synchronous impact can be a change of firniz...
Article
The authors present the results of laboratory experiments on the isotopic content change in snow by evaporation under isothermal conditions. Opposite to often as- sumed invariance of the isotopic composition of snow as a result of surface evapora- tion, the obtained data showed considerable decrease in 18O and D of isothermally- evaporating snow in...
Article
Despite a long history of extensive experimental and theoretical studies on the process of water vapor diffusion in snow, no quantitative explanation for the observed diffu- sion characteristics such as mass-transfer rates and snow density change is available at present. Results of a detailed investigatation of the process are presented. The pro- p...
Article
Isotope composition of ground ice keeps information on the variations of the isotope concentrations in precipitation and during their stay in the upper part of the snow cover. Under severe climatic conditions these changes generally occur because of the evaporation from and mass trans