Serge C Thal

Serge C Thal
Universität Witten/Herdecke · Chair of Anesthesiology I

Doctor of Medicine

About

149
Publications
15,151
Reads
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3,224
Citations
Citations since 2017
69 Research Items
2038 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
Additional affiliations
January 2020 - February 2020
Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
Position
  • Vice Chair
December 2004 - January 2020
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Position
  • Senior Researcher
January 2001 - November 2004
Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (149)
Article
Stroke is the third most common cause of death in industrialized countries. The main therapeutic target is the ischemic penumbra, potentially salvageable brain tissue that dies within the first few hours after blood flow cessation. Hence, strategies to keep the penumbra alive until reperfusion occurs are needed. To study the effect of inhaled nitri...
Article
Full-text available
Accumulating evidence suggests a pivotal role of PDGFRß positive cells, a specific marker for central nervous system (CNS) pericytes, in tissue scarring. Identification of cells that contribute to tissue reorganization in the CNS upon injury is a crucial step to develop novel treatment strategies in regenerative medicine. It has been shown that per...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Plasminogen activator inhibitor‐1 (PAI‐1) is the key endogenous inhibitor of fibrinolysis, and enhances clot formation after injury. In traumatic brain injury, dysregulation of fibrinolysis may lead to sustained microthrombosis and accelerated lesion expansion. In the present study, we hypothesized that PAI‐1 mediates posttraumatic malfun...
Research
Full-text available
Summary Background Previous studies indicate that isoflurane could be useful for the sedation of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), but prospective studies evaluating isoflurane's efficacy have been small. The aim of this study was to test whether the sedation with isoflurane was non-inferior to sedation with propofol. Methods This phase 3,...
Article
Full-text available
Prompt reperfusion is important to rescue ischemic tissue; however, the process itself presents a key pathomechanism that contributes to a poor outcome following cardiac arrest. Experimental data have suggested the use of levosimendan to limit ischemia–reperfusion injury by improving cerebral microcirculation. However, recent studies have questione...
Article
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most important causes of death in young adults. After brain injury cortical perfusion is impaired by cortical spreading depression, cerebral microvasospasm or microvascular thrombosis and contributes to secondary expansion of lesion into surrounding healthy brain tissue. The present study was designed to d...
Article
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Background Medical emergencies are complex and stressful, especially for the young and inexperienced. Cognitive aids (CA) have been shown to facilitate management of simulated medical emergencies by experienced teams. In this randomized trial we evaluated guideline adherence and treatment efficacy in simulated medical emergencies managed by residen...
Article
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Background: Guidelines of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) recommend the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during the resuscitation of COVID-19 patients. Data on the effects of PPE on rescuers’ stress level and quality of CPR are sparse and conflicting. This trial investigated the effects of PPE on team performance in simulated cardiac...
Article
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Intracranial hemorrhage results in devastating forms of cerebral damage. Frequently, these results also present with cardiac dysfunction ranging from ECG changes to Takotsubo syndrome (TTS). This suggests that intracranial bleeding due to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) disrupts the neuro–cardiac axis leading to neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy (NSC)...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cerebral inflammation with invasion of neutrophils and lymphocytes is a crucial factor in the process of secondary brain damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). In TBI the intrinsic renin-angiotensin system is an important mediator of cerebral inflammation, as inhibition of the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) reduces secondary brain damage...
Article
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(1) Background: Injuries related to resuscitation are not usually systematically recorded and documented. By evaluating this data, conclusions could be drawn about the quality of the resuscitation, with the aim of improving patient care and safety. (2) Methods: We are planning to conduct a multicentric, retrospective 3-phased study consisting of (1...
Article
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Antagonism of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) improves neurological function and reduces brain damage after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI), which may be partly a result of enhanced indirect angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2) stimulation. AT2 stimulation was demonstrated to be neuroprotective via anti-inflammatory, vasodilatory...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Guidelines recommend that relatives be present during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This randomised trial investigated the effects of two different behaviour patterns of relatives on rescuers' perceived stress and quality of CPR. Material and methods: Teams of three to four physicians were randomised to perform CPR in the pres...
Article
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Background: Little is known about importance and implementation of end-of-life care (EOLC) in German intensive care units (ICU). This survey analyses preferences and differences in training between "medical" (internal medicine, neurology) and "surgical" (surgery, anaesthesiology) residents during intensive care rotation. Methods: This is a point...
Article
Background Surgical site infections (SSI) occur despite antimicrobial prophylaxis and increase postoperative morbidity and mortality. This could be caused by an intraoperative decrease in antibiotic serum concentrations such as ampicillin after major abdominal surgery due to blood loss and fluid therapy, which possibly promotes SSI. This hypothesis...
Article
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Background Germany has an interdisciplinary physician-based emergency medical service. Differences in training likely lead to different levels of expertise. Objectives We assessed the number of manual procedures performed at the completion of training to determine level of experience of prehospital emergency physicians of different primary special...
Article
Full-text available
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) involves primary mechanical damage and delayed secondary damage caused by vascular dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Intracellular components released into the parenchyma and systemic circulation, termed danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), are major drivers of vascular dysfunction and neuroinflammation. These...
Article
Full-text available
Background The benzodiazepine midazolam is a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor agonist frequently used for sedation or stress control in patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, experimental studies on benzodiazepines have reported divergent results, raising concerns about its widespread use in patients. Some studies indic...
Preprint
Full-text available
Antagonism of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) improves neurological function and reduces brain damage after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI), which may be partly a result of enhanced indirect angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2) stimulation. AT2 stimulation was demonstrated to act neuroprotective via anti-inflammatory, vasodilator...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Actual cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines recommend point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS); however, data on POCUS during CPR are sparse and conflicting. This randomized trial investigated the effects of POCUS during CPR on team performance and diagnostic accuracy. Methods: Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine residents perfor...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Cerebral inflammation with invasion of neutrophils and lymphocytes is an important factor in the process of secondary brain damage expansion after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Depletion of neutrophils in mice has been shown to reduce neurologic impairment after TBI. The intrinsic cerebral renin-angiotensin system is an important mediat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) involves primary mechanical damage and delayed secondary damage caused by vascular dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Intracellular components released into the parenchyma and systemic circulation, termed danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), are major drivers of vascular dysfunction and neuroinflammation. These...
Article
Full-text available
Stefan Schad,1 Hendrik Booke,2 Serge C Thal,3 Alexander H Bentley,3 Michael Booke1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Therapy, Kliniken-MTK, Academic Hospital of the Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Therapy, University Hospital Frankfurt, Go...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Many patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) suffer from cognitive impairment after hospital discharge. Different mechanisms have been implicated as potential causes for this impairment, inter alia cerebral inflammation. A class of drugs with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are β-HMG-CoA-reductase inhibito...
Article
Background: Previous studies indicate that isoflurane could be useful for the sedation of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), but prospective studies evaluating isoflurane's efficacy have been small. The aim of this study was to test whether the sedation with isoflurane was non-inferior to sedation with propofol. Methods: This phase 3, ra...
Article
Full-text available
Unilateral traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes cortical dysfunctions spreading to the primarily undamaged hemisphere. This phenomenon, called transhemispheric diaschisis, is mediated by an imbalance of glutamatergic versus GABAergic neurotransmission. This study investigated the role of GABAergic, somatostatin-positive (SST) interneurons in the con...
Article
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A novel wireless eight-channel electroencephalography (EEG) headset specially developed for ICUs was tested in regard of comparability with standard 10/20 EEG systems. The continuous EEG (cEEG) derivations via CerebAir EEG headset (Nihon Kohden Europe, Rosbach, Germany) and internationally standardized 10/20 reference EEGs as the diagnostic standar...
Article
Full-text available
If noninvasive ventilation (NIV or high-flow CPAP) fails in severe cases of COVID-19, escalation of treatment with orotracheal intubation and intermitted prone positioning is provided as standard care. The present case reports show two COVID-19 patients with severe refractory hypoxemia despite NIV treatment during the first wave (first half year 20...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The benzodiazepine midazolam is a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor agonist frequently used for sedation or stress control in patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, experimental studies on benzodiazepines have reported divergent results, raising concerns about its widespread use in patients. Some studies indic...
Article
Full-text available
Cerebral hypoperfusion is a key factor for determining the outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A subset of SAH patients develop neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy (NSC), but it is unclear to what extent cerebral hypoperfusion is influenced by cardiac dysfunction after SAH. The aims of this study were to examine the association between cardia...
Article
Background: The treatment of haemorrhagic shock is a challenging task. Colloids have been regarded as standard treatment, but their safety and benefit have been the subject of controversial debates. Negative effects, including renal failure and increased mortality, have resulted in restrictions on their administration. The cerebral effects of diff...
Article
Full-text available
Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an important disease with a high incidence among patients admitted to intensive care units. Over the last decades, the survival of critically ill patients has improved; however, cognitive deficits are among the long-term sequelae. We hypothesize that acute lung injury leads to upregulation of...
Article
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Background: Treating patients with acute surgical bleeding is common for anaesthesiologists and surgeons. A visual estimation of blood loss is often used in this setting, although studies prove its inaccuracy. Objectives: Which parameters and techniques do anaesthesiologists use to quantify blood loss? Methods: We conducted an online questionnaire...
Article
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Background Fast and effective treatment of hemorrhagic shock is one of the most important preclinical trauma care tasks e.g., in combat casualties in avoiding severe end-organ damage or death. In scenarios without immediate availability of blood products, alternate regimens of fluid resuscitation represent the only possibility of maintaining suffic...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Prompt reperfusion is essential to rescue ischemic tissue, but in itself represents a key pathomechanism contributing to poor outcome after cardiac arrest. Experimental data suggest levosimendan as a therapeutic drug to limit ischemia-reperfusion injury by improving cerebral microcirculation and thereby reducing neuronal injury. However...
Article
Full-text available
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity is one of the important elements of central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis. MicroRNAs (miRs) have been demonstrated to play a role in many CNS disorders such as stroke and traumatic brain injury. MiR-212/132 are highly expressed in the CNS but their role at the BBB has not been characterized yet. Thus, we analy...
Article
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Background Mechanical ventilation can lead to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). In addition to the well-known mechanical forces of volutrauma, barotrauma, and atelectrauma, non-mechanical mechanisms have recently been discussed as contributing to the pathogenesis of VILI. One such mechanism is oscillations in partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) w...
Article
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Development of vasogenic brain edema is a key event contributing to mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The precise underlying mechanisms at the neurovascular level that lead to disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are still unknown. Activation of myosin light chain kinases (MLCK) may result in change of endothelial cell shape and...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In animal research, authorities require a classification of anticipated pain levels and a perioperative analgesia protocol prior to approval of the experiments. However, data on this topic is rare and so is the reported use of analgesics. We determined surrogate parameters of pain and general well-being after subarachnoid hemorrhage (S...
Article
Full-text available
Following publication of the original article [1], the authors opted to correct the following mistakes. According to the title and our results, the conclusions in the abstract and at the end of the discussion the term “attenuates” must be corrected to read as “increases”.
Article
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Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability. T cells were shown to infiltrate the brain during the first days after injury and to exacerbate tissue damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the hitherto unresolved role of immunosuppressive, regulatory T cells (Tregs) in experimental TBI. Methods:...
Article
Full-text available
After stroke, secondary brain damage is influenced by the extent of fibrin clot formation. This is counteracted by the endogenous fibrinolysis. Of major interest are the key players of the fibrinolytic plasminogen activator system including the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), the tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), and their endogenous...
Article
Full-text available
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to impaired cognition and memory consolidation.The acute phase (24–48 h) after TBI is often characterized by neural dysfunction in the vicinity ofthe lesion, but also in remote areas like the contralateral hemisphere. Protein homeostasis is crucialfor synaptic long-term plasticity including the protein degradat...
Article
Full-text available
Cerebral hypoperfusion in the first hours after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a major determinant of poor neurological outcome. However, the underlying pathophysiology is only partly understood. Here we induced neutropenia in C57BL/6N mice by anti-Ly6G antibody injection, induced SAH by endovascular filament perforation, and analysed cerebral c...
Article
Full-text available
Clinical studies on subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have shown discrepancies between large vessel vasospasm, cerebral perfusion, and clinical outcome. We set out to analyze the contribution of large vessel vasospasm to impaired cerebral perfusion and neurological impairment in a murine model of SAH. SAH was induced in C57BL/6 mice by endovascular fil...
Chapter
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) plays an important role for the prognosis of multiple injured patients. Severely injured patients require intensive care treatment to support organ function and to maintain normal brain physiology. Optimal treatment is a cornerstone for good outcome. Therefore, in addition to general principles and concepts of modern in...
Article
Full-text available
Background Xenon is a noble gas with neuroprotective properties that can improve short and long-term outcomes in young adult mice after controlled cortical impact. This follow-up study investigates the effects of xenon on very long-term outcomes and survival. Methods C57BL/6N young adult male mice (n=72) received single controlled cortical impact...
Article
Full-text available
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent pathology associated with poor neurological outcome in the aged population. We recently observed accelerated cerebral inflammation in aged mice in response to TBI. Candesartan is a potent specific inhibitor of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) which limits cerebral inflammation and brain damage in juven...
Article
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2/SerpinB2) inhibits extracellular urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). Under physiological conditions, PAI-2 is expressed at low levels but is rapidly induced by inflammatory triggers. It is a negative regulator of fibrinolysis and serves to stabilize clots. In the present study, PAI-2 expression is upregul...
Article
Purpose Together with other diagnostic modalities, computed tomography angiography (CTA) is commonly used to indicate endovascular vasospasm treatment after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), despite the fact that objective, user-independent parameters for evaluation of CTA are lacking. This exploratory study was designed to investigate whether quantif...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The acute respiratory distress syndrome is not only associated with a high mortality, but also goes along with cognitive impairment in survivors. The cause for this cognitive impairment is still not clear. One possible mechanism could be cerebral inflammation as result of a "lung-brain-crosstalk". Even mechanical ventilation itself c...
Article
Full-text available
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a subtype of hemorrhagic stroke. Cerebral vasospasm that occurs in the aftermath of the bleeding is an important factor determining patient outcome and is therefore frequently taken as a study endpoint. However, in small animal studies on SAH, quantification of cerebral vasospasm is a major challenge. Here, an ex vi...
Article
Acute cerebral lesions are associated with dysregulation of brain glucose homeostasis. Previous studies showed that knockdown of Na⁺‐D‐glucose cotransporter SGLT1 impaired outcome after middle cerebral artery occlusion and that widely expressed intracellular RS1 (RSC1A1) is involved in transcriptional and posttranslational downregulation of SGLT1....
Article
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Abstract Neuronal degeneration following traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to intracellular accumulation of dysfunctional proteins and organelles. Autophagy may serve to facilitate degradation to overcome protein debris load and therefore be an important pro-survival factor. On the contrary, clearing may serve as pro-death factor by removal of ess...
Article
Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an immunomodulatory therapeutic for multiple sclerosis and psoriasis with neuroprotective potential. Its mechanism of action involves activation of the antioxidant pathway regulator Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) thereby increasing synthesis of the cellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The objective...
Article
Full-text available
Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is the carrier protein of the anti-haemophilic Factor VIII (FVIII) in plasma. It has been reported that the infusion of FVIII concentrate in haemophilia A patients results in lowered VWF plasma levels. However, the impact of F8-deficiency on VWF plasma levels in F8-/y mice is unresolved. In order to avoid confounding var...