Seppo Leminen

Seppo Leminen
University of South-Eastern Norway | USN · Department of Business, Strategy and Political Sciences

24.28
 · 
D.Sc. (Econ.), D.Sc. (Tech.)

About

104
Publications
35,617
Reads
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1,534
Citations
Introduction
Seppo Leminen is a Full Professor of Innovation and Entrepreneurship in University of South-Eastern Norway at Drammen in Norway, an Adjunct Professor at Aalto University in Finland, and an Adjunct Research Professor at Carleton University in Canada. His research interests include living labs, open innovation, innovation ecosystems, robots, Internet of Things, and management models in high.tech. and service industries.
Research Experience
January 2017 - June 2021
Carleton University
Position
  • Adjunct Research Professor
October 2008 - present
Aalto University
Position
  • Adjunct Professor
August 2005 - May 2018
Laurea University of Applied Sciences
Position
  • Principal lecturer
Education
May 2013 - December 2015
Aalto University
Field of study
  • Industrial Engineering and Management
October 1996 - March 1999
Hanken School of Economics
Field of study
  • Marketing
August 1992 - February 1994
Aalto University
Field of study
  • Product Automation

Publications

Publications (104)
Article
Innovation networks are embodied and shaped by their participants. This paper examines actors' roles in living labs, which are defined as networks of open innovation. The study utilizes four approaches to roles: structuralist, symbolic interactionist, resource-based, and action-based approaches. Our empirical analysis of 26 living labs in four diff...
Article
Full-text available
This article investigates challenges pertaining to business model design in the emerging context of the Internet of Things (IOT). The evolution of business perspectives to the IOT is driven by two underlying trends: i) the change of focus from viewing the IOT primarily as a technology platform to viewing it as a business ecosystem; and ii) the shif...
Article
Full-text available
The collection and use of data play an increasingly important role in the growth and success of today’s digital multi-sided platforms (MSPs). However, many aspiring MSPs lack effective strategies for using data to establish a profitable data-driven business model (DDBM). This study explores how MSPs in the food industry can utilize data to develop...
Article
This study analyzes Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) business models in the machine-to-machine (M2M) context. Thereby, it develops a conceptual framework to categorize different types of business model innovation for companies operating in the M2M business space. Business model innovations tend to cross multiple industries and drive ecosystems...
Chapter
This study investigates actors in the ecosystems of the Internet of Things (IoT). Previous research suggests that unstructured ecosystems make one of the greatest challenges for creating business models for the IoT. The present study concludes four contributions. First, the study reviews literature to develop a framework for role mechanisms in ecos...
Chapter
This study investigates actors in the ecosystems of the Internet of Things (IoT). Previous research suggests that unstructured ecosystems make one of the greatest challenges for creating business models for the IoT. The present study concludes four contributions. First, the study reviews literature to develop a framework for role mechanisms in ecos...
Chapter
This study investigates actors in the ecosystems of the Internet of Things (IoT). Previous research suggests that unstructured ecosystems make one of the greatest challenges for creating business models for the IoT. The present study concludes four contributions. First, the study reviews literature to develop a framework for role mechanisms in ecos...
Article
Full-text available
Small firms must increasingly seek external funding to fuel their growth ambitions domestically and internationally. However, external funding comes with conditions and ownership claims signifying changes to the entrepreneur's status quo. At the same time, the current climate for entrepreneurship and the availability of funding tend to fluctuate be...
Conference Paper
Shopping habits are changing with online stores and personalized selection gaining traction. We test a multifactor model of consumer behaviour in online retailing and allergy-free foods. Using survey data from 99 consumers in Canada, we investigate what drives consumer willingness to buy customized allergy-free cakes online. Our results show that t...
Article
This study explores the emergence of the living labs movement based on a literature review and interviews with experts acquainted with early living labs. The study contributes to the growing literature on innovation through living labs by addressing a research gap on why and how this movement is evolving. So doing, the study discusses the emergence...
Article
Full-text available
A living lab is a physical or virtual space in which to solve societal challenges, especially for urban areas, by bringing together various stakeholders for collaboration and collective ideation. Although the notion has received increasing attention from scholars, practitioners and policy makers, its essence remains unclear to many. We therefore pe...
Article
Examining change in business networks can illuminate how time, temporality and process unfold and engage different stakeholders in open innovation. Living labs are increasingly popular open innovation networks that provide a fruitful area in which to study change processes and their influencing factors in network dynamics. We adopt a longitudinal p...
Article
Purpose This study aims to understand their emergence and types of business models in the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystems. Design/methodology/approach The paper builds upon a systematic literature review of IoT ecosystems and business models to construct a conceptual framework on IoT business models, and uses qualitative research methods to...
Article
This paper examines diverse service innovations created with service robots in living labs that are an under researched and growing area of scholarly research. In particular, there is a need for research that connects robotics with welfare and health care living labs. This study focusses on the nexus between the different types of robots and servic...
Article
Full-text available
Many cities engage in diverse experimentation, innovation, and development activities with a broad variety of environments and stakeholders to the benefit of citizens, companies, municipalities, and other organizations. Hence, this article discusses such engagement in terms of next-generation living lab networks in the city context. In so doing, th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
External financing is an important strategic decision in growth-oriented small firms. Although private venture capital has been shown to contribute to investee venture performance, results of public funding’s effects are ambiguous. Using a sample of 118 small international firms from Finland, we empirically investigated the links between entreprene...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper examines diverse service innovations with service robots in living labs. Living labs is an under researched and growing area of scholarly research. In particular, there is a need for research that connects robotics with welfare and health care living labs. This study focuses on the nexus between the types of robots and services in living...
Article
Full-text available
In Finland, as in many other European economies, elderly people prefer to continue their independent living at home as long as possible. To support this trend of “ageing in place” and still preserve the quality of elderly care, robots and other new ICT-technologies will enable innovative help in organizing daily activities. The public discussion on...
Article
Purpose Companies often aspire to create advantages for their businesses through acquisitions. Their participation has increasingly been documented to include different motives for acquirers, while focusing less on the ambitions of acquired parties with the acquisitions. The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss gaps and the handling of...
Article
Full-text available
Prior literature argues that business relationships provide firms with competitive advantage. However, there is a need for more empirical evidence on whether and how they influence the growth of small technology firms. Through a statistical analysis of 90 small technology firms in Finland, we explore whether the scope and scale of customer relation...
Article
Full-text available
Prior literature argues that business relationships provide firms with competitive advantage. However, there is a need for more empirical evidence on whether and how they influence the growth of small technology firms. Through a statistical analysis of 90 small technology firms in Finland, we explore whether the scope and scale of customer relation...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the link between innovation processes and the use of innovation tools in living labs. So doing, it develops a conceptual framework based on the literature to analyze 40 living labs in different countries. The study contributes to the discussion on living labs by introducing a new typology of living labs based on their innovati...
Article
Full-text available
Entrepreneurial small firms must design business models that leverage the resources of others to succeed in domestic and global markets. This study investigates the variance in business models of firms seeking to prosper through networking within an intensely competitive landscape. We use explorative quantitative methods to analyse the link between...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates actors in the ecosystems of the Internet of Things (IoT). Previous research suggests that unstructured ecosystems make one of the greatest challenges for creating business models for the IoT. The present study concludes four contributions. First, the study reviews literature to develop a framework for role mechanisms in ecos...
Article
Full-text available
Small firms must design business models that leverage the resources of others to succeed in domestic and global markets. This study investigates the variance in business models of small firms seeking to prosper through networking within an intensely competitive landscape. We use explorative quantitative methods to analyse the link between networkin...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Based on a sample of 3097 small firms, we investigated how Finnish entrepreneurs perceive the relationship between corporate ownership structure and growth orientation. In particular, we investigated the type of ownership that entrepreneurs would provide to different types of funders in exchange for investment. Our empirical results sugge...
Article
Full-text available
This study identifies eight prevailing research avenues of living labs, an increasingly popular innovation approach, based on a comprehensive literature review. So doing, the study contributes to the literature of living labs by discussing perspectives that scholars in the field have taken to understand living labs and by providing an integrative f...
Article
Purpose This study aims to focus on living labs as a means of achieving radical innovation by discussing the differences in their network structure and its effect on the type of innovation outcome. Design/methodology/approach This research analyses 24 living labs in four countries using qualitative methods. Findings A specific network structur...
Article
Full-text available
From the Editor-in-Chief Welcome to the January 2016 issue of the Technology Innovation Management Review – the second of two issues on the theme of Living Labs and User Innovation. It is my pleasure welcome back our guest editors for December and January: Seppo Leminen (Laurea University of Applied Sciences and Aalto University, Finland), Dimitri...
Chapter
Digitalization of information has led publishers to contemplate how to innovate new business models for their media services. This article discusses the evolution of media business models by revealing their convergence and divergence. The study proposes and uses a framework for analyzing business model evolution in three publishing industries in Fi...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Based on a sample of 3097 small firms, we investigated how Finnish entrepreneurs perceive the relationship between corporate ownership structure and growth orientation. In particular, we investigated the type of ownership that entrepreneurs would provide to different types of funders in exchange for investment. Our empirical results sugge...
Article
Full-text available
This study argues that there are different degrees of openness and closedness in innovation activity, and it highlights the need for more research on the "grey areas" between totally open and totally closed innovation, particularly in innovation networks where multiple stakeholders collaborate for innovation. Here, we focus on four key aspects of i...
Conference Paper
This study applies technology adoption and strategic orientation theories to investigate the reseller adoption of smart microgrids (SMGs). These intelligent power generation solutions, operating on the Internet of Things (IoT) technology, rely on sustainable energy sources to supply small-scale loads. Using data from 100 power system resellers in N...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we focus on the role of a city as an orchestrator for innovation. We argue that cities should establish active dialogue with their citizens, and private and public sectors actors to co-create, develop, test, and offer service innovations that utilize diverse sets of platforms such as living labs. Our research contributes to the dis...
Article
Full-text available
The term "living lab" is at risk of becoming a buzzword in the innovation domain because it lacks a consistent or commonly accepted definition. Indeed, a wide variety of activities are carried out under the umbrella of living labs, and they feature many different methodologies and research perspectives. However, even if a common definition is beyon...
Article
This study explores user innovation in living labs that build on the co-creation of value with users in real-life environments. It focuses on the link between the role mechanisms of user innovators and the innovation outcome. The study introduces a framework based on four types of creative consumers to analyze user roles in 26 living labs in Finlan...
Conference Paper
Despite the growing popularity of using living lab as innovation platforms, little is known about their characteristics. We use a qualitative research approach to identify constructs that help us to understand the concept of living lab. We used theoretical constructs from the literatures on user innovation, co-creation and living labs to analyze Eu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Internationalization is particularly challenging for small firms with limited resources. They need to create business models that leverage the resources of others in order to succeed in global markets. This study investigates the types of business models based on networking that small firms utilize for international expansion. We use explorative qu...
Research
Full-text available
The recent discourse on IoT has emphasized technology and different technology layers. Currently, there is a pressing need for research of emerging IoT ecosystems from a business perspective. Theoretical understanding and empirical research are needed on what IoT business models are and how they are connected to the underlying ecosystem. We focus o...
Research
Full-text available
This Delphi study aimed to map Finnish experts’ views on current and future IoT business models. The first round of the Delphi study was launched in early 2012, and the 3rd round took place in mid- 2013. During the first two rounds of the study we collected case examples of current and potential business models in the IoT context, as well the chall...
Research
Full-text available
The emerging Internet of Things (IoT), with a vast number of connected and specialized ”things”, increases complexity, requires more adaptive technical solutions, and changes the roles of business actors compared to today’s technology industries. Along with IoT companies’ shifting focus from industry-specific applications to applications spanning o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper examines the tensions, and paradoxes related to open innovation taking place in living labs. Although the open innovation model is spreading rapidly and living labs are an increasingly popular way to accelerate innovation processes, they are under researched. There is a substantial need for more research on innovation mechanism in living...
Thesis
Full-text available
Abstract The importance and benefits of open innovation networks are widely accepted. Enterprises and other organisations are increasingly utilizing a variety of open innovation networks in different contexts. This study defines a living lab as a concept including real-life environments, a multitude of different stakeholders, and the importance of...
Chapter
Full-text available
This study advances the idea of cities as labs by applying findings and experiences from living labs. In particular, it explores cities as collaborative innovation platforms initiated by citizens and organizations, and uses data from several cities and countries to create a framework for harnessing cities as living labs. Our research contributes to...
Chapter
Living labs provide a new, under researched form of open innovation. Although open innovation is increasingly popular in service development, extant literature lacks knowledge of different open service innovation strategies, which companies can employ. This chapter focuses on strategies that firms can take in co-creating service innovations through...
Article
Innovation is no longer solely undertaken by R&D organisations or academic institutions. Users are increasingly participating in all stages of innovation processes. Their role for innovation is especially important in living labs networks, whose idea builds on the co-creation of value with consumers and users. This study explores the conditions und...
Chapter
This study focuses on understanding users’ roles in media co-creation at Citilab Living Lab by exploring the Social Media Lab methodology in four different media cases. The living lab is a prominent but under-researched area of open innovation. The cases show that media provide fertile ground for developing innovative solutions using a citizen-cent...
Article
Full-text available
Despite almost a decade of living lab activity all over Europe, there still is a lack of empirical research into the practical implementation and the related outcomes of living labs. Therefore, this article proposes a framework to create a better understanding of the characteristics and outcomes of living labs. We investigate three living labs in B...
Article
Full-text available
http://timreview.ca/article/740 Previous research on living labs has emphasized the importance of users and a real-life environment. However, the existing scholarly discourse lacks understanding of innovation mechanisms in diverse living lab networks, especially from the perspectives of coordination and participation. This study addresses the rese...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study investigates what innovation through Living Labs is about. Living Labs are a new research, development and innovation (RDI) model characterised by openness and user involvement. Based on data from two European countries we explore the characteristics and outcomes of innovation through a multiple case-study analysis of four Living Labs: F...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the acceptance of electronic reading devices among newspaper subscribers. The theoretical framework is based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), which was modified to suit the context. The empirical data was collected from 1084 newspaper subscribers. First, principal component analysis was used to examine the consumers...
Chapter
Living labs provide a new, under researched form of open innovation. Although open innovation is increasingly popular in service development, extant literature lacks knowledge of different open service innovation strategies, which companies can employ. This chapter focuses on strategies that firms can take in co-creating service innovations through...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents neuromarketing as a way to detect brain activation during customer engagement. Neuromarketing is a field of marketing research that studies consumers' sensorimotor, cognitive, and affective response to marketing stimuli. We established a Virtual Customer Journey model based on the consultative selling process to study customer...
Article
Full-text available
Decreasing energy consumption is a global priority and the energy market is in constant change. The search for energy-saving innovations provides an opportunity to initiate a user-centered approach using the living labs model. This article describes how Process Vision, a small-yet-leading Northern European provider of energy IT systems, applied the...
Article
Full-text available
Living labs bring experimentation out of companies’ R&D departments to real-life environments with the participation and co-creation of users, partners, and other parties. This study discusses living labs as four different types of networks characterized by open innovation: utilizer-driven, enabler-driven, provider-driven, and user-driven. The typo...
Book
Full-text available
Executive summary This generic research report focuses on predicting the future of eReading and eLearning by outlining the current state of the industries, generating alternative future visions for them and addressing their future from three different viewpoints: digital publishing, eLearning and eReading advertising. This executive summary highli...
Book
Full-text available
Executive summary This study examines business models for the e-learning industry both in Finland and in international markets. Three complementary research pieces are presented in this report, and each is documented independently. Part one features a study of different bundling opinions in the e-learning industry with public sector clients (decis...
Book
Full-text available
Executive summary The eReading industry has developed tremendously during 2011 both globally and locally. After Apple launched its iPad 1 in Finland in late-2010, eReading as a phenomenon has rapidly emerged and created a burning platform for the development of the eReading industry in Finland. This has led to a central question being how the trad...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the link between a small firm’s investment in R&D and its growth strategy. A firm’s growth strategy refers to the means by which the organization plans to achieve its objective to grow in volume and turnover. We categorize firm growth strategies into eight distinctive clusters: opportunity explorers, radical innovators, busi...
Article
This paper focuses on Living Labs that are open user-centred environments for networked innovation development. Although the concept of open innovation has quickly attracted both the scientific and applied communities, research on Living Labs is scarce, and literature lacks understanding of the characteristics of the Living Labs model. We aim to de...
Chapter
The recent discourse on IOT (Internet of Things) has emphasized technology and different technology layers. Currently, there is a pressing need for research into the emerging IOT ecosystems from the business perspective. This is due to their promise to create new business models, improve business processes, and reduce costs and risks. However, the...
Article
Full-text available
High-technology firms have paved the way for user-driven innovations, but now even traditional industries are becoming increasingly open. This shift is a great challenge for companies with instituted practices, policies, and customer relationships. In this article, we identify four distinct steps in becoming an open innovation company based on our...