Sébastien Tremblay

Sébastien Tremblay
Laval University | ULAVAL · School of Psychology

PhD Psychology

About

224
Publications
59,676
Reads
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4,553
Citations
Citations since 2016
64 Research Items
2446 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
Additional affiliations
January 2011 - present
Cardiff University
Position
  • Professor
April 2010 - present
Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace (ISAE)
Position
  • Professeur Invité
Description
  • Développement de systèmes intelligents en aéronautique : Approche de la neuroergonomie cognitive
June 2002 - present
Laval University
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (224)
Chapter
Full-text available
Mental workload is a key factor influencing the occurrence of human error; specifically in remotely-operated vehicle operations. Both low and high mental workload has been found to disrupt performance in a nonlinear fashion at a given task; however, research that has attempted to predict individual mental workload has met with little success. The o...
Article
This study examined whether teaming up mitigates individual vulnerability to task interruptions in complex dynamic situations. Omnipresent in everyday multitasking environments, task interruptions are usually detrimental to individual performance. This is particularly crucial in dynamic command and control (C2) safety-critical contexts because of t...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to empirically assess the efficacy of cognitive countermeasures based on the technique of information removal to enhance human operator attentional disengagement abilities when facing attentional tunneling. Lessons learned from human factors studies suggest that conflict with automation leads to the degradation of operator...
Chapter
Full-text available
Operators monitoring closed-circuit television systems face many error-prone situations given the cognitive challenges they experience. The Scantracker is a prototype tool developed to support surveillance, relying on live oculometric data to trigger notifications that mitigate camera negligence, attention tunneling and vigilance decrement. To be r...
Conference Paper
While non-player opponents in commercial video games often rely on simple artificial intelligence techniques, machine learning techniques that capture human strategies could make them more engaging. Cognitive Shadow is a prototype tool that combines several artificial intelligence techniques to continuously model human decision-making patterns duri...
Article
The Cognitive Shadow is a prototype decision support tool that can notify users when they deviate from their usual judgment pattern. Expert decision policies are learned automatically online while performing one’s task using a combination of machine learning algorithms. This study investigated whether combining this system with the use of a process...
Chapter
Full-text available
Security surveillance represents a cognitively challenging task. To support surveillance operators, Thales Research and Technology Canada developed the Scantracker, which relies on real-time oculometric data to trigger notifications that mitigate camera negligence, attentional tunneling and vigilance decrement. Recently, this tool was adapted to au...
Article
Full-text available
Closed‐circuit television (CCTV) surveillance units largely rely on the support of surveillance operators. Although this job is cognitively challenging, few studies have investigated the main human factors improving the ability to detect critical incidents in this context. This study aimed to explore the contribution of individual characteristics a...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, due to the emergence of mobile electroencephalography (EEG) devices, assessment of mental workload in highly ecological settings has gained popularity. In such settings, however, motion and other common artifacts have been shown to severely hamper signal quality and to degrade mental workload assessment performance. Here, we show that cla...
Article
Full-text available
With the burgeoning of wearable devices and passive body/brain-computer interfaces (B/BCIs), automated stress monitoring in everyday settings has gained significant attention recently, with applications ranging from serious games to clinical monitoring. With mobile users, however, challenges arise due to other overlapping (and potentially confoundi...
Article
Full-text available
Security surveillance entails many cognitive challenges (e.g., task interruption, vigilance decrements, cognitive overload). To help surveillance operators overcome these difficulties and perform more efficient visual search, gaze-based intelligent systems can be developed. The present study aimed at testing the impact of the Scantracker system—whi...
Article
Full-text available
Assessment of mental workload is crucial for applications that require sustained attention and where conditions such as mental fatigue and drowsiness must be avoided. Previous work that attempted to devise objective methods to model mental workload were mainly based on neurological or physiological data collected when the participants performed tas...
Article
Despite extensive research, measurable benefits of predictive policing are scarce. We argue that powerful models might not always help the work of officers. Furthermore, developed models are often unexplainable, leading to trust issues between police intuition and machine-made prediction. We use a joint approach, mixing criminology and data science...
Article
The Cognitive Shadow is a prototype tool intended to support decision making by autonomously modeling human operators’ response pattern and providing online notifications to the operators about the decision they are expected to make in new situations. Since the system can be configured either in a reactive “shadowing” or a proactive “recommendation...
Conference Paper
Heart rate variability (HRV) has been studied in the context of human behavior analysis and many features have been extracted from the inter-beat interval (RR) time series and tested as correlates of constructs such as mental workload, stress and anxiety. Such constructs are crucial in assessing quality-of-life of individuals, as well as their over...
Chapter
Full-text available
The validity of two commercial-off-the-shelf eye trackers, including a fixed system and a mobile device, was compared in the context of a gaze-based assistant tool implemented to aid security surveillance. Participants performed a security surveillance simulation that required them to detect incidents across multiple video feeds. Aid from the Scant...
Chapter
The present work introduces a prototype intelligent cognitive assistant that continuously learns the decision pattern of the user online, instantly recognizes deviations from that pattern as potential errors and then alerts the user accordingly. We investigated the potential of this prototype system using a human-in-the-loop experiment designed to...
Poster
Full-text available
For the last five years or so, predictive policing algorithms have been implemented in large cities. However, these algorithms are not always suited for small-to-medium cities. Furthermore, predictive policing solutions are seldom developed taking into account ergonomics, UX design and the implementation impact on the work environment. Combining de...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Affective computing, with its potential to enhance human-computer interaction, is experiencing an expansion of its use in many areas such as health care and the gaming industry. One obstacle to its widespread adoption can be the high cost requirement for biofeedback. Indeed, typical laboratory setups are often expensive which makes them out of reac...
Chapter
Research on adaptive systems based on human psychophysiological assessments has been growing rapidly over the last decade. One fundamental component of such a system is human state assessment, on which the adaptation depends, at least partly. This is critical as the confidence of operators in such system will be determined to some extent by the acc...
Article
Full-text available
Mental workload assessment is crucial in many real life applications which require constant attention and where imbalance of mental workload resources may cause safety hazards. As such, mental workload and its relationship with heart rate variability (HRV) have been well studied in the literature. However, the majority of the developed models have...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper investigates the use of physio-behavioural detection of fun to model players’ preferences in real-time in the context of an adaptive game. To do so, a Physiological and Behavioural Model of Fun (PBMF), previously trained on 218 players, was used to model players’ preferences based n gameplay events. As a proof-of-concept, we leverged the...
Article
Everyday complex and stressful real-life situations can overwhelm the human brain to an extent that the person is no longer able to accurately evaluate the situation and persists in irrational actions or strategies. Safety analyses reveal that such perseverative behavior is exhibited by operators in many critical domains, which can lead to potentia...
Chapter
Full-text available
Notre cerveau est une merveille de l’évolution qui nous permet notamment de communiquer, d’apprendre, de percevoir notre environnement, de nous concentrer, de nous souvenir d’un événement et de nous adapter à des situations nouvelles. Malgré toutes ces qualités, il arrive fréquemment que notre cerveau nous joue des tours qui se traduisent par des m...
Article
In complex dynamic work environments, the consequences of task interruptions on performance can put public safety at risk. If not designed carefully, current tools aiming to facilitate interruption recovery can instead hamper performance due to information overload. Although a simpler solution—the forewarning of an imminent interruption—has proven...
Article
Full-text available
In a single large-scale study, we demonstrate that verbal sequence learning as studied using the classic Hebb repetition effect (Hebb, 1961)—the improvement in the serial recall of a repeating sequence compared to non-repeated sequences—is resilient to both wide and irregular spacing between sequence repetitions. Learning of a repeated sequence of...
Chapter
Full-text available
Finding a physiological signature of a player's fun is a goal yet to be achieved in the field of adaptive gaming. The research presented in this paper tackles this issue by gathering physiological, behavioural and self-report data from over 200 participants who played off-the-shelf video games from the Assassin's Creed series within a minimally inv...
Chapter
Auditory alarms are widely used in aviation to provide information and/or elicit attention (re)orienting toward emergency situations. However, several incidents result from an absence of reaction to such alarms. In this context, the fast and timely detection of the pilot’s failure to notice an auditory alarm could help preventing accidents through...
Chapter
Full-text available
Finding a physiological signature of a player’s fun is a goal yet to be achieved in the field of adaptive gaming. The research presented in this paper tackles this issue by gathering physiological, behavioural and self-report data from over 200 participants who played off-the-shelf video games from the Assassin’s Creed series within a minimally inv...
Article
Full-text available
Emergency resuscitation in intensive care units (ICUs) requires effective team communication to orchestrate the joint performance of several individuals. Although team simulation training has proven an effective means to improve communication skills in high‐risk environments, the influence of debriefing content on simulation‐based learning is less...
Article
Closed-circuit television (CCTV) is increasingly used as a means to ensure the safety and security of critical infrastructure and public spaces. Operators in control rooms are responsible for monitoring multiple camera feeds that generally exceed the number of screens available. Using a realistic video surveillance simulation, the current study inv...
Chapter
Full-text available
The present work investigates a cumulative part-task training method that builds up task complexity adaptively based on individual learner states. A research-oriented game entitled “Space Fortress” was used to evaluate two training conditions in a between-group design prior to a third condition involving an adaptive cumulative part task training me...
Article
The failure to notice critical changes in both visual and auditory scenes may have important consequences for performance in complex dynamic environments, especially those related to security such as aviation, surveillance during major events, and command and control of emergency response. Previous work has shown that a significant number of situat...
Chapter
Full-text available
Surveillance operators must scan multiple camera feeds to ensure timely detection of incidents; however, variability in scanning behavior can lead to untimely/failed detection of critical information in feeds that were neglected for a long period. Using an eye tracker to monitor screen fixations we can calculate (in real-time) the time elapsed sinc...
Conference Paper
Providing decision support to operators in command and control contexts requires careful assessment of its impacts on task performance. Here we describe a human-in-the-loop experiment using a naval air defense testbed to compare three conditions: 1) a baseline interface (DSS BASE ; 2) one that displays the temporal proximity of radar aircraft (DSS...
Article
While the development of intelligent technologies in security surveillance can augment human capabilities, they do not replace the role of the operator entirely; as such, when developing surveillance support it is critical that limitations to the cognitive system are taken into account. The current article reviews the cognitive challenges associate...
Article
Providing decision support to operators in command and control contexts requires careful assessment of its impacts on task performance. Here we describe a human-in-the-loop experiment using a naval air defense testbed to compare three conditions: 1) a baseline interface (DSSBASE; 2) one that displays the temporal proximity of radar aircraft (DSSTEM...
Article
Policy capturing is a judgment analysis method that typically uses linear statistical modeling to estimate expert judgments. A variant to this technique is to capture decision policies using data-mining algorithms designed to handle nonlinear decision rules, missing attributes, and noisy data. In the current study, we tested the effectiveness of a...
Article
Background: Visual deficits have been largely documented in people suffering from schizophrenia (SZ). These deficits may contribute to the low performance measured on visuospatial working memory (VSWM). It is important to establish whether the often-reported low working memory performance measured with neuropsychological tests is the by-product of...
Article
While simple heuristics can be ecologically rational and effective in naturalistic decision making contexts, complex situations require analytical decision making strategies, hypothesis-testing and learning. Sub-optimal decision strategies – using simplified as opposed to analytic decision rules – have been reported in domains such as healthcare, m...
Article
Detecting task-relevant changes in a visual scene is necessary for successfully monitoring and managing dynamic command and control situations. Change blindness—the failure to notice visual changes—is an important source of human error. Change History EXplicit (CHEX) is a tool developed to aid change detection and maintain situation awareness, and...
Article
Crisis management teams face situations characterized by high risk, time pressure, and uncertainty and must adapt to a wide range of circumstances. Self-organizing teams have been proposed as an alternative to more traditional functional teams as they are described as adaptive and promptly reconfigurable. This study investigated whether self-organi...
Article
Operators working in extreme environments are often confronted with task interruptions. These interruptions tend to impair performance, which can represent a threat to public safety. Most of the tools designed to aid task resumption in such dynamic contexts are post-interruption solutions consisting of providing information about missed events once...
Article
The CSSS microworld simulates the task of a closed-circuit television (CCTV) operator responsible for monitoring multiple CCTV feeds in the context of security surveillance. Operators must manage the display of multiple CCTV feeds, monitor the feeds for critical incidents, and then report detected incidents. The microworld can be used for human fac...
Article
Dynamic and complex command and control situations often require the timely recognition of changes in the environment in order to detect potentially malicious actions. Change detection can be challenging within a continually evolving scene, and particularly under multitasking conditions whereby attention is necessarily divided between several subta...
Conference Paper
This paper addresses critical issues and reports key findings with regards to the development of participant-generic operator functional state (OFS) models in the context of cognitive work. Conceptually, this research is concerned with the nature of the relationship between the physiological state of individuals and human performance. Participants...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examines the role of cognitive and perceptual loads in inattentional deafness (the failure to perceive an auditory stimulus) and the possibility to predict this phenomenon with ocular measurements. Twenty participants performed ATC scenarios – in the Laby ATC-like microworld – guiding one (low cognitive load) or two (high cognitiv...
Article
Full-text available
The role of the compatibility between obligatory perceptual organization and the active assembly of a motor-plan in auditory-verbal serial recall was examined. The classic finding that serial recall is poorer with ear-alternating items was shown to be related to spatial-source localization, thereby confirming a basic tenet of the perceptual-motor a...
Conference Paper
New technologies are available for emergency management experts to help them cope with challenges such as information overload, multitasking and fatigue. Among these technologies, a wide variety of physiological sensors can now be deployed to measure the Operator Functional State (OFS). To be truly useful, such measures should not only characterize...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Cognitive aids are increasingly recommended in clinical practice, yet little is known about the attitudes of physicians towards these tools. Methods: We employed a qualitative, descriptive design to explore physician attitudes towards cognitive aids in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). Semi-structured interviews elicited the op...
Conference Paper
Cette recherche traite des méthodes pour le développement d’un mo-dèle psychophysiologique générique de la charge mentale permettant d’inférer de façon automatique l’état d’un individu en temps réel. Précisément, les résul-tats présentés ici quantifient le gain de performance de modèles entraînés à l’aide d’un échantillon de validation inter-partic...
Article
Full-text available
The Air Traffic Control (ATC) environment is complex and safety-critical. Whilst exchanging information with pilots, controllers must also be alert to visual notifications displayed on the radar screen (e.g., warning which indicates a loss of minimum separation between aircraft). Under the assumption that attentional resources are shared between vi...
Article
Policy capturing is a decision analysis method that typically uses linear statistical modeling to estimate the basis of expert judgments. Using more flexible data mining algorithms may yield more accurate models or instead result in poor functional estimations. The objective of this study is to test the effectiveness of a decision tree induction al...
Article
Change blindness (CB) – the failure to notice visual changes – is an important source of human errors in managing dynamic multitasking situations, especially when the tempo at which the situation evolves as well as the timeliness of the decisions are critical to performance and to achieving higher order goals. The support of temporal awareness – in...
Article
In dynamic environments such as air-traffic control, emergency response and security surveillance, there are severe constraints to information processing and decision-making. Human operators must constantly monitor, assess, and integrate incoming information in order to make optimal decisions in such complex environments. In order to maximize opera...
Article
While the usefulness of games extends beyond their entertainment value, the act of playing a game remains essentially tied to its positive experience. Techniques to assess the player’s experience have greatly improved in the past decade, yet several challenges remain such as identifying objective and dynamic measures that reflect the player’s emoti...
Conference Paper
Intelligent video surveillance systems (IVSS) that can track people, identify unattended objects, and recognize activity are constantly being developed, updated, and tested against standard test stimuli. The development of these systems, however, seems to focus on technological advancements and largely ignores how automation will affect the human c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Air Traffic Control (ATC) environment is complex and safety-critical; operators work in dynamic situations and must make high-risk decisions under stress and temporal pressure. The high perceptual load involved in ATC means that controllers’ attention must be shared between several subtasks, with few or no remaining attentional capacity for pro...
Conference Paper
Despite advances in surveillance technologies, security and command and control (C2) centers still rely strongly on human operators to detect critical events. Human factors—such as cognitive workload and limited attentional capacity—have been shown to affect operators' ability to detect critical incidents. The current standard surveillance environm...
Conference Paper
The present work describes the application of a multi-criteria assessment tool called MYRIAD to the evaluation of a methodology that was developed to improve team understanding of a complex situation. The methodology aims to support a multi-disciplinary team working collaboratively on the development of a mission plan during an expeditionary stabil...