Sébastien Castelltort

Sébastien Castelltort
University of Geneva | UNIGE · Department of Earth Sciences

PhD

About

147
Publications
42,482
Reads
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2,836
Citations
Citations since 2017
77 Research Items
1849 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300
Introduction
Now Associate Professor at the University of Geneva (from October 1st, 2011)
Additional affiliations
October 2011 - present
University of Geneva
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
June 2007 - June 2011
ETH Zurich
Position
  • Research and teaching assistant
September 2005 - June 2007
Sorbonne Université
Position
  • Maitre de Conférence
Education
September 1999 - June 2003
University of Rennes
Field of study

Publications

Publications (147)
Article
This paper is an attempt to quantify the plausible time scales of clastic sediment supply variations at the entrance of sedimentary basins. Our approach is based on the sedimentary system concept, which simplifies natural systems by dividing them into three zones of dominant processes: the erosion, the transfer, and the sedimentation subsystems. We...
Article
Full-text available
Established theories ascribe much of the observed long-term Cenozoic climate cooling to atmospheric carbon consumption by erosion and weathering of tectonically uplifted terrains, but climatic effects due to changes in magmatism and carbon degassing are also involved. At timescales comparable to those of Milankovitch cycles, late Cenozoic building/...
Preprint
Review of concepts of environmental signal (climate, tectonics, anthropogenic, etc.) propagation in sedimentary systems from source to sink.
Article
Full-text available
River drainage patterns sculpt terrestrial landscapes. Whether these patterns contain fingerprints of past tectonic events is debated. On the one hand, elaborate dendritic river networks always retain an invariant structure, implying that rivers will simply reorganize in response to tectonic perturbations, without long-term trace of the tectonic ev...
Article
We explore the potential of high-resolution carbon isotope stratigraphy to provide an independent record of global sea-level changes in a 1600-m-thick succession representing ∼5 m.y. of slope sedimentation in the Eocene Ainsa Basin of Spain. The restricted physiographic setting of the basin results in a bulk δ¹³Ccarb signal that accurately correlat...
Research Proposal
Full-text available
Long-term evolution of the Earth from the base of the mantle to the top of the atmosphere: Understanding the mechanisms leading to 'greenhouse' and 'icehouse' regimes. See more: https://sites.google.com/view/base-top-earth/phd-positions. Summary Earth's climate has undergone many changes during the last billion years, including periods with extende...
Preprint
Full-text available
The early Cenozoic marine sedimentary record is punctuated by several brief episodes (< 200 kyr) of abrupt global warming, called hyperthermals, that have disturbed ocean life and water physicochemistry. Moreover, recent studies of fluvial-deltaic systems, for instance at the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, revealed that these hyperthermals also...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ancient fluvial deposits typically display repetitive changes in their depositional architecture such as alternating intervals of laterally-stacked, high-amalgamation (HA) channels, and floodplain-dominated intervals with vertically-stacked, low-amalgamation (LA) channels. Such patterns are usually ascribed to slow and high rates of base-level rise...
Article
Clay mineralogy and geochemistry of river muds around Taiwan Island reveal dominant provenance control. Abundant illite with subordinate chlorite in the western, northern, and southern parts of the island are derived from Cenozoic mudrocks of the axial Slate Belt and Western Foothills. In eastern Taiwan, chlorite is most common in muds generated fr...
Preprint
The Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) was a period of considerable environmental change, signifying the transition from Paleocene greenhouse to Oligocene icehouse conditions. Preservation of the sedimentary signal of such an environmental change is most likely in net-depositional environments, such as submarine fans, which are the terminal parts of...
Article
Full-text available
A widely hypothesized but complex transition from widespread fluvial activity to predominantly aeolian processes is inferred on Mars based on remote sensing data observations of ancient landforms. However, the lack of analysis of in situ martian fluvial deposits hinders our understanding of the flow regime nature and sustainability of the martian f...
Article
Full-text available
The Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) was a period of considerable environmental change, signifying the transition from Paleocene greenhouse to Oligocene icehouse conditions. Preservation of the sedimentary signal of such an environmental change is most likely in net-depositional environments, such as submarine fans, which are the terminal parts of...
Article
Full-text available
The Paleogene records the most prominent global climate change of the Cenozoic Era with a shift from a greenhouse to an icehouse world. Several transient hyperthermal events punctuated this long-term evolution. The most pronounced and the best known of these is the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM-56 Ma). This event is associated with global...
Article
The carbonate units grouped under the name “Tamala Limestone” outcrop for a thousand kilometres along the coast of Western Australia. The extensive Zuytdorp Cliffs shaping the northern half of the coastline up to Shark Bay expose and offer an exceptional access to the stratigraphy of this formation. The regional survey of the Shark Bay region, whic...
Article
Full-text available
During the Quaternary period, the eastern Sahara's hydroclimate oscillated between wet and dry intervals. These oscillations caused drastic changes in precipitation rates, often associated with ancient human migrations. In particular, significant migration of riparian populations from the Nile Valley to the west and northwestward of the Sahara occu...
Article
Full-text available
The global occurrence of parabolic dunes and their reactivation potential make them significant features in the present global landscape. Several studies have assessed the distribution and structure of parabolic dunes and their relationship to local climate factors with the aim to constrain the processes influencing their activation and potential r...
Article
Stratigraphic cycles preserved in sedimentary successions are controlled by the interaction of tectonics, climate, sediment supply and sea-level variations. Understanding the influence of these drivers on sedimentary systems dynamics is crucial to understand and extract information from sedimentary archives. In the deep marine deposits of the Ainsa...
Technical Report
Full-text available
As we approach the 4th Anniversary of the SEPM Ainsa Conference (June, 2017), it is important to look back at some of the contributions displayed four years ago by many colleagues. While many of these abstracts/contributions blossomed into fully-fledged articles, many are still hidden gems... maybe needing to be rediscovered. The topic of the Confe...
Article
Full-text available
Orbiting and landed spacecraft have provided vast amounts of data on fluvial and fluvial-related landforms and sediments on Mars. One variant of these landforms consists of ridges interpreted to be remnants of ancient fluvial activity, observed at thousands of Martian locales, suggesting extensive precipitation and runoff on early Mars. The importa...
Presentation
Full-text available
Sedimentary dynamics and fluxes are influenced by both autogenic and allogenic forcings. A better understanding of the evolution of sedimentary systems through time and space requires us to decipher, and therefore to characterise, the impact of each of these on the Earth's landscape. Given the current increase in the concentration of atmospheric ca...
Preprint
Full-text available
The topographic history of an orogen, a key element to study the interactions of the climate and tectonic conditions that drove it, can be reconstructed by inverting the sedimentary record of its adjacent basins. Previous tectono-stratigraphic studies, including flexural models, and sparse stable oxygen and carbon isotope data from the South-Pyrene...
Article
Full-text available
Proglacial braided river systems discharge large volumes of meltwater from ice sheets and transport coarse-grained sediments from the glaciated areas to the oceans. Here, we test the hypothesis if high-energy hydrological events can leave distinctive signatures in the sedimentary record of braided river systems. We characterize the morphology and i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Since its first use in the late 80’s, the term chevron has been employed in numerous studies to describe large U- and V-shaped ridges found in or near shorelines worldwide. Most studies have so far focused on Bahamian chevrons that are exclusively of Late Pleistocene age, and on the supposed Holocene chevrons found in S-Madagascar and Australia. In...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Upper Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage 5e; ca 120 ka) stratigraphic record from the Bahamas comprises large, kilometre‐long parabolic ridges of oolitic composition, that point landward, and have been up to now called ‘chevrons’. A debate about their genesis has led previous researchers to consider two processes of deposition: (i) a catastrophi...
Article
Using a simple conceptual model of incised-valley evolution, we show that the classic sequence stratigraphic phenomenon of bayhead deltaic systems can be generated by purely autogenic progradation during the late stage of valley flooding. This transient “auto-advance” event occurs under conditions of constant base-level rise and sediment supply, an...
Article
The characteristics of tropical cyclone (TC) deposits are highly variable, and in the shallow waters of straits their character has not been established. Multiple coarse-grained beds in lower Pliocene strata in the Western Foreland Basin of Taiwan are interpreted as TC deposits, and the sedimentology of these beds reflects evolving TC processes and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Throughout the last 65,000 years, there have been several brief periods of increased temperatures and precipitation over the eastern Sahara. These periods have been constrained by numerous proxies including: palaeodischarge and sediment-load estimates of the Nile River, cave speleothems, dust fluxes, fossil groundwater, marine sediments, and recons...
Preprint
Data from orbiting and landed spacecraft have provided vast amounts of information regarding fluvial and fluvial-related landforms and sediments on Mars. One variant of these landforms are sinuous ridges that have been interpreted to be remnant evidence for ancient fluvial activity, observed at hundreds of martian locales. In order to further under...
Article
Full-text available
The late Palaeocene to the middle Eocene (57.5 to 46.5 Ma) recorded a total of 39 hyperthermals – periods of rapid global warming documented by prominent negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) as well as peaks in iron content – have been recognized in marine cores. Documenting how the Earth system responded to rapid climatic shifts during hypert...
Article
Full-text available
During the Cenozoic Era, the Egyptian Sahara was the site of fluvial activity in a succession of at least three main drainage systems, including the Gilf System (40–16 Ma ago), the Qena System (24–6 Ma ago), and the Nile (30 Ma ago to present). These systems developed as a response to wet conditions, the dramatic events of tectonic activity in the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Palaeodischarge and sediment load estimates of the Nile River, cave speleothems, dust fluxes, fossil groundwater, and abrupt fluctuations of lake levels suggest climate oscillation during the Late Quaternary over the eastern Sahara (e.g., Foucault and Stanley, 1989; Hoffmann et al., 2016). In the southern part of the Egyptian Sahara, remnants of La...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Palaeodischarge and sediment load estimates of the Nile River, cave speleothems, dust fluxes, fossil groundwater, and abrupt fluctuations of lake levels suggest climate oscillation during the Late Quaternary over the eastern Sahara (e.g., Foucault and Stanley, 1989; Hoffmann et al., 2016). In the southern part of the Egyptian Sahara, remnants of La...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Valley networks are the main fluvial erosional landforms that document the extensive fluvial history of early Mars. Hundreds of examples of sinuous ridges are topographically inverted due to eolian deflation. The sedimentary structures of those landforms have the potential to record a rich history about their respective depositional environments. T...
Preprint
Full-text available
During the late Palaeocene to the middle Eocene (57.5 to 46.5 Ma) a total of 39 hyperthermals-20 periods of rapid global warming recorded by prominent negative carbon isotope excursions (NCIEs) as well as peaks in iron content-have been recognized in marine cores. Understanding how the Earth system responded to rapid warming during these hypertherm...
Article
Geological maps are crucial for the interpretation of geological structures. Next to orientation measurements, fault traces and bedrock interface traces account for an important part of the exposure of structural information on maps. However, traces are often disregarded due to the high degree of uncertainty associated with their localization. This...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Proglacial braided river systems discharge large volumes of meltwater from ice caps and transport coarse-grained sediments from the glaciated areas to the oceans. Here, we investigate the morphology and formation of a 25 km long and 1-3 km wide Pleistocene channel system recently imaged in 3D seismic data in the Hoop area, SW Barents Sea, named Bjø...
Article
Recent measurements of surface vertical displacements of the European Alps show a correlation between vertical velocities and topographic features, with widespread uplift at rates of up to ~2-2.5 mm/a in the North-Western and Central Alps, and ~1 mm/a across a continuous region from the Eastern to the South-Western Alps. Such a rock uplift rate pat...
Article
Full-text available
Among the most urgent challenges in future climate change scenarios is accurately predicting the magnitude to which precipitation extremes will intensify. Analogous changes have been reported for an episode of millennial-scale 5 °C warming, termed the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; 56 Ma), providing independent constraints on hydrological...
Article
Full-text available
Sediment flux signals from source to sink in foreland basins preserve a record of tectonics, sea level and climate through erosion and sedimentation. However, longitudinal sediment transport often occurs in foreland basins, thus removing part of the orogenic material flux from foreland basin records. Here we use mass balance calculation and stratig...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
During the Late Pleistocene, several studies have identified climate oscillations in North Africa based on changes of paleodischarge and sediment loads from the Atbara, Blue Nile and White Nile and from cave speleothems in northern Africa and southern Europe (Foucault and Stanley, 1989; Hoffmann et al., 2016). These studies concluded that climate o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Based on planimetric patterns, more than 200 sites of sinuous ridges have been identified on Mars from spacecraft images, including MOC (0.5-12 m/pixel), THEMIS IR (100m/pixel), VIS (18-36 m/pixel), CTX (~6 m/pixel), and HiRISE (~0.3 m/pixel), and the list continues to grow (Williams, 2007; Williams et al., 2007; Williams et al., 2011; Davis et al....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study highlights the dominant role of climate on landscape evolution and stratigraphic records even in an active foreland basin. The Early Eocene Roda Sandstone Formation is a shallow marine deltaic depositional system composed of mixed siliciclastic and carbonate sediments deposited in the NE margin of the Tremp-Graus Basin, Southern Pyrenees...
Article
Several recent studies have suggested that maps of flow length normalized for drainage area called chi (χ) could reveal landscapes in a transient state, which are prone for reorganizations of basin geometry, flow lines topology, and water divide locations. However, the potentially long timescales associated with the evolution of basin geometry make...
Poster
The objective of this work is to establish the sediment routing systems of the West African and Guyana Shields to the rift and passive margin basins of the Equatorial Atlantic at geological time scales (since 200 Ma). These margins, alternating transform and divergent segments, show a strong structural variability in the margin width, continental g...
Preprint
Full-text available
Among the most urgent challenges in future climate change scenarios is accurately predicting the magnitude at which precipitation extremes will intensify. Analogous changes have been reported for an episode of millennial scale 5°C warming termed the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; 56 Ma), providing independent constraints on hydrological r...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the sequence stratigraphic architecture of Neogene deposits in the Zagros region using 12 measured stratigraphic sections and performing strontium isotope measurements on 10 samples. We combined our data with 44 previous published Sr isotope measurements and fi ve paleomagnetostratigraphic sections in order to place the foreland dep...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sediment flux signals in foreland basins preserve a record oftectonics, sea level and climate through erosion and sedimentation.However, longitudinal sediment transport often occurs in foreland basin,thus removing part of the orogenic material flux from foreland basins.Here we use mass balance calculation and stratigraphic simulations ofsediment fl...
Article
Full-text available
Tsunamis are marked by distinct phases of uprush during coastal inundation and backwash when tsunami water recedes. Especially in the case of a steep coastal profile, the return flow may operate in a Froude-supercritical regime, eroding the flooded area and transporting large volumes of sediment seawards. Important sediment accumulation occurs when...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sequence stratigraphy is a powerful tool to predict the nature and timing of surfaces and sedimentary packages from marine to continental successions. It provides insights on the sedimentary response to external forcing (Milankovitch cycles, eustasy variations, climate change and tectonics), contributing to the source-to-Sink comprehension of Earth...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Geochemical signals in the sedimentary record have proven to be, amongst other markers, a cornerstone in the perspective of unravelling Earth's past climatic history. In order to better understand the evolution of ancient deposits, from their transfer and storage from feeding systems to their distribution within different segments of a sedimentary...
Article
Full-text available
Between 5 and 6 million years ago, during the so-called Messinian salinity crisis, the Mediterranean basin became a giant salt repository. The possibility of abrupt and kilometre-scale sea-level changes during this extreme event is debated. Messinian evaporites could signify either deep- or shallow-marine deposits, and ubiquitous erosional surfaces...
Poster
The objective of the Transform Source to Sink Project (TS2P) is to link the dynamics of the erosion of the West African Craton to the offshore sedimentary basins of the African margin of the Equatorial Atlantic at geological time scales. This margin, alternating transform and oblique segments from Guinea to Nigeria, shows a strong structural variab...
Article
We critically evaluate the potential and limitations of an alternative way to calculate erosion rates based on petrographic and mineralogical fingerprints of fluvial sediments coupled with gauged sediment fluxes. Our approach allows us to apportion sediment loads to different lithological units, and consequently to discriminate erosion rates in dif...
Research
Full-text available
Interactive graphic introduction to the sedimentology of the South Pyrenean Field course (Google Earth) organised by Sébastien Castelltort // Graphic ressources by Luca C. Malatesta. This guide offers an overview in 22 stops of some of the most interesting features documenting (syntectonic) sedimentary activity in the South Pyrenees. The picture...