Sébastien Barot

Sébastien Barot
Institute of Ecology and Environmental Sciences IEES-Paris | iEES · Community Diversity and Ecosystem Functioning

PhD

About

222
Publications
89,896
Reads
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Introduction
I am working for the French Institute for Researches for the Development since 2002 on different subjects of soil ecology, mostly on aboveground-belowground interactions and nutrient cycling. I have studied the effect of earthworms on plant growth and demography. Since 2011 I am working in Bioemco laboratory in Paris. I have combined field work, experimentations in controlled conditions and mathematical modelling. Finally, I am strongly interested in Ecological Engineering and agro-ecology.
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
Institute of Research for Development
Position
  • Senior Researcher
July 2002 - December 2012
January 2002 - May 2016
Institute of Research for Development
Position
  • Research Director

Publications

Publications (222)
Preprint
Full-text available
Seed dispersal is a key stage in the life cycle of plants, thus in forest regeneration, especially in the tropics. Chimpanzees are known as important seed dispersers and dung beetles play critical roles in secondary dispersal thus increasing the chance for seed post-dispersal success. Hence, understanding secondary seed dispersal by dung beetles is...
Article
Full-text available
Les sols hébergent une importante biodiversité. Ils sont essentiels pour nourrir l'humanité et jouent un rôle fondamental dans les cycles biogéochimiques de la planète. Alors qu'à l'échelle du globe, un tiers des sols sont dégradés, comprendre les processus écologiques qui s'y déroulent pour mieux les préserver et les restaurer est un enjeu majeur....
Article
Full-text available
Understanding global biodiversity change, its drivers, and the ecosystem consequences requires a better appreciation of both the factors that shape soil macrofauna communities and the ecosystem effects of these organisms. The project "sOilFauna" was funded by the synthesis center sDiv (Germany) to address this major gap by forming a community of so...
Article
Analyzing the impacts of agricultural activities on biodiversity requires a full knowledge of the ecology of the studied species. Using a trait-based approach may improve our ability to understand land use impacts on less well-studied species in order to establish general trends that will facilitate the prediction of these impacts. In this study, w...
Preprint
Seed dispersal is a key stage in the life cycle of plants, thus in forest regeneration, especially in the tropics. Chimpanzees are known as important seed dispersers and dung beetles play critical roles in secondary dispersal thus increasing the chance for seed post-dispersal success. Hence, understanding secondary seed dispersal by dung beetles is...
Article
Full-text available
For the first time in a savanna, we analysed the joint influence of climate seasonality and plant cover type on the abundances and transcription levels of bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers, and nitrification enzyme activity (NEA). The dominant tree and grass species stimulated and inhibited nitrification, respectively: NEA was 4-fold higher and 5-f...
Article
Full-text available
Les sols hébergent une importante biodiversité. Ils sont essentiels pour nourrir l'humanité et jouent un rôle fondamental dans les cycles biogéochimiques de la planète. Alors qu'à l'échelle du globe, un tiers des sols sont dégradés, comprendre les processus écologiques qui s'y déroulent pour mieux les préserver et les restaurer est un enjeu majeur....
Article
Perennial grasses are the main source of fuel during fires in savannas. The demography of these grasses likely varies between species although they have the same general architecture and coexist in savannas. However, very few studies compare their demography. Similarly, their demography likely varies between years because of the variability in weat...
Article
Full-text available
Biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) has already led to several studies mainly focused on underlying molecular mechanisms and applications to agriculture. We argue that it is also important to study BNI more systematically from the ecological and evolutionary points of view to understand its implications for plants and soil nitrifiers as well...
Article
Full-text available
Background As urban areas expand, scientists now agree that the city is an important space for biodiversity conservation. Yet, still relatively little is known about how urban forms could have a differential impact on terrestrial species and ecosystems. If some reviews have been conducted to examine the link between biodiversity and urban character...
Chapter
Full-text available
De plus en plus de voix appellent à résoudre simultanément la crise du climat et celle de la biodiversité. Cela est justifié par de nombreux arguments. Ainsi, les mêmes mécanismes liés à la surexploitation des ressources et des écosystèmes par les sociétés humaines conduisent conjointement à ces deux crises. On peut donc probablement résoudre les d...
Data
Supplementary material for the article "Responses of Collembola communities to mixtures of wheat varieties: a trait-based approach". Note that Table S2 is provided as a separate Excel file.
Data
Table S2. Abundances of Collembola species in three pooled samples of 104 plots of the Wheatamix project nbvar: number of wheat varieties; nbclu: number of clusters (wheat functional groups) See table 3 for the name of Collembola species
Article
Full-text available
The genetic diversity of cultivated crops has decreased continuously since the beginning of the 20th century, because of the gradual replacement of genetically heterogeneous traditional varieties by new genetically homogenous varieties, grown in monospecific stands. The resulting agro-ecosystems are now considered as unsustainable. Increasing withi...
Article
Full-text available
Savannas are characterized by the coexistence of grasses and trees. Fires are critical for their coexistence, because they decrease the survival of tree seedlings and saplings and their recruitment to the adult stage. In some humid savannas, perennial grasses inhibit nitrification and trees stimulate nitrification, which likely favors coexistence b...
Article
The nitrogen and carbon cycles are fundamental ecosystem processes influenced by several factors including soil type and other abiotic factors, plant species, grazing and soil organisms. Herbivores profoundly influence the functioning of ecosystems and the recycling of nutrients in interaction with plants in natural ecosystems. This study focuses o...
Article
Young savanna trees can quickly grow back from belowground storage structures after topkill. This capacity is a tolerance trait that confers persistence at the plant individual level, enabling them to survive diverse disturbance regimes. We simulated the growth of a single resprouting stem (without and with fire) of a deciduous tree species that al...
Article
1. Savannas are structured ecosystems characterized by a grass layer interspersed with trees. Trees strongly modify their local environment and favor nutrient accumulation under their canopies. Tree roots can also forage horizontally far beyond the canopy projection to increase nutrient uptake. In the Lamto savanna (Côte d’Ivoire), grasses are able...
Article
Nutrient cycling is fundamental to ecosystem functioning. Despite recent major advances in the understanding of complex food web dynamics, food web models have so far generally ignored nutrient cycling. However, nutrient cycling is expected to strongly impact food web stability and functioning. To make up for this gap, we built an allometric and si...
Article
Any change in the intensity and sign of CO2 flux between soil and atmosphere is expected to have a significant impact on climate. The net emission of CO2 by soils depends on antagonistic processes: the persistence of dead plant matter and the mineralization of soil organic matter. These two processes are partly interdependent: their interaction is...
Article
Full-text available
Although widely used in ecology, trait-based approaches are seldom applied to study agroecosystems. In particular, how functional trait variability among varieties of a crop species compares to the variability among wild plant species and how variety selection can modify trait syndromes needs to be evaluated. Here, we quantified 18 above- and below...
Article
Full-text available
The relatively poor simulation of the below-ground processes is a severe drawback for many ecosystem models, especially when predicting responses to climate change and management. For a meaningful estimation of ecosystem production and the cycling of water, energy, nutrients and carbon, the integration of soil processes and the exchanges at the sur...
Article
Urban soils are a crucial component of urban ecosystems, especially in public green spaces, because of the ecosystem services they provide (e.g. public recreation, urban cooling or water infiltration). In this study we describe the chemical, physical and hydrostructural characteristics of 180 forest and lawn surface soil samples, taken along an urb...
Book
Full-text available
This Handbook of methods aim to provide the different techniques and methodologies to obtain a minimum data set of variables, from soil biodiversity assessment to SOM dynamics, including, isotope analysis, bioturbation assessment and metagenomics. With the knowledge gathered in forthcoming projects and studies, researchers (biogeochemists and soil...
Preprint
Full-text available
A bstract Nutrient cycling is fundamental to ecosystem functioning. Despite recent major advances in the understanding of complex food web dynamics, food web models have so far generally ignored nutrient cycling. However, nutrient cycling is expected to strongly impact food web stability and functioning. To make up for this gap, we built an allomet...
Book
Nutrient cycling is fundamental to ecosystem functioning. Despite recent major advances in the understanding of complex food web dynamics, food web models have so far generally ignored nutrient cycling. However, nutrient cycling is expected to strongly impact food web stability and functioning. To make up for this gap, we built an allometric and si...
Article
Full-text available
Coexistence between trees and grasses in savannas is generally assumed to be due to a combination of partial niche separation for water acquisition and disturbances impacting the demography of trees and grasses. We propose a mechanism of coexistence solely based on the partitioning of the two dominant forms of mineral nitrogen (N), ammonium (NH4⁺)...
Article
Nutrient availability is a major limitation of the production of West African mixed farming systems. The fertility of these systems was traditionally sustained by fallowing, and nutrient transfers by livestock from savanna to croplands. However, demographic growth and socio-economic constraints require the agro-ecological intensification of these s...
Article
Full-text available
Food production and waste management are two increasing issues ensuing from the growing world population. Recycling organic residues into amendment for food production seems to appear as an opportunity to partially solve this double challenge. Vermicomposting is a process whereby earthworms transform organic residues into compost that can be used a...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition increases N availability in soils, with consequences affecting the decomposition of soil carbon (C). The impacts of increasing N availability on surface soil C dynamics are well studied. However, subsurface soils have been paid less attention although more than 50% soil C stock is present below this depth (below...
Article
Full-text available
Perennial tussock grasses represent the principal fuel source for savanna fires, however basic information about the impact of fire on their demography remains scarce. Do dominant perennial grass species differ in their demographic parameters? What is the overall impact of tussock circumference and fire regimes on grass demographic parameters? Do g...
Article
Full-text available
With the actual increasing interest for urban soils, the evaluation of soil contamination by trace elements and the dynamics of this contamination appear mandatory to preserve plant and thereby human health. Street trees and the associated soil placed in pits located nearby roads could represent convenient indicators of urban and vehicle traffic in...
Article
Full-text available
A general occurrence of the phenomenon of priming effect (PE) across varying land use and soil types has not been established so far, particularly on a large geographical scale. Moreover, the impacts of soil properties and soil organic matter (SOM) distribution among physical fractions on the magnitude of PE are still unclear. We addressed these kn...
Article
Belowground communities, and especially earthworms, provide numerous services in agroecosystems. In the current context of crop genetic erosion, this study aims at assessing the effect of wheat cultivar diversity on earthworm growth and survival. Our laboratory experiment was divided into two periods: (1) the “feeding period” (4 months), simulating...
Article
The world human population is more and more urban and cities have a strong impact on the biosphere. This explains the development of urban ecology. In this context, the goal of our work is fourfold: to describe the diversity of scientific questions in urban ecology, show how these questions are organized, to assess how these questions can be built...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Souvent bâtie sur les milieux les plus riches et favorables à la vie, le long de fleuves, sur des espaces naturels diversifiés ou agricoles, la ville est un milieu entièrement construit et entretenu par l'Homme qui subit des modifications rapides et brutales engendrant une mosaïque de milieux différents. Les sols, y sont maintes fois remaniés, dést...
Article
Full-text available
L’appel à projets annoncé par le gouvernement le 9 mai ne suffira pas à couvrir l’ensemble des problématiques liées à l’utilisation des pesticides, déplore un collectif de près de 260 scientifiques, qui prônent une gestion plus ambitieuse « au nom du bien commun ».
Chapter
This chapter discusses importance of biodiversity in the functioning of soils. It also summarizes several potential explanations for the delayed interest of the scientific community in the relationship between soil biodiversity and functioning. The chapter then argues that there are some privileged lines of research and important developments of sc...
Chapter
This chapter discusses emergence of an eco‐evolutionary understanding of the functioning of soils. Soil organisms have been shaped by eco‐evolutionary dynamics, which are at the origin of the ecological interactions that determine the current functioning of the soil. On the one hand, understanding evolutionary dynamics can give very strong argument...
Article
Full-text available
This study assesses the impact of four fire treatments applied yearly over 3 y, i.e. early fire, mid-season fire, late fire and no fire treatments, on the grass communities of Lamto savanna, Ivory Coast. We describe communities of perennial tussock grasses on three replicated 5 × 5-m or 10 × 5-m plots of each fire treatment. Tussock density did not...
Article
Although modern agriculture generally relies on homogeneous varieties that are usually grown in pure stands, crop variety mixtures have been used for a long time, notably to improve resistance to fungal diseases. A growing number of studies suggest that intraspecific plant diversity may also enhance the abundance and diversity of wild species and t...
Book
Philippe Lemanceau is Director of Research at INRA, France, where he directs the UMR Agroecology. He is a soil microbiologist and specializes in soil biodiversity and plant/microorganism interactions.Manuel Blouin is Professor of Ecology at AgroSup Dijon, France, and a member of the UMR Agroecology. His research focuses on the effect of soil organi...
Article
Full-text available
To maintain savanna vegetation, mid-seasonal fire has been applied since 1961 in the Lamto Savanna (Côte d'Ivoire). However, this prescribed fire has not impeded tree encroachment during recent years, nor have its effects on insect assemblages been documented. Also the impact of tree intrusion on insect assemblages is poorly studied in savanna. To...
Article
Full-text available
Biomass burning has links with a number of global concerns including soil health, food security and climate change. In central Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa), we conducted a field study to compare nutrient losses, soil fertility and yam yield in slash-and-burn versus slash-and-mulch agriculture. Trials involved five sites established in the dominant C...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Fire is important for the maintenance of African savanna ecosystems, particularly humid savanna. Despite the importance of fire behavior to our understanding of fire's ecological effects, few studies have documented fire behavior and its determinants in humid West African savannas and, in particular, whether fire behavior depends on sea...
Method
Full-text available
The present document details how the Wheatamix consortium, inspired by ecological experiments exploring relationships between plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (e.g. the Jena experiment Weisser et al. 2017), selected bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines, phenotyped them across a range of functional traits and used this information to...
Article
Under higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations, increases in soil moisture and, hence in terrestrial-aquatic carbon transfer are probable. In a coupled terrestrial-aquatic experiment we examined the direct (e.g. through changes in the CO2 water concentration) and indirect (e.g. through changes in the quality and quantity of soil leachates) effects of...
Article
Under higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations, increases in soil moisture and, hence in terrestrial-aquatic carbon transfer are probable. In a coupled terrestrial-aquatic experiment we examined the direct (e.g. through changes in the CO2 water concentration) and indirect (e.g. through changes in the quality and quantity of soil leachates) effects of...
Article
Full-text available
Since direct measurements of fire intensity are not always possible, post-fire indices are often used to substitute this measure to better understand fire behaviour and its impact on vegetation. This study was carried out in the Lamto reserve (Cote d’Ivoire) and aimed at identifying the post-fire indices that best reflect the intensity of fire. The...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Green Revolution and the introduction of chemical fertilizers, synthetic pesticides and high yield crops had enabled to increase food production in the mid and late 20th. The benefits of this agricultural intensification have however reached their limits since yields are no longer increasing for many crops, negative externalities on the environ...
Article
Full-text available
Determining the main factors causing urban tree decline is becoming essential for sustaining their health and survival. Understanding responses of tree growth to urban environments and climate change throughout tree life span is thus necessary. To explore these questions, a dendrochronological study exploring past climate-tree growth relationships...
Article
African humid savannas are highly productive ecosystems, despite very low soil fertility, where grasses and trees coexist. Earlier results showed that some perennial grass species are capable of biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) while trees likely influence differently on nitrogen cycling. Here we assessed the impact of the dominant grass a...
Article
Full-text available
Many scientific disciplines are currently experiencing a 'reproducibility crisis' because numerous scientific findings cannot be repeated consistently. A novel but controversial hypothesis postulates that stringent levels of environmental and biotic standardization in experimental studies reduce reproducibility by amplifying the impacts of laborato...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Soil organic matter (SOM) is key to soil fertility, climate change mitigation, combatting land degradation, and the conservation of above-and below-ground biodiversity and associated ecosystem services like decomposition, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, detoxification and maintenance of soil physico-chemical properties. SOM dynamics represe...
Article
Although soil organisms might strongly affect the dynamics and composition of natural vegetation, relatively few studies have tried to in-situ manipulate soil fauna, especially in restoration ecology. The objective of this study was thus to observe the impact of a soil ecosystem engineer (Lumbricus terrestris L.) on plant communities as well as on...
Article
The Green Revolution and the introduction of chemical fertilizers, synthetic pesticides and high yield crops had enabled to increase food production in the mid and late 20th. The benefits of this agricultural intensification have however reached their limits since yields are no longer increasing for many crops, negative externalities on the environ...