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Sebastian Olbrich

Sebastian Olbrich
University Zurich, Ch · Clinic for Psychiatry (PUK)

Dr. med.

About

110
Publications
35,975
Reads
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1,947
Citations
Additional affiliations
March 2015 - March 2015
University of Leipzig
Position
  • Senior Physician and Researcher
March 2015 - present
University of Zurich
Position
  • Senior Psychiatrist; Researcher
February 2007 - December 2012
University of Leipzig
Education
October 2013 - February 2015
University of Leipzig
Field of study
  • Prediciton of psychppharmacological treatment in neuropsychiatric disorders
February 2007 - October 2013
University of Leipzig
Field of study
April 2000 - October 2006

Publications

Publications (110)
Article
Full-text available
In neuroscience, electroencephalography (EEG) data is often used to extract features (biomarkers) to identify neurological or psychiatric dysfunction or to predict treatment response. At the same time neuroscience is becoming more data-driven, made possible by computational advances. In support of biomarker development and methodologies such as tra...
Preprint
**Background.** Suicidal ideations (SI) are amongst the strongest predictors for suicide attempts, yet reliable prediction models for suicide risk are still lacking. One explanation for this is that endorsement and expression of SI are not uniform and may vary when indexed over time. Using intensive longitudinal assessments of SI with ecological mo...
Article
Full-text available
Background The current two-stage study focused on work integration and quality of life of patients in an acute psychiatric day care unit. There is evidence that a longer absence from work due to illness negatively affects job retention, life satisfaction and clinical prognosis. Furthermore, there are individual supportive methods that proved to be...
Article
Full-text available
Here we review the paradigm-change from one-size-fits-all psychiatry to more personalized-psychiatry, where we distinguish between ‘precision psychiatry’ and ‘stratified psychiatry’. Using examples in Depression and ADHD we argue that stratified psychiatry, using biomarkers to facilitate patients to best ‘on-label’ treatments, is a more realistic f...
Article
Full-text available
Background There is a substantial burden on global mental health as a result of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that has become putting pressure on healthcare systems. There is increasing concern about rising suicidality consequential to the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures taken. Existing research about the impact of earlier epi...
Article
Full-text available
Altered brain network connectivity is a potential biomarker for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A meta-analysis of resting-state MRI studies by (Gürsel et al., 2018) described altered functional connectivity in OCD patients within and between the default mode network (DMN), the salience network (SN), and the frontoparietal network (FPN), as we...
Article
Full-text available
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with abnormal neural circuitry. It can be measured by assessing functional connectivity (FC) at resting-state functional MRI, that may help identifying neural markers of MDD and provide further efficient diagnosis and monitor treatment outcomes. The main aim of the present study is to investigate, in an...
Article
Full-text available
While several electroencephalogram (EEG)-based biomarkers have been proposed as diagnostic or predictive tools in major depressive disorder (MDD), there is a clear lack of replication studies in this field. Markers that link clinical features such as disturbed wakefulness regulation in MDD with neurophysiological patterns are particularly promising...
Article
Full-text available
In recent medical research, tremendous progress has been made in the application of deep learning (DL) techniques. This article systematically reviews how DL techniques have been applied to electroencephalogram (EEG) data for diagnostic and predictive purposes in conducting research on mental disorders. EEG-studies on psychiatric diseases based on...
Article
Several electroencephalogram (EEG) biomarkers for prediction of drug response in major depressive disorder (MDD) have been proposed, but validations in larger independent datasets are missing. In the current study, we investigated the prognostic value of previously suggested EEG biomarkers. We gathered data that matched prior studies in terms of EE...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Ketamine has been shown to be effective in treatment of episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD). This controlled study aimed to analyse the predictive and discriminative power of heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) for ketamine treatment in MDD. Methods In 51 patients, HR and HRV were assessed at baseline before and duri...
Article
The interest in lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has sparked again due to its supposed positive effects on psychopathological conditions. Yet, most research focuses on the actions of LSD on the central nervous system. The interaction with the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been neglected so far. Therefore, the aim was to assess the effects of L...
Article
Full-text available
Background Traumatic experiences tend to be preserved in altered biomarker profiles. These profiles can be traced back from cross-sectional data regarding the age of exposure. Consequently, the change across developmental stages, e.g. from childhood to adulthood, can also be reconstructed. This study introduces a backtrace procedure that is illustr...
Article
The disturbance of the sympathetic-vagal balance with increasing sympathetic activity and consecutive increase in cytokine release is a major threat in numerous hyperinflammatory syndromes. Therapeutic interventions that modulate the activity in the sympathetic-vagal system are suggested as an effective treatment in these incidences. The purpose of...
Article
The usage of EEG in the clinical diagnosis of psychiatric disorders has been a matter of debate for a long time (Williams, 1954). On one side, it has been argued that EEG recordings from psychiatric patients yield a relatively low abnormality detection rate, resulting in a neglectable value for diagnosis or impact on patient management (O’Sullivan...
Article
Introduction The global COVID-19 pandemic has affected the economy, daily life, and mental/physical health. The latter includes the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in clinical practice and research. We report a survey of the impact of COVID-19 on the use of clinical EEG in practice and research in several countries, and the recommendations of a...
Article
Objectives. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and potentially lethal disorder affecting up to 14% of all persons worldwide. However, one-third to thwo-thirds of patients are nonresponders to first-line therapy. Even the electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) as the option of choice in therapy-resistant MDD still shows a high proportion of nonres...
Article
Full-text available
Studies have shown that specific networks (default mode network [DMN] and task positive network [TPN]) activate in an anticorrelated manner when sustaining attention. Related EEG studies are scarce and often lack behavioral validation. We performed independent component analysis (ICA) across different frequencies (source-level), using eLORETA-ICA,...
Article
Background Kleptomania is a disease that shares features with obsessive compulsive spectrum disorders (OCD) and with substance abuse disorders (SAD). This is underlined by therapeutic approaches in kleptomania ranging from cognitive behavioural therapy and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors that are effective in OCD, and opioid antagonists tha...
Article
Despite its initial promise, neuroimaging has not been widely translated into clinical psychiatry to assist in the prediction of diagnoses, prognoses, and optimal therapeutic strategies. Machine learning approaches may enhance the translational potential of neuroimaging because they specifically focus on overcoming biases by optimizing the generali...
Article
Perspectives for the Electroencephalogram in Psychiatry Abstract. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is a non-invasive and cost-effective method to monitor spontaneous neuronal activity over time. Pathologies in EEG recordings indicate with high sensitivity but low specificity abnormal functional brain states. The main psychiatric indications for EEG r...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Although knowledge about negative effects of coercive measures in psychiatry exists, its prevalence is still high in clinical routine. This study aimed at define risk factors and test machine learning algorithms for their accuracy in the prediction of the risk to being subjected to coercive measures. Methods: In a sample of involuntar...
Article
Full-text available
Background Affective stimulation entails changes in brain network patterns at rest, but it is unknown whether exogenous emotional stimulation has a prolonged effect on the temporal dynamics of endogenous cortical arousal. We therefore investigated differences in cortical arousal in the listener following stimulation with different attachment-relate...
Article
Full-text available
Although involuntary commitment (IC) is a serious intervention in psychiatry and must always be regarded as an emergency measure, the knowledge about influencing factors is limited. Aims were to test the hypothesis that duration of involuntary hospitalization and associated parameters differ for IC’s mandated by physicians with or with less routine...
Article
Full-text available
We have excellent skills to extract sex from visual assessment of human faces, but assessing sex from human brain rhythms seems impossible. Using deep convolutional neural networks, with unique potential to find subtle differences in apparent similar patterns, we explore if brain rhythms from either sex contain sex specific information. Here we sho...
Article
Introduction Major depressive disorder (MDD) belongs to the leading causes of disability worldwide. From an electrophysiological point of view, EEG-alpha activity and alpha phase synchronization seem to be possible biomarkers with diagnostic and prognostic value. In parallel, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest altered bloo...
Article
Objectives: Aim of this study was to analyze whether electroencephalogram (EEG)-based CNS-arousal markers differ for patients suffering from obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) that either respond or do not respond to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or their combination. Further the study aimed t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background To investigate the interplay between affective information processing and functional brain states, differences in arousal regulation after stimulation with affective narratives were investigated. Based on EEG acquisitions at resting state, it is possible to differentiate stages of wakefulness regulation. The temporal evolution of these v...
Article
Objectives Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and their combination are effective in the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Based on findings of increased levels of central nervous system (CNS)-arousal in OCD, aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that electroencephalogram (EEG)...
Article
Full-text available
Personalized medicine in psychiatry is in need of biomarkers that resemble central nervous system function at the level of neuronal activity. Electroencephalography (EEG) during sleep or resting-state conditions and event-related potentials (ERPs) have not only been used to discriminate patients from healthy subjects, but also for the prediction of...
Article
Full-text available
Arousal systems are one of the recently announced NIMH Research Domain Criteria to inform future diagnostics and treatment prediction. In major depressive disorder (MDD), altered central nervous system (CNS) wakefulness regulation and an increased sympathetic autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity have been identified as biomarkers with possible d...
Article
Full-text available
In 2009 the United States National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) introduced the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project, which intends to explicate fundamental bio-behavioral dimensions that cut across heterogeneous disorder categories in psychiatry. One major research domain is defined by arousal and regulatory systems. In this study we aimed...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: Current models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) link symptomatology to alterations in cortico-striatal circuits. OCD patients show difficulties in tasks probing a balance of habitual/model-free versus goal-directed/model-based control. Gray matter volume (GMV) in cortico-striatal regions is associated with model-based control. Her...
Article
The regulation of wakefulness is important for high-order organisms. Its dysregulation is involved in the pathomechanism of several psychiatric disorders. Thus, a tool for its objective but little time-consuming assessment would be of importance. The Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig allows the objective measurement of sleep propensity, based on a single...
Article
In der Behandlung der Zwangsstorung sind die Pharmako- und die Psychotherapie wissenschaftlich evidenzbasiert und in der Versorgung entsprechend etabliert. Psychosoziale Interventionen dagegen wurden – auch aufgrund der uneinheitlichen Definition und Zuordnung – in der Vergangenheit nicht uberall und keinesfalls selbstverstandlich als gleichwertige...
Article
For the use of psychosocial treatments for severe mental illness, there is a high evidence level. Obsessive-compulsive disorders are accompanied by severe disabilities in one third of the cases, however, there is little scientific research on the use of psychosocial therapies in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorders. In the following, the co...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter summarises recent developments on personalised medicine in psychiatry with a focus on ADHD and depression and their associated biomarkers and phenotypes. Several neurophysiological subtypes in ADHD and depression and their relation to treatment outcome are reviewed. The first important subgroup consists of the 'impaired vigilance' subg...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD) has high population prevalence and is associated with substantial impact on quality of life, not least due to an unsatisfactory time span of sometimes several weeks from initiation of treatment to clinical response. Therefore extensive research focused on the identification of cost-effective and widely avail...
Article
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies found alterations of functional connectivity in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). However, there is little knowledge about region of interest (ROI) based electroencephalogram (EEG) connectivity, i.e. lagged non-linear and linear coherence in OCD. Goal of this study was to compare these EEG mea...
Article
To investigate influences of EEG-vigilance regulation patterns on perceptual processing during sustained visual attention in early visual areas. We compared a subject group with stable vigilance regulation to a group with unstable EEG-vigilance regulation. A rapid serial visual presentation stream (RSVP) elicited a 7.5Hz steady state visual evoked...
Article
Full-text available
The cerebellum has been implicated in affective and attentional processes, but little is known about corresponding neural signatures. We investigated early and late components of event-related potentials (ERPs) to emotionally arousing pictures, with and without competing attentional tasks, in a patient with an ischemic right posterior cerebellar in...
Article
Full-text available
When dealing with electroencephalograms (EEGs) recorded under resting conditions, periods of low-voltage activity might indicate drowsiness, but mental activation as well. Thus, low-voltage EEG retrieves a notorious source of confusion. The simultaneous occurrence of drowsiness related slow horizontal eye movements (SEM) allow to assign low-voltage...
Article
The vigilance regulation model of affective disorders suggests that tonically high vigilance (i.e. brain arousal) in patients with major depression (MD) induces social withdrawal and sensation avoidance as autoregulatory reactions to decrease external stimulation. A computer based algorithm (VIGALL) has been developed that allows the classification...
Article
Objective: Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has been associated with disturbed sleep-wake cycles and cortical hypermetabolism. However, it still remains unclear whether OCD is associated with a dysregulation of vigilance (i.e. "brain arousal"). VIGALL (Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig) is an EEG-based tool to assess vigilance dynamics. Aim of this s...
Data
Table S1 EEG-based definition criteria of the VIGALL for the vigilance classification. Note: EEG-vigilance stages from full alertness to drowsiness are sub-classified (column 1) according to Bente [23] and Roth [24]. VIGALL classifies sub-stages based on EEG-power source estimates using sLORETA: A1 (occipital ROI power (α) > = parietal and frontal...
Data
Table S2 The assumed relationship between vigilance stages and the performed tapping speed. (JPEG 25 kb)
Article
Full-text available
Background Human time perception is influenced by various factors such as attention and drowsiness. Nevertheless, the impact of cerebral vigilance fluctuations on temporal perception has not been sufficiently explored. We assumed that the state of vigilance ascertained by electroencephalography (EEG) during the perception of a given auditory rhythm...