Sebastiaan Petermeijer

Sebastiaan Petermeijer
Netherlands Aerospace Centre | NLR · Aerospace Operations - Training and Simulation

Doctor of Engineering

About

44
Publications
29,675
Reads
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877
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2014 - present
Technische Universität München
Position
  • PhD Student
Education
September 2011 - April 2014
Delft University of Technology
Field of study
  • Biomechanical Engineering
September 2005 - September 2011
Delft University of Technology
Field of study
  • Mechanical Engineering

Publications

Publications (44)
Preprint
Full-text available
A major question in human-automation interaction is whether tasks should be traded or shared between human and automation. This work presents reflections—which have evolved through classroom debates between the authors over the past ten years—on these two forms of human-automation interaction, with a focus on the automated driving domain. As in the...
Article
Full-text available
Cars are increasingly capable of providing drivers with warnings and advice. However, whether drivers should be provided with ipsilateral warnings (signaling the direction to steer towards) or contralateral warnings (signaling the direction to avoid) is inconclusive. Furthermore, how auditory warnings and visual information from the driving environ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cars are increasingly capable of providing drivers with warnings and advice. However, whether drivers should be provided with ipsilateral warnings (signaling the direction to steer towards) or contralateral warnings (signaling the direction to avoid) is inconclusive. Furthermore, how auditory warnings and visual information from the driving environ...
Conference Paper
More than fifty years ago man first set foot on the moon, followed by six more successful crewed missions to the lunar surface. The last crewed mission dates back to 1972, after which interest in moon exploration diminished. Renewed interest in lunar exploration and colonization sparked the development of the Lunar analogue facilities (LUNA) at the...
Article
Full-text available
Quantifying drivers' perceived risk is important in the design and evaluation of the behaviour of automated vehicles (AVs) and in predicting takeovers by the driver. A 'Driver's Risk Field' (DRF) function has been previously shown to be able to predict manual driving behaviour in several simulated scenarios. In this paper, we tested if the DRF-base...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the introduction of driving automation, the driving task has become a shared task between driver and vehicle. Today, an increasing amount of driving tasks can be performed by the automation and the view of driver and automation acting as collaborative partners has been well established. Although this notion has been adopted in the research and...
Preprint
Full-text available
Several papers by Eckhard Hess from the 1960s and 1970s report that the pupils dilate or constrict according to the interest value, arousing content, or mental demands of visual stimuli. However, Hess mostly used small sample sizes and undocumented luminance control. In a first experiment (N = 182) and a second preregistered experiment (N = 147), w...
Article
Full-text available
Several papers by Eckhard Hess from the 1960s and 1970s report that the pupils dilate or constrict according to the interest value, arousing content, or mental demands of visual stimuli. However, Hess mostly used small sample sizes and undocumented luminance control. In a first experiment (N = 182) and a second preregistered experiment (N = 147), w...
Article
Full-text available
Much psychological research uses pupil diameter measurements for investigating the cognitive and emotional effects of visual stimuli. A potential problem is that accommodating at a nearby point constricts the pupil. This study examined to what extent accommodation is a confounder in pupillometry research. Participants solved multiplication problems...
Preprint
Full-text available
Much psychological research uses pupil diameter measurements for investigating the cognitive and emotional effects of visual stimuli. A potential problem is that accommodating at a nearby point constricts the pupil. This study examined to what extent accommodation is a confounder in pupillometry research. Participants solved multiplication problems...
Article
Full-text available
Objective This study aims to compare the effectiveness and subjective acceptance of three designs for haptic lane-keeping assistance in truck driving. Background Haptic lane-keeping assistance provides steering torques toward a reference trajectory, either continuously or only when exceeding a bandwidth. These approaches have been previously inves...
Article
Full-text available
This study assessed four types of human-machine interfaces (HMIs), classified according to the stages of automation proposed by Parasuraman et al. (2000). We hypothesized that drivers would implement decisions (lane changing or braking) faster and more correctly when receiving support at a higher automation stage during transitions from conditional...
Article
For automated vehicles (SAE Level 2-3) part of the challenge lies in communicating to the driver what control actions the automation is taking and will take, and what its capabilities are. A promising approach is haptic shared control (HSC), which uses continuous torques on the steering wheel to communicate the automation’s current control actions....
Article
Traditional driver-automation interaction trades control over the vehicle back and forth between driver and automation. Haptic shared control offers an alternative by continuously sharing the control through torques on the steering wheel and pedals. When designing additional feedback torques, part of the design choice lies in the stiffness around t...
Article
An important research question in the domain of highly automated driving is how to aid drivers in transitions between manual and automated control. Until highly automated cars are available, knowledge on this topic has to be obtained via simulators and self-report questionnaires. Using crowdsourcing, we surveyed 1692 people on auditory, visual, and...
Chapter
Full-text available
Across the automotive industry, manufacturers have recently released various Partial Automation systems (SAE Level 2) which allow simultaneous/combined execution of both lateral and longitudinal vehicle control at the same time, yet still require active human supervision/engagement. Current reactive trends will be reviewed across major automotive p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper summarizes our results from survey research and driving simulator experiments on auditory, vibrotactile, and visual take-over requests in highly automated driving. Our review shows that vibrotactile takeover requests in the driver’s seat yielded relatively high ratings of self-reported usefulness and satisfaction. Auditory take-over requ...
Conference Paper
Conditionally automated driving systems may soon be available on the market. Even though these systems exempt drivers from the driving task for extended periods of time, drivers are expected to take back control when the automation issues a so-called take-over request. This study investigated the interaction between take-over request modality and t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The driver of a conditionally automated car is not required to permanently monitor the outside environment, but needs to take over control whenever the automation issues a “request to intervene” (i.e., take-over request). If the driver misses the take-over request or does not respond in a timely and correct manner, a takeover could result in a safe...
Article
When a highly automated car reaches its operational limits, it needs to provide a takeover request (TOR) in order for the driver to resume control. The aim of this simulator-based study was to investigate the effects of TOR modality and left/right directionality on drivers' steering behaviour when facing a head-on collision without having received...
Article
Vibrotactile stimuli can be effective as warning signals, but their effectiveness as directional take-over requests in automated driving is yet unknown. This study aimed to investigate the correct response rate, reaction times, and eye and head orientation for static versus dynamic directional take-over requests presented via vibrating motors in th...
Article
The task of car driving is automated to an ever greater extent. In the foreseeable future, drivers will no longer be required to touch the steering wheel and pedals and could engage in non-driving tasks such as working or resting. Vibrotactile displays have the potential to grab the attention of the driver when the automation reaches its functional...
Article
A large number of haptic driver support systems have been described in the scientific literature. However, there is little consensus regarding the design, evaluation methods, and effectiveness of these systems. This literature survey aimed to investigate: (1) what haptic systems (in terms of function, haptic signal, channel, and supported task) hav...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Highly automated driving can potentially provide enormous benefits to society. However, it is unclear what types of interfaces should be used for takeover requests during highly automated driving, in which a driver is asked to switch back to manual driving. In this paper, a proposal for a driving simulator study on the use of six auditory signals d...
Article
The aim of this study was to compare continuous versus bandwidth haptic steering guidance in terms of lane-keeping behavior, aftereffects, and satisfaction. An important human factors question is whether operators should be supported continuously or only when tolerance limits are exceeded. We aimed to clarify this issue for haptic steering guidance...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
Developing a feel for symbiotic driving - Establishing haptic shared control as adaptive, individualized interaction between driver and highly-automated car Summary: The question is not if automated vehicles will be introduced on our roads, but when and how. A major bottleneck is communication and interaction between driver and highly-automated vehicle, especially when drivers need to regain control quickly and unexpectedly. Conventional human-automation interaction (beeps, switches) is inadequate, but academia and industry are struggling to invent better alternatives. A promising approach is haptic shared control, where drivers can feel (and interact with) the automation’s control activity through forces on the steering wheel or gas pedal, similar to the intuitive physical interaction between horse and rider through the reins. However, where horse and rider establish a symbiotic relationship, today’s haptic interfaces fail to adapt to highly individual and situated driver-behaviour-preferences and automation reliability. Their ‘one-size-fits-all’ design causes conflicts between driver and haptic automation, which in turn reduces driver understanding, acceptance, comfort and ultimately harms safety. My goal is to establish a novel, informative, cooperative and mutually adaptive interaction between driver and highly-automated vehicle. I will animate the currently inflexible haptic shared control interface based on fundamental insight into driver’ situated adaptation. First, I will develop estimation techniques that allow the haptic controller to determine individual driver’s situated control behaviour in real-time, recognize conflicts through force interaction, and to adapt itself accordingly to match decision and control strategies as well as safety and comfort margins between driver and automation. Second, I will enable the automated vehicle to communicate its own varying abilities and intentions through haptic and visual interaction. I will develop the interfaces and techniques in driving simulators, before validating them in automated vehicles provided by the Dutch Automated Vehicle Initiative and Nissan. This breakthrough in shaping human-automation interaction is essential for accelerating a responsible introduction of automation in realistic driving situations, and is extendable to aviation and (tele)robotics. Project Organisation PhD on cybernetic driver modeling and identification for online adaptation: Sarah Barendswaard PhD on understanding driver adaptation for haptic shared control design: …. Postdoc on evaluating adaptive shared control prototypes in simulators and on test-tracks
Project
To generate knowledge on Human Factors of automated driving towards safer road transportation. Road transport is an essential part of society but the burden of traffic crashes, congestion, and pollution is enormous. Highly automated driving (HAD) has the potential to resolve these problems and major car makers foresee that HAD will be technically ready for commercialisation within one decade from now. However, before automated driving can be safely deployed on public roads we have to deal with imminent human factors questions, such as: - How should human-machine-interfaces (HMI) be designed to support transitions between automated and manual control? - How can the automation understand the driver’s state and intentions? - What are the effects of HAD on accident risk and transport efficiency? HFauto bridges the gap between engineers and psychologists through a multidisciplinary research and training programme. We combine engineering domains such as simulator hardware, traffic flow theory, control theory, and mathematical driver modelling with psychological domains such as human action and perception, cognitive modelling, vigilance, distraction, psychophysiology, and mode/situation awareness, to optimally address the interdisciplinary domain of human factors.