Sean Semple

Sean Semple
University of Stirling

PhD

About

331
Publications
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6,150
Citations

Publications

Publications (331)
Article
Objective: We assessed the association of formaldehyde, Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Particulate Matter (PM2.5) with respiratory symptoms, asthma and post-bronchodilator reversibility. Methods: We included 1629 adults in a community-based cross-sectional study in Karachi, in 2015. Data was collected using American Thoracic Society respiratory questi...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to air pollution prematurely kills 7 million people globally every year. Policy measures designed to reduce emissions of pollutants, improve ambient air and consequently reduce health impacts, can be effective, but are generally slow to generate change. Individual actions can therefore supplement policy measures and more immediately reduce...
Article
Background: European countries differ considerably in the scope and the extent of their policies to protect people from the harms of secondhand smoke exposure. Public opinion may have a substantial influence on several stages of policy development, implementation, and compliance. For this reason, we aimed to evaluate the population level of support...
Article
Objective To determine the cost-effectiveness of a smoke-free prison policy in Scotland, through assessments of the trade-offs between costs (healthcare and non-healthcare-related expenditure) and outcomes (health and non-health-related non-monetary consequences) of implementing the policy. Design A health economic evaluation consisting of three a...
Article
Full-text available
Adoption of smoke-free measures has been one of the central elements of tobacco control activity over the past 30 years. The past decade has seen an increasing number of countries and proportion of the global population covered by smoke-free policies to some extent. Despite reductions in global smoking prevalence, population growth means that the n...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 led to behaviour changes in the UK’s population, including a sudden shift towards working from home. These changes may have affected overall exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), an air pollutant and source of health harm. We report the results of a simulation model of a represent...
Article
Background Prisons had partial exemption from the UK’s 2006/7 smoking bans in enclosed public spaces. They became one of the few workplaces with continuing exposure to second-hand smoke, given the high levels of smoking among people in custody. Despite the introduction of smoke-free prisons elsewhere, evaluations of such ‘bans’ have been very limit...
Conference Paper
Abstract Unequivocally, there is no safe level of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), yet more than 8 million deaths worldwide are associated with smoking annually; seven million are associated with active smoking, and 1.2 million deaths result from SHS exposure. Tobacco control is a critical element to achieve worldwide success for Sustainable Dev...
Article
Full-text available
Objective There is a lack of consensus on methods for cotton dust measurement in the textile industry, and techniques vary between countries—relying mostly on cumbersome, traditional approaches. We undertook comparisons of standard, gravimetric methods with low-cost optical particle counters for personal and area dust measurements in textile mills...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Exposure to second-hand smoke from tobacco is a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality. A cluster RCT in Bangladesh concluded a community-based smoke-free home (SFH) intervention delivered in mosques, with or without indoor air quality (IAQ) feedback to households was neither effective nor cost-effective compared to no inter...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Few studies have explored fathers' views and experiences of creating a smoke-free home, with interventions largely targeting mothers. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to fathers creating a smoke-free home, to inform future intervention development. Methods: Eighteen fathers who were smokers and lived in Scotla...
Conference Paper
Background In Scotland, childhood asthma hospitalisations fell in March 2006 following legislation to prohibit smoking in public places, and again in March 2014 following a mass-media campaign (Take It Right Outside TIRO). In December 2016, new Scottish legislation banned smoking in vehicles. It is unknown if this produced additional benefit. Obje...
Conference Paper
Background Second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure at work is a cause of serious ill-health. Consequently, many countries have implemented smoke-free workplace laws designed to protect most workers. However, workers who work in other people’s homes (such as home-care workers, tradespeople and nannies) are not protected by these laws, as smoking is not pro...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The SHINE network is an interdisciplinary group of academic scientists, tobacco control specialists and policy makers, with expertise in second-hand smoke exposure, gender and health, poverty and social inequality, education and child development, health geography, economics, complex system approaches and design thinking. SHINE members participated...
Article
Objectives This systematic review aimed to evaluate the evidence for air and surface contamination of workplace environments with SARS-CoV-2 RNA and the quality of the methods used to identify actions necessary to improve the quality of the data. Methods We searched Web of Science and Google Scholar until 24 December 2020 for relevant articles and...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In Scotland, childhood admissions to hospital for asthma fell from March, 2006, after legislation was introduced to prohibit smoking in public places. In December, 2016, new Scottish legislation banned smoking in vehicles containing a child. We aimed to determine whether the introduction of this new legislation produced additional bene...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored how Covid-19 lockdown restrictions affected people’s daily smoking routines and behaviours, including adherence and modifications to pre-established smoking restrictions in the home. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with smokers and non-smokers from smoking households 19 to 27 weeks after the first full UK loc...
Article
Objective Due to partial or poorly enforced restrictions secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is still present in outdoor hospitality venues in many European countries. This study aimed to assess SHS concentrations in outdoor hospitality venues across Europe and identify contextual exposure determinants. Methods Cross-sectional study. We measured airbor...
Article
Secondhand electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) aerosol (SHA) might impair indoor air quality and expose bystanders. This study aims to investigate exposure to SHA in controlled conditions of enclosed settings simulating real-world scenario. An experiment was performed in a car and in a room, in which SHA was generated during a 30-minute ad libitum u...
Article
The design of e-cigarettes (e-cigs) is constantly evolving and the latest models can aerosolize using high-power sub-ohm resistance and hence may produce specific particle concentrations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the aerosol characteristics generated by two different types of electronic cigarette in real-world conditions, such as a sit...
Article
The design of e-cigarettes (e-cigs) is constantly evolving and the latest models can aerosolize using high-power sub-ohm resistance and hence may produce specific particle concentrations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the aerosol characteristics generated by two different types of electronic cigarette in real-world conditions, such as a sit...
Article
Full-text available
Background Exposure to second-hand smoke from tobacco is a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a community-based smoke-free-home intervention, with or without indoor-air-quality feedback, in reducing second-hand-smoke exposure in homes in Bangladesh. Methods We did a thre...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) in the workplace has been largely controlled in most workplaces in many countries that have adopted smoke-free laws and regulations. Workers in offices, bars, restaurants, and many other settings have experienced substantial reductions in the frequency and intensity of their exposure to SHS. While current...
Article
Local ventilation systems are commonly used to control exposure to chemical and particulate hazards in the workplace. They are generally designed to remove emissions close to the source before they enter the breathing zone of the worker. This chapter deals with measurements required to test local ventilation systems to ensure they are functioning a...
Article
Providing advice on how best to control of workplace hazards is an important aspect of an occupational hygienists’ work. Selection of practical but effective solutions relies to a large extent on experience, but an understanding of the relative effectiveness of different options can help considerably. Effectiveness may vary greatly depending on the...
Article
Vibration is a physical hazard arising from work which involves the frequent use of powered hand tools or involves driving or operating large heavy machinery on uneven terrain. Therefore, workplace risk assessments in sectors such as construction, mines and quarries, agriculture or heavy engineering regularly need to consider risks from exposure to...
Article
Identifying hazardous materials, physical agents and work procedures that have the ability to cause harm to health is central to risk assessment. The basic approach to hazard identification could include a visual inspection survey; compilation of a list of chemicals; identification of process‐generated emissions; possible exposure to biological age...
Article
A wide range of gases and vapours with various physical and or toxicological properties can occur at the workplace. Some gases and vapours are of concern to the occupational hygienist as exposure can cause chronic or acute health effects or concentrations can build up to levels that are immediately dangerous to life and health. The occupational hyg...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Scientific understanding of indoor air pollution is predominately based on research carried out in cities in high‐income countries (HICs). Less is known about how pollutant concentrations change over the course of a typical day in cities in low‐ and middle‐income countries (LMICs). OBJECTIVE: To understand how concentrations of fine pa...
Chapter
Exposure assessment is the process of quantifying how much of an agent comes into contact with a person in a given environment. Exposure to hazardous substances can occur in a variety of ways. Chemicals or biological agents may enter the body by inhalation, ingestion, injection or by transfer through the unbroken skin. These exposure routes are the...
Chapter
Non‐ionising radiation comprises radio waves, microwaves, visible light, laser light, ultraviolet (UV) and infrared radiation (IR). The main physical characteristic that differentiates these radiations is their wavelength or corresponding frequency. They interact with the body in a number of ways that may cause adverse effects; UV may cause skin ca...
Chapter
The risks from hazardous agents in the workplace can be either prevented or controlled to some appropriate level. A set of principles for good control practice have been outlined to guide the approach to risk management. The approach may involve many options, including elimination of the hazard, substitution with a less hazardous material, total en...
Chapter
Having sufficient light to perform tasks safely and comfortably is an important part of ensuring worker safety. Poor workplace lighting does not cause disease, but it does increase fatigue and the risk of accidents, and can also play a role in reducing efficiency and increasing worker dissatisfaction. This chapter describes the principles of lighti...
Chapter
Monitoring hazards at work has developed considerably over the past fifty years. Previous chapters have set out the detail of how to carry out measurement in common workplaces and processes, but this final chapter considers what the future may hold for those involved in workplace health hazard monitoring. Consideration is given to how change occurs...
Chapter
Exposure to a hazard in any particular job will vary over the course of the working day depending on what tasks are being performed, how they are carried out, process output, the behaviour of co‐workers and many other factors. This variability in exposure can make it difficult to quantify the risk to workers, and so repeated, or multiple measuremen...
Chapter
Modelling workers’ exposure to hazardous agents using software tools is becoming an important part of an occupational hygienist job. These tools can be used to predict exposures in a workplace before exposure measurements are made to help with planning an investigation or they can be used after a monitoring survey to investigate possible impacts of...
Chapter
This chapter discusses how to plan a survey to collect exposure measurements. Different monitoring methods need to be considered depending on whether one plans to collect personal, static, surface or conduct human biomonitoring. Pre‐survey planning is influenced by the survey objective, and whether routine or special monitoring is planned. A monito...
Chapter
Working with hazardous substances is common throughout the world. For example, in most developed countries, the main causes of occupational cancer include asbestos, used mineral oils containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), respirable crystalline silica, diesel engine exhaust and PAHs found in other workplaces such as aluminium productio...
Chapter
Having sufficient light to perform tasks safely and comfortably is an important part of ensuring worker safety. Poor workplace lighting does not cause disease, but it does increase fatigue and the risk of accidents, and can also play a role in reducing efficiency and increasing worker dissatisfaction. This chapter describes the principles of lighti...
Chapter
Risk assessment is central to occupational hygiene and may be required in national occupational safety and health legislation, for example the control of substances hazardous to health (COSHH) Regulations in Britain. Monitoring of hazardous agents in the workplace should be integrated into the risk assessment process. Key steps in risk assessment i...
Chapter
Personal protective equipment (PPE) covers a wide range of protective equipment including products to protect the body, hands, face and respiratory system. Personal protective equipment should only be used to protect workplace hazards as a last resort and applied once all technical and/or other feasible controls have been deemed inappropriate or un...
Chapter
The human body generates heat, and hot environments may add to the heat load. To maintain a constant body core temperature, it is necessary to lose heat by convection, radiation, conduction or evaporation of sweat or humidifying inspired air. When heat transfer to the body is out of balance, then the person may experience an uncomfortable or stress...
Chapter
Risk communication is an important component of occupational health and safety management, and occupational hygienists are often required to make risk communications following the collection and interpretation of occupational exposure measurements. Careful planning is required to engage audience attention and deliver a successful communication. Som...
Chapter
Biological agents comprise microorganisms along with a range of associated toxins and allergens that originate from humans, animals and plants. These materials, which include viruses, bacteria, moulds and yeasts and other allergenic substances, can be found in some manufacturing processes, in products used at work, as contaminants in work products...
Chapter
Skin exposure to chemicals and exposure from inadvertently ingesting hazardous substances is widespread in workplaces. However, this is an aspect of occupational hygiene practice that has tended to receive little attention. There are many jobs where such exposures occur, including amongst farm workers (pesticides, solvents and other substances), ha...
Chapter
Exposure measurements need to be interpreted carefully because of the variation in the data between people and between days. There are often a limited number of measurement results, which further complicates the data interpretation. Using simple statistics can assist you in your evaluation: both summary statistics such as the geometric mean and sta...
Chapter
Occupational exposure to noise is associated with numerous health effects ranging from stress to noise‐induced hearing loss (NIHL). This chapter provides an introduction to basic acoustics including sound pressure level and frequency. Details and information sources regarding European occupational noise exposure limits for daily and weekly noise le...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the need to consider physical hazards in the workplace. Physical hazards include noise, vibration, heat and cold, lighting and both ionising and non‐ionising radiation. The concepts for measuring these exposures are very similar to those described in previous chapters relating to chemical hazards. We measure the interaction...
Chapter
Exposure measurements are often required to complete a workplace risk assessment so that a more accurate assessment of the risks can be made. In some cases, exposure data are required to support a risk assessment or to test compliance with an occupational exposure limit value for a workplace hazard. Measurements may also be required to justify the...
Chapter
It is important to be able to communicate measurement and survey findings to workers and management. Clear and concise communication is required to firstly record the exposure of the workers to the hazards identified and then to educate those responsible for worker health about the acceptability of those exposures and to influence decisions about t...
Chapter
Occupational hygiene involves the prevention of ill health by intervening in the workplace to eliminate or reduce exposures to environmental hazards. An important part of the work of an occupational hygienist is to assess or measure the workplace exposure to physical (e.g. noise, vibration, electromagnetic radiation, ionising and non‐ionising radia...
Chapter
Inhaling dusts and fibres can cause respiratory illness and disease. Reliable measurement methods to quantify the amount of material that workers inhale are required to help manage and control risks to health. Measurements of exposure provide a framework to allow comparison with the requirements of regulations and occupational exposure limits (OELs...
Chapter
Biological monitoring involves the measurement of chemicals or their metabolites in samples of urine, blood, saliva, exhaled air or tissues such as hair collected from exposed workers. Human biomonitoring has a role in health surveillance and in exposure assessment. It is particularly useful as an assessment tool where dermal exposure is the primar...
Article
Exposure to secondhand aerosol from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may pose harms to bystanders, but they are used in many indoor settings. Less evidence exists on e-cigarette use in outdoor settings. This study aims to assess the use of e-cigarettes in outdoor settings in Europe. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the entrances of prim...
Conference Paper
Background Many children remain exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in the home and are at increased risk asthma and other respiratory conditions. Our objective was to determine whether a national mass media smoke-free homes initiative (Take it Right Outside, TiRO) was followed by a fall in admissions for childhood asthma and other SHS-related respir...
Article
Introduction: Exposure to secondhand aerosol from e-cigarette (SHA) may pose harmful effects to bystanders. This study aims to investigate the prevalence, duration and determinants of SHA exposure in various indoor settings in 12 European countries. Methods: In 2017-2018, we conducted a cross-sectional study, the TackSHS survey, on a representativ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives This systematic review aimed to evaluate the evidence for air and surface contamination of workplace environments with SARS-CoV-2 RNA and the quality of the methods used to identify actions necessary to improve the quality of the data. Methods We searched Web of Science and Google Scholar until 24th December 2020 for relevant articles an...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Implementation of and compliance with smoke-free policies (SFPs) can be problematic in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) due to limited resources. This study evaluated knowledge, opinions and compliance related to Ghana's SFPs among owners and staff of hospitality venues by city, staff designation, and venue type. Method...
Article
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to secondhand aerosol from e-cigarette (SHA) may pose harmful effects to bystanders. This study aims to investigate the prevalence, duration and determinants of SHA exposure in various indoor settings in 12 European countries. METHODS: In 2017-2018, we conducted a cross-sectional study, the TackSHS survey, on a representativ...
Article
Smoke-free legislation reduced second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in public places, and indirectly promoted private smoke-free settings. Nevertheless, a large proportion of adults is still exposed to SHS at home. The aim of this paper is to quantify the burden of disease due to home SHS exposure among adults in the 28-European Union (EU) countries fo...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) is a health risk to non-smokers. Indoor particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with SHS exposure and is used as a proxy measure. However, PM2.5 is non-specific and influenced by a number of environmental factors, which are subject to geographical variation. The nature of association between SHS exp...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Tobacco presence in outdoor children's playgrounds is concerning not only because it leads to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, but also cigarette butt pollution and tobacco normalization. Objectives: This study aimed to assess SHS exposure in children's playgrounds, according to area-level socioeconomic status (SES), smoke-free reg...
Article
Scotland introduced a comprehensive smoke-free public places law in 2006. This law was widely regarded as a success and a model for legislation in other countries, including England and Wales. However, the 2006 law included several exceptions, including allowing prisoners to continue smoking in cells. Prison staff were therefore one of the few rema...
Article
Full-text available
Ambient air pollution in urban cities in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is an important public health problem with models and limited monitoring data indicating high concentrations of pollutants such as fine particulate matter (PM2.5). On most global air quality index maps, however, information about ambient pollution from SSA is scarce. We evaluated the...
Article
Full-text available
Almost half of the global population is exposed to household air pollution (HAP) from the burning of biomass fuels primarily for cooking, and this has been linked with considerable mortality and morbidity. While alternative cooking technologies exist, sustained adoption of these is piecemeal, indicating that there is insufficient knowledge of under...
Preprint
Full-text available
Urban cities in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are faced with ambient air pollution. This is an important public health problem with models and limited monitoring data indicating high concentrations of pollutants such as fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Going through most global air quality index maps, however, information about ambient pollution from SS...
Article
Objectives: To examine the impact of COVID-19 lockdown restrictions in March/April 2020 on concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution measured at roadside monitors across Scotland by comparing data with previous years. Methods: Publicly available data of PM2.5 concentrations from reference...
Article
Full-text available
Background Many children are exposed to second-hand smoke in the home and are at increased risk of asthma and other respiratory conditions. In Scotland, a public health mass-media campaign was launched on March 24, 2014, called Take it Right Outside (TiRO), with a focus on reducing the exposure of children to domestic second-hand smoke. In this stu...
Article
Background Prisons were one of few workplaces where smoking was still permitted after the smoking ban in indoor public places in Scotland in 2006. This study compares SHS exposure assessments in Scotland's 15 prisons six months after smokefree policy was introduced (in Nov 2018) with levels measured in 2016 before the policy was announced. Methods...