Sean D. Farley

Sean D. Farley
Alaska Department of Fish and Game | ADFG · Wildlife

About

58
Publications
8,788
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,644
Citations

Publications

Publications (58)
Article
Full-text available
SignificanceInterspecific hybridization is a widespread phenomenon, but measuring its extent, directionality, and adaptive importance remains challenging. Ancient genomes, however, can help illuminate the history of modern organisms. Here, we present a genome retrieved from a 130,000- to 115,000-y-old polar bear and perform genome analyses of moder...
Preprint
The polar bear ( Ursus maritimus ) has become a symbol of the threat to biodiversity from climate change. Understanding polar bear evolutionary history may provide insights into apex carnivore responses and prospects during periods of extreme environmental perturbations. In recent years, genomic studies have examined bear speciation and population...
Article
Knowledge of density-dependent responses in grizzly bears is largely circumstantial yet critical to managing populations near carrying capacity. We studied grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) body condition and demographics in Denali National Park, Alaska, USA, 1991–1998, and compared our results with data from a nearby heavily hunted population to better...
Article
Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) young-of-the-year (YOY) are nutritionally dependent upon their dam through the majority of their first year. Several indices of body condition were measured in YOY 1.5-9 mo of age captured in Southeast Alaska (n = 122), the Gulf of Alaska (n = 182), and the Aleutian Islands (n = 38) to test the hypothesis that...
Preprint
Full-text available
Interspecific hybridization is recognized as a widespread phenomenon but measuring its extent, directionality, and adaptive importance in the evolution of species remain challenging. Polar bears possess unique adaptations to life on the Arctic sea ice, whereas their closest relatives -brown bears - are boreal and subarctic generalists. Despite larg...
Article
Full-text available
Increased popularity of recreational activities in natural areas has led to the need to better understand their impacts on wildlife. The majority of research conducted to date has focused on behavioral effects from individual recreations, thus there is a limited understanding of the potential for population-level or cumulative effects. Brown bears...
Data
PRISMA diagram of the literature search for studies examining the effects of recreation on bears. (DOCX)
Data
Definitions, probability tables, model scenario inputs, and sensitivity analysis results for the Bayesian network model examining the impacts of human recreational activities on Alaskan brown bears. (DOCX)
Data
User’s manual for the Bayesian network model examining the impacts of human recreational activities on Alaskan brown bears. (DOCX)
Data
Bayesian network model for assessing the impacts of human recreational activities on Alaskan brown bears. This file can be used in the free version of Netica (Norsys software corp; http://www.norsys.com/download.html). The manual for the model is available in S4 File. (NETA)
Data
Forms provided to 12 brown bear experts and results from a Delphi survey examining the frequency of recreations in brown bear habitats, potential effects, management suggestions, and research needs. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
The strength and arrangement of movement barriers can impact the connectivity among habitat patches. Anthropogenic barriers (e.g. roads) are a source of habitat fragmentation that can disrupt these resource networks and can have an influence on the spatial genetic structure of populations. Using microsatellite data, we evaluated whether observed ge...
Article
Full-text available
The location of a population can influence its genetic structure and diversity by impacting the degree of isolation and connectivity to other populations. Populations at range margins are often thought to have less genetic variation and increased genetic structure, and a reduction in genetic diversity can have negative impacts on the health of a po...
Article
Steller sea lions (SSL; Eumetopias jubatus) grow their vibrissae continually, providing a multiyear record suitable for ecological and physiological studies based on stable isotopes. An accurate age-specific vibrissae growth rate is essential for registering a chronology along the length of the record, and for interpreting the timing of ecologicall...
Article
Full-text available
Moose Alces alces are large and conspicuous animals valued for wildlife watching and hunting opportunities. However, near urban areas they can cause collisions with vehicles and damage to garden and ornamental plants. We studied a population of adult female moose that lives in and around both urban and industrial development on an active Army and A...
Article
Full-text available
Nutritional constraints have been proposed as a contributor to population declines in the endangered Steller sea lion Eumetopias jubatus in some regions of the North Pacific. Isotopic analysis of vibrissae (whiskers) is a potentially useful approach to resolving the nutritional ecology of this species because long-term (up to 8 yr) dietary informat...
Article
Telazol® (TZ, tiletamine hydrochloride [HCl] and zolazepam HCl) has been used to immobilize black bears for research and management activities since the 1980s. Although considered an effective and safe drug, TZ has some disadvantages, including prolonged restraint time and inability of reversal. We tested the efficacy of dexmedetomidine and Telazol...
Article
During the summer of 2008, 6 documented attacks and close encounters with brown bears (Ursus arctos) occurred in the greater Anchorage, Alaska (USA) area. We discuss findings from 2 incidents in which people were mauled within 2 km of each other over a 6-week period and in which it was assumed that a single animal was responsible. To ensure public...
Article
Full-text available
Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the stat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the stat...
Preprint
Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the stat...
Article
abstract : Safe and effective immobilization of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) is essential for research and management. Fast induction of anesthesia, maintenance of healthy vital rates, and predictable recoveries are priorities. From September 2010 to May 2012, we investigated these attributes in captive and wild grizzly bears anesthetized with a co...
Presentation
Hybridization is a widespread evolutionary phenomenon that can play a role in diversification, especially among closely related taxa. Whereas hybridization is well known in plants, natural animal hybrids are considered much less common, although recent genome-wide investigations of canids and hominids suggest that admixture may have shaped the evol...
Article
Full-text available
Polar bears (PBs) are superbly adapted to the extreme Arctic environment and have become emblematic of the threat to biodiversity from global climate change. Their divergence from the lower-latitude brown bear provides a textbook example of rapid evolution of distinct phenotypes. However, limited mitochondrial and nuclear DNA evidence conflicts in...
Presentation
Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technology have opened doors to conservation and population genomic studies of wildlife species, for which only limited genetic resources exist. We are using a next-generation sequencing strategy to detect genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in bear species. Based on distinct differences...
Article
Full-text available
Winter extremes of temperature and food shortage limit the distribution of arctic animals. North American porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) are one of the most widely distributed mammals in North America and range from deserts to arctic tundra. In Alaska porcupines remain active at low winter temperatures (i.e., -39°C) while consuming woody plants th...
Article
Full-text available
Subadult bears were studied during their autumn hyperphagia (n = 3) and winter dormancy (n = 6). Urea kinetics were measured with 14C- and 15N-urea, protein turnover was estimated with 15N-glycine, and body composition was assessed with 3H-water. Reduced amino acid degradation in winter was indicated by declines in plasma urea and aminotransferase...
Article
Although numerous studies have documented behavioral effects of nature-based tourism on wildlife populations, few studies have determined whether behavioral changes translate to effects on individual condition and population health. This issue is currently a concern for wildlife managers in Alaska, USA, and Canada where bear viewing is a rapidly gr...
Article
Brown bear (Ursus arctos) population size correlates with density of high-quality food resources. We report on a ten-year study (1993 - 2003) of brown bear nutritional ecology in southwestern Alaska during which changes in resource availability and density occurred. The diets of 21 female bears captured multiple years were characterized by stable i...
Article
Wolves (Canis lupus) in North America are considered obligate predators of ungulates with other food resources playing little role in wolf population dynamics or wolf prey relations. However, spawning Pacific salmon (Oncorhyncus spp.) are common throughout wolf range in northwestern North America and may provide a marine subsidy affecting inland wo...
Article
We describe landscape use of female brown bears (Ursus arctos) on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, USA. Radiocollars, fitted to 43 adult female brown bears, provided radio relocations, which we used to describe habitat use patterns by season and reproductive class at the landscape scale. Brown bears were associated with areas with low densities of huma...
Article
Salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are an important resource for terrestrial wildlife. However, the salmon requirements of wildlife populations and the role wildlife play in nutrient transport across ecosystems are largely ignored in salmon and habitat management. Any activity that reduces the availability of or access to salmon by wildlife may adversely a...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Rare and cryptic animals inhabiting densely vegetated or complex terrain challenge efforts to count them. Sampling methods often rely on broad, systematic schemes to sample individuals (e.g. photography or DNA), but these approaches grow expensive over large areas. We tested if sampling at focal times and in biologicall...
Article
Highway construction and expansion in bear habitat can negatively affect brown bear (Ursus arctos) populations. We analyzed radiotelemetry data from previous studies to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of brown bear crossings of the Sterling and Seward highways on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, USA. We compared highway crossings of act...
Article
Full-text available
We collected data from 20 biparentally inherited microsatellite loci, and nucleotide sequence from the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, to determine levels of genetic variation of the brown bears (Ursus arctos L., 1758) of the Kenai Peninsula, south central Alaska. Nuclear genetic variation was similar to that observed...
Article
Knowledge of diet-tissue stable isotope discrimination is required to properly interpret stable isotope values and to identify possible diet shifts, such as might be expected from nursing through weaning. This study compared delta C-13 and delta N-15 of paired serum and vibrissal roots with those of ingested milk (n = 52) from free-ranging Steller...
Article
Energy maximization, time minimization, and linear programming models subject to various constraints have dominated foraging ecology ideas and methods for decades. However, animals must use very complex physiological processes and foraging decisions to ensure fitness that in many cases may not be adequately described by these approaches. An example...
Article
Full-text available
We identified primary habitat and functional corridors across a landscape using Global Positioning System (GPS) collar locations of brown bears (Ursus arctos). After deriving density, speed, and angular deviation of movement, we classified landscape function for a group of animals with a cluster analysis. We described areas with high amounts of sin...
Article
Full-text available
We hypothesized that there would be minimal dietary overlap between sympatric brown bears (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus) relative to salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) utilization when alternative foods (e.g., fruits) are abundant. To maximize the chance that we would reject this hypothesis, we examined the diets of brown and black...
Article
To develop a conceptual understanding of the interaction between tourists and bears, this study examined the responses of brown bears (Ursus arctos) to experimentally introduced tourism at Douglas River in south-central Alaska within the framework of current predator–prey theory. Factors eliciting displacement and the nutritional consequences of be...
Article
Despite significant sexual dimorphism and differing reproductive strategies in carnivores, sexual segregation is rarely studied and is often overlooked in the management of wild populations. Potential nutritional constraints imposed by sexual dimorphism and differing reproductive strategies between the sexes have important implications, particularl...
Article
Stable isotope signatures of lactating females and their nursing offspring were measured on 11 species, including herbivores, carnivores, hibernators, and non-hibernators. We hypothesized that: (1) nursing offspring would have stable isotope signatures that were a trophic level higher than their mothers, and (2) this pattern would be species-indepe...
Article
Full-text available
A pharmacokinetic and tissue residue study was conducted to assess the risks associated with human consumption of polar bears in arctic Canada that have been exposed to the immobilizing drug Telazol, a mixture of tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride. Twenty-two bears were remotely injected with about 10 mg/kg of Telazol. Following i...
Article
A denning adult female Brown Bear and her two cubs were killed by an avalanche during the winter of 1997-1998 on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Denning bears may be vulnerable to human-caused avalanches resulting from popular winter recreation activities such as skiing, snowboarding, and snowmobile travel on steep slopes. The current popularity of he...
Article
Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and isotopic water dilution have been proposed as methods suitable for determining the body composition of wild bears. We investigated the accuracy of these 2 techniques in a single-blind study. Water dilution was a more precise predictor of the body fat content of black bears (Ursus americanus) and brown bear...
Article
We measured the turnover of exchangeable sodium in black bears (Ursus americanus) and grizzly bears (U. arctos horribilis) with ${}^{22}\text{sodium}$ $({}^{22}\text{Na})$ and tested the procedure for its usefulness as a predictor of food intake. Sodium excretion had a strong, positive correlation with sodium intake (r2=0.97; SEE = 3.8). 22Na equil...
Article
Full-text available
Subadult bears were studied during their autumn hyperphagia (n = 3) and winter dormancy (n = 6). Urea kinetics were measured with 14C- and 15N-urea, protein turnover was estimated with 15N-glycine, and body composition was assessed with 3H-water. Reduced amino acid degradation in winter was indicated by declines in plasma urea and aminotransferase...
Article
Full-text available
The potential use of stable-isotope analyses (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) to estimate bear diets was assessed in 40-day feeding trials using American black bears (Ursus americanus). Bear plasma and red blood cells have half-lives of similar to 4 days and similar to 28 days, respectively. The isotopic signature of bear plasma is linearly related to t...
Article
Milk composition and intake, cub growth, and mass loss of hibernating lactating and nonlactating American black bears (Ursus americanus) and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) were investigated. Except for ash content, milk composition was similar between species. Lipid content varied only slightly throughout lactation, whereas carbohydrate co...
Article
The measurement of body composition in black bears (Ursus americanus), brown bears (U. arctos), and polar bears (U. maritimus) was investigated by means of isotopic water dilution and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The basic relationships between body lipid, water, protein, and ash were determined by direct chemical measurement of 13 black...

Questions

Question (1)
Question
We are running the parentage software, FRANZ under Windows10 and for the most part everything works well. The problem is when we attempt to use a coordinate file. Adding the file name to the command line results in error messages ranging from “different number of populations than input” and “ data not in format latitude longitude” . Multiple attempts to massage the input file format have failed.
Any suggestions as to correct format?
thanks

Network

Cited By