S.E. Chidiac

S.E. Chidiac
McMaster University | McMaster · Department of Civil Engineering

B. Eng, M. Eng., Ph.D.

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96
Publications
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1,911
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Publications

Publications (96)
Article
Radiation shielding properties of 8 concrete mixes were studied in detail. The concrete mixes included 4 coarse aggregate types; dolomite, barite, ilmenite, and celestite, and 2 cementing material content. Important parameters accounted for in this study include: Mass attenuation coefficient that was calculated using WinXCom program then linear att...
Article
Full-text available
Thermal properties of the building envelope (BE) prescribed by codes and standards do not provide a consistent and comprehensive measure of its performance. Qualitative comparative analysis employed by the codes to assess energy savings is deterrent to technology development as the potential energy savings are never realized. A new metric, referred...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is causing more frequent extreme weather events. The consequences of increasing global temperature on the operating cost of existing buildings, and the associated health, safety, and economic risks were investigated. Eight cities in Ontario, Canada, across climate zones 5 to 8, were selected for this study. Statistical models were em...
Article
A R T I C L E I N F O Keywords: Boron carbide powder Cement degree of hydration Compressive strength Heat of hydration Isothermal calorimetry Radiation shielding A B S T R A C T Boron-containing compounds have an excellent radiation shielding capability against slow neutrons. Moreover, sassolite in boron-containing compounds adversely affects cemen...
Article
A hybrid model, comprised of analytical and phenomenological models, was developed to quantify the effective free water diffusion coefficient of cement hydration with superabsorbent polymers (SAP) as internal curing. NMR/MRI measurements were used to estimate the water types and distribution, and the cement degree of hydration. Employing reverse en...
Article
This review discusses the importance of interim dry storage of spent nuclear fuel. It addresses the requirements to achieve safe and efficient enclosure of spent nuclear fuel assemblies, including providing adequate radiation shielding, maintaining sub criticality, and achieving reliable and efficient decay heat removal process throughout the entir...
Article
Nuclear magnetic resonance and imaging was used to quantify the absorbed and desorbed water by superabsorbent polymers (SAP) and the efficiency of SAP as internal curing. SAP pore solution absorption and desorption are found, respectively, 25 g/g SAP, and inversely proportional to time and SAP content. Cement hydration rate of mixes without SAP is...
Article
A new user-friendly software called MRCsC was developed to accurately and precisely predict macroscopic effective removal cross-section, ΣR, (in cm⁻¹) of fast neutrons for different shielding materials. The program includes a revised calculation model and the latest data published by Evaluated Nuclear Data Library “ENDF/B-VIII”. Experimental data a...
Article
Strength and durability are pivotal for designing sustainable concrete structures. For reinforced concrete, chloride diffusion coefficient is a measure for durability. Phenomenological multi-scale models are proposed for quantifying chloride effective diffusion coefficient of bulk cement paste (DClbcp) and concrete (DClc). DClbcp model accounts for...
Article
The effects of chloride salts on concrete durability have been financially and logistically overwhelming. Current test methods for quantifying diffusivity of chlorides in concrete are time consuming and demanding. A comprehensive electrical resistivity model has been developed to quantify the chloride diffusion coefficient of concrete. The model em...
Article
Internal curing (IC) is used to mitigate autogenous shrinkage in low water-to-cement ratio (w/c) concrete. Although, superabsorbent polymers (SAP) have been shown to work well for IC, their effects on the kinetics of the cement chemical reaction and the amount of water they provide have not been fully quantified. An experimental program was perform...
Article
Sustainability is the most important goal to pursue in all aspects of human activity, not least of which in the built environment. Sustainability encompasses social, economic and ecological impacts which are influenced by collinear and correlated factors. A qualitative description of sustainability is a necessary but not sufficient requirement as i...
Article
Properties of concrete depend on the cement degree of hydration. Standard test methods proposed for quantifying cement degree of hydration employ thermogravimetric (TG) analysis which can be problematic when aggregates are added. This study aims to quantify the variances in the cement degree of hydration in mortar and concrete by comparing TG resul...
Article
Compressive strength and the chloride diffusion coefficient are the common and principal performance measures for designing durable concrete structures. Hence, a comprehensive and consistent phenomenological model is put forward that quantifies a concrete’s effective chloride diffusion coefficient based on the tortuosity factor, aggregate volume fr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Corrosion of metals embedded in concrete is pivotal when studying durability of reinforced concrete structures. Chloride ions present in the vicinity of steel reinforcements tend to initiate and/or accelerate their corrosion. Chloride ions are either bound physically or chemically to the cementing material or free in the pore solution, and only the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a comprehensive literature review on the state-of-the-art of autonomous self-healing concrete using microcapsules. Common capsule shell, core materials, and corresponding manufacturing techniques are summarized. The criteria for a successful self-healing system is identified and approaches to enhance the efficiency and effective...
Article
Most concrete deterioration mechanisms are driven by the transport properties, in particular the chloride diffusion coefficient. As such, experimental and analytical tools have been developed to quantify the chloride diffusion coefficient. This study employs the experimental data reported in the literature to critically assess the accuracy and prec...
Article
The driving forces for change in the construction and building industry are several, not least of which are health and environmental awareness combined with the innate urge to improve living conditions and standards under economic constraints. Based on in-depth observation of the current practices, improved practices, market conditions, and driving...
Article
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Theoretical and phenomenological models for predicting the compressive strength of concrete proposed in literature have been reviewed. The applicability and accuracy of these models in predicting the compressive strength of concrete at 28 days and at different ages were investigated using experimental data reported in the literature. Assessment of...
Article
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Fresh concrete can exhibit different rheological behavior when at rest than when flowing. This difference is due to thixotropy, which can have important consequences for formwork pressure, multi-lift casting, slip-form paving, pumping, and segregation resistance. This TechNote defines thixotropy and distinguishes it from other changes in rheologica...
Article
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A predictive compressive strength model accounting for the type of cement, cement degree of hydration, aggregates type and gradation, mixtures proportion, and air content was developed. This paper presents the formulation, implementation, calibration and validation of the proposed strength model for normal concrete. The theoretical formulation post...
Article
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Constitutive equations for fresh mortar and fresh concrete provide the characterization of the mixture’s flow and the quantification of the rheological properties. This paper presents a constitutive material model for mortar and concrete that builds on the work of Gang et al. (2008) and Mahmoodzadeh and Chidiac (2011). It postulates that a) the she...
Article
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Existing buildings consume most of our non-transportation related energy and are a major contributor to the emission of greenhouse gases. Improving their energy efficiency by applying energy conservation measures (ECMs) remains a major challenge. This paper presents computational tools developed to screen office buildings for retrofit and to select...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of chloride-binder interactions on the physical pore structure of concrete containing 0–60% ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) as cement replacement. Physical and chemical chloride binder interaction was measured based on chloride binder isotherms. Physical chloride binder interaction wa...
Article
Full-text available
Service life of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride ions is closely related to the rate of chloride ion diffusion through the concrete. The determination of the apparent chloride diffusion coefficient of concrete takes into account the chloride-binding capacity but not the effect of temperature on the chloride-binding capacity. This...
Article
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Dry-cast concrete blocks are a popular building material; however, to improve the economic and environmental sustainability of this industry, its dependence on natural aggregate and Portland cement needs to be reduced. To further this goal, blocks with up to 25% of the cement replaced with waste glass powder (WGP) or up to 15% of the sand replaced...
Article
Full-text available
Energy retrofit measures (ERMs) are applied to reduce the energy consumption of buildings. The effectiveness of any ERM depends on many building specific factors, such as location, size, operation, building envelope, electrical, heating, cooling and ventilation system properties. It is common for multiple ERMs to be applied to a building to reduce...
Article
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A laboratory study was undertaken to compare the performance of waste glass as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM) to traditional SCMs at the same particle size and level of replacement in both high and low alkali cement paste. The consumption of Ca(OH)2 as measured by differential thermal analysis (DTA) is used as an indicator of reactivit...
Article
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This study evaluates the potential use of ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) for determining the early age compressive strength of dry-cast concrete containing varying percentages of ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS). The proposed approach includes computing the dynamic elastic modulus from UPV measurements, evaluating the static elastic mo...
Article
Full-text available
Private and public sectors own and operate an array of office buildings that consume energy and contribute to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). Energy demands can be reduced by applying energy retrofit measures (ERMs) to existing buildings. The choice of ERMs involves evaluation of applicability, energy end uses and cost of application versus...
Article
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Sustainable or green building practices have been adopted recently by many higher education institutions for their new campus buildings and major renovations. To date, no formal study has been conducted to determine if policy is essential for sustainable building practices and the implementation of LEED® for these institutional green buildings in N...
Article
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This paper presents an experimental investigation into the flexural behaviour of masonry walls that have been reinforced using near-surface mounted (NSM) or externally bonded (EB) reinforcement, under out-of-plane loading. The study simulates retrofitting applications and also proposes the NSM technique for new wall construction, using pre-grooved...
Article
Full-text available
Concrete is the most widely used construction material and, for the most part, is produced using non-renewable natural resources and energy intensive processes which emit greenhouse gasses. There exists an opportunity to improve the sustainability of this industry by further exploring the use of alternative materials. As an aggregate, glass bottle...
Article
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This paper presents a rational method to characterize the freeze–thaw salt scaling performance of concrete based on capillary suction forces. The testing program included evaluating the concrete’s chemical chloride binding capacity, degree of hydration, total porosity, compressive strength, sorptivity and de-icer salt scaling resistance conducted a...
Article
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Rheological properties of fresh concrete, namely plastic viscosity and yield stress, are critical for the concrete industry because they affect placement and workability. Moreover, these rheological properties influence the productivity and quality of concrete, including mechanical properties and durability. Therefore proper characterization of the...
Article
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The main focus of this paper is on the evaluation of local a posteriori error estimation techniques for the finite element method (FEM). The standard error estimation techniques are presented for the coupled displacement fields appearing in elasticity problems. The two error estimators, the element residual method (ERM) and Zienkiewicz-Zhu (ZZ) pat...
Article
This paper presents a numerical realization of the variational multiscale method with the objective of providing a reliable and easy to implement local error estimation technique. The variational multiscale framework provides a systematic approach for solution scale decomposition into coarse scales captured by the mesh and fine or subgrid scales. I...
Article
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Compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), non-evaporable water content and the interplay between them were investigated at 1, 3, 7 and 28 days to determine the effects of using ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) as cement replacement. The variables considered include percentage of GGBFS as cement replacement (0–60%), total bi...
Article
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The optimization of the production of fired clay brick is essential for the sustainability of the clay brick industry. While there exist areas for improvement of these bricks’ properties when they are used in severe climates, concerns — including nonrenewable resource depletion, increasing energy costs, and waste management — have become increasing...
Article
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Performance of dry-cast concrete masonry products (DCCMPs), which are becoming the product of choice for many applications, has yet to be assessed in a comprehensive manner. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of mix design and manufacturing parameters on the mechanical and transport properties, as well as the freeze-thaw (F/T) dur...
Article
A numerical investigation of the reliability of a posteriori error estimation for advection–diffusion equations is presented. The estimator used is based on the solution of local problems subjected to Neumann boundary conditions. The estimated errors are calculated in a weighted energy norm, a stability norm and an approximate fractional order norm...
Article
This Canadian study shows that the potential use of their procedure is very broad since the data computed can be used to investigate deterioration problems, to check risks associated with any proposed thermal upgrading and to perform stress analysis. The variation between the computed data and recorded data is small, except at peaks where the maxim...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the laboratory de-icing salt scaling performance of concrete containing varying amounts of GGBFS as cement replacement. Using experimental results of concrete tested in accordance with ASTM C 672 and MTO LS-412 reported in the literature, a statistical analysis was carried out to evaluate the significance of several mix design v...
Article
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Rheological properties of fresh concrete, namely yield stress and plastic viscosity, can be used to differentiate concrete mixtures for the purpose of controlling their quality. Different types of concrete rheometers have been developed to measure the rheological properties; however, it is found that the measured absolute values vary significantly...
Article
Full-text available
Rheological behaviour of fresh concrete is an important factor in controlling concrete quality. It is recognized that the measurement of the slump is not a sufficient test method to adequately characterize the rheology of fresh concrete. To further understand the slump measurement and its relationship to the rheological properties, an elasto-viscop...
Article
A reliable mesh generation infrastructure is designed based on software engineering principles. Formal methods, software design documents and clear modular decomposition criteria are introduced to improve the quality of mesh generation software. The design document for a simple 2D mesh generation data structure is presented using a semi-formal spec...
Article
Fifteen concrete mix designs of a water-to-binder ratio ranging from 0.30-0.38 were prepared and exposed to rapid freeze thaw resistance and deicer salt scaling resistance testing. The variables considered are the OPC content, GGBFS used as cement replacement content, OPC/GGBFS ratio, w/cm ratio, tested surface (formed versus finished), and sample...
Article
Full-text available
Premature deterioration of concrete structures has created awareness and concern about the durability of concrete. Concrete mixtures used in the construction of residential basement walls and foundations have a high water to cement (w/c) ratio (w/c>0.6) and low cement content (<280 kg/m3). The result is friable concrete with a highly porous surface...
Article
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An experimental investigation is conducted on the improvement of the torsional resistance of reinforced concrete beams using fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) fabric. A total of 11 beams were tested. Three beams were designated as control specimens and eight beams were strengthened by FRP wrapping of different configuration and then tested. Both glass...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Seismic risk reduction for stone masonry buildings can be achieved by a comprehensive mitigation program that includes risk assessment and risk mitigation. Guidelines for the Seismic Assessment of Stone Masonry Structures present different techniques and procedures for establishing the seismic risk of stone masonry structures. This document provide...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Most stone-masonry structures were built at a time when seismic risk was not considered in their design. Recent moderate to strong earthquakes have confirmed the vulnerability of heritage buildings, especially those constructed with unreinforced-masonry materials. Proper assessment of the seismic performance and of the potential deficiency of exist...
Article
This paper presents information on the factors that influence the performance of patch repair in concrete flat slabs, namely the in-service exposure conditions, compatibility requirements and construction practices. The significance of property mismatch between the repair material and the existing reinforced concrete structure is illustrated throug...
Article
Major environmental factors in the durability of exterior walls are temperature and moisture. Temperature is the factor examined in this study. Thermal movements can lead to induced stresses that may be high enough to cause cracking. Temperature cycling about the freezing point may lead to frost damage in wet walls. This paper examines the temperat...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Most stone-masonry structures were built at a time when seismic risk was not considered in their design. Recent moderate to strong earthquakes have confirmed the vulnerability of heritage buildings, especially those constructed with unreinforced-masonry materials. Proper assessment of the seismic performance and of the potential deficiency of exist...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The following case study has been developed to illustrate the evaluation procedures of these guidelines on an existing stone-masonry structure located in a moderate seismic region. Please note that although considerable information is presented, the full analysis is not shown in this example. However, the process of establishing the scope of analys...
Article
Full-text available
Traditionally, the slump test has been used to measure concrete consistency. However, many researchers contend that the slump alone is not a sufficient measure of consistency and that other quantifiable rheological properties such as shear yield stress and plastic viscosity are more representative and should be considered. A SLump Rate Machine (SLR...
Article
This paper presents partial background material for the report of the Inspection and Testing Sub-Committee of the CSCE Technical Committee on Rehabilitation of Infrastructure. Inspection and testing play a very important role in the design of a cost effective maintenance program and/or for rehabilitation of infrastructure. The available technical l...
Article
Many of today’s ageing reinforced concrete structures have reached or exceeded their expected service life and a significant number of newer structures exposed to severe environmental conditions are showing premature deterioration within 20 years of construction (Mehta, 1991). So far, the strategy has been repair and rehabilitation rather than repl...
Article
Permeation characteristics and fracture strength are the fundamental properties of concrete that influence the initiation and extent of damage and can form the basis by which deterioration can be predicted. The relationship between these properties and deterioration mechanisms is discussed along with the different models representing their interact...
Article
A welding arc model is proposed to determine the thermal cycle for various materials and for different weld types. In this paper we discuss the iterative procedure employed for non-linear heat transfer analysis using the finite element method, and in particular the boundary conditions employed to determine the heat generated in the HAZ and its diss...
Article
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Solidification processes involve complex heat and mass transfer phenomena, the modelling of which requires state-of-the art numerical techniques. An efficient and accurate transient numerical method is proposed for the analysis of phase change problems. This method combines both the enthalpy and the enhanced specific heat approaches in incorporatin...
Article
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A finite element model has been developed to predict the residual stresses generated in weldments during fabrication. The thermal history of the weld piece is completed using a three-dimensional heat flow model which serves as input for computation of stresses. A micro-structural model, based on the Avrami equation, and the grain growth law have al...
Article
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A mathematical model, based on the finite-element technique and incorporating thermo-elasto-plastic behavior during the water spray quenching of steel, has been developed. In the model, the kinetics of diffusion-dependent phase transformation and martensitic transformation have been coupled with the transient heat flow to predict the microstructura...
Article
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During welding, structures are subjected to localized heating and cooling cycles, as described in Part I.[1] A mathematical model is proposed to determine the metallurgical changes that occur in austenitic stainless steel due to the welding thermal cycle. The proposed kinetic model computes the austenite gra