Scott E Hemby

Scott E Hemby
High Point University · Fred Wilson School of Pharmacy

PhD

About

106
Publications
11,286
Reads
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5,576
Citations
Research Experience
January 2010 - June 2014
University of Virginia
Position
  • Adjunct Professor Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine
Description
  • Adjunct Professor
July 2008 - August 2014
Wake Forest School of Medicine
Position
  • Professor with Tenure
July 2004 - July 2008
Wake Forest School of Medicine
Position
  • Associate Professor
Education
June 1995 - November 1998
University of Pennsylvania
Field of study
  • Post-doctoral Fellow, Molecular pharmacology, Mentor: James Eberwine, PhD
August 1991 - April 1995
Wake Forest School of Medicine
Field of study
  • Physiology and Pharmacology
August 1987 - August 1990
Emory University
Field of study
  • Psychobiology

Publications

Publications (106)
Article
Full-text available
Kratom, derived from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, is receiving increased attention as an alternative to traditional opiates and as a replacement therapy for opiate dependence. Mitragynine (MG) and 7-hydroxymitragynine (7-HMG) are major psychoactive constituents of kratom. While MG and 7-HMG share behavioral and analgesic properties with morphine,...
Article
Full-text available
Causal genes and variants within genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci can be identified by integrating GWAS statistics with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and determining which variants underlie both GWAS and eQTL signals. Most analyses, however, consider only the marginal eQTL signal, rather than dissect this signal into multiple c...
Article
Full-text available
Over 100 genetic loci harbor schizophrenia-associated variants, yet how these variants confer liability is uncertain. The CommonMind Consortium sequenced RNA from dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of people with schizophrenia (N = 258) and control subjects (N = 279), creating a resource of gene expression and its genetic regulation. Using this resourc...
Article
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Unlabelled: Epidemiological findings suggest that diabetic individuals are at a greater risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). To examine the mechanisms by which diabetes mellitus (DM) may contribute to AD pathology in humans, we examined brain tissue from streptozotocin-treated type 1 diabetic adult male vervet monkeys receiving twice-dail...
Article
Full-text available
Cocaine abuse in HIV patients accelerates the progression and severity of neuropathology, motor impairment and cognitive dysfunction compared to non-drug using HIV patients. Cocaine and HIV interact with the dopamine transporter (DAT); however, the effect of their interaction on DAT binding remains understudied. The present study compared the dose-...
Article
Full-text available
The safety and efficacy of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) for treatment of pain is highly controversial. Kratom produces more than 40 structurally related alkaloids, but most studies have focused on just two of these, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. Here, we profiled 53 commercial kratom products using untargeted LC-MS metabolomics, revealing tw...
Article
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Multiple lines of evidence point to glutamatergic signaling in the postsynaptic density (PSD) as a pathophysiologic mechanism in schizophrenia. Integral to PSD glutamatergic signaling is reciprocal interplay between GluN and mGluR5 signaling. We examined agonist-induced mGluR5 signaling in the postmortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) deriv...
Article
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Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are serious mental illnesses that affect more than 2% of adults. While large-scale genetics studies have identified genomic regions associated with disease risk, less is known about the molecular mechanisms by which risk alleles with small effects lead to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In order to fill this g...
Article
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Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are associated with vulnerability to addiction; however, whether D2Rs in these two brain regions play differential roles in regulation of drug intake is unknown. Here, we compared the effect of decreased mRNA level of Drd2 in each region on cocaine self...
Article
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Impaired glutamatergic signaling is believed to underlie auditory cortex pyramidal neuron dendritic spine loss and auditory symptoms in schizophrenia. Many schizophrenia risk loci converge on the synaptic glutamate signaling network. We therefore hypothesized that alterations in glutamate signaling protein expression and co-expression network featu...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous investigations support decreased glutamatergic signaling as a pathogenic mechanism of schizophrenia, yet the molecular underpinnings for such dysregulation are largely unknown. In the post-mortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), we found striking decreases in tyrosine phosphorylation of N-methyl-D aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit 2...
Article
Full-text available
Concurrent use of cocaine and heroin (speedball) has been shown to exert synergistic effects on dopamine neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), as observed by significant increases in extracellular dopamine levels and compensatory elevations in the maximal reuptake rate (Vmax ) of dopamine. The present studies were undertaken to determin...
Article
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Background: An estimated 18 million adults in the United States meet the clinical criteria for diagnosis of alcohol abuse or alcoholism, a disorder ranked as the third leading cause of preventable death. In addition to brain pathology, heavy alcohol consumption is comorbid with damage to major organs including heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, and ki...
Article
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There has been significant progress in personalized drug development. In large part, this has taken place in the oncology field and been due to the ability of researchers/clinicians to discover and develop novel drug development tools (DDTs), such as biomarkers. In cancer treatment research, biomarkers have permitted a more accurate pathophysiologi...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic cocaine administration regulates the expression of several proteins related to dopaminergic signaling and synaptic function in the mesocorticolimbic pathway, including the prefrontal cortex. Functional abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex are hypothesized to be due in part to the expression of proteins involved in dopamine signaling and p...
Article
Full-text available
Proteoglycans like syndecan-3 have complex signaling roles in addition to their function as structural components of the extracellular matrix. Here, we show that syndecan-3 in the lateral hypothalamus has an unexpected new role in limiting compulsive cocaine intake. In particular, we observe that syndecan-3 null mice self-administer greater amounts...
Data
Full-text available
Supplementary Figures S1-S4, Supplementary Table S1, and Supplementary Reference
Data
Differentially expressed genes in rats with histories of cocaine self-administration under limited and extended access conditions. A positive t-statistic represents the gene up-regulated with respect to control, and a negative t-statistic represents the gene down-regulated with respect to control.
Article
J. Neurochem. (2012) 122, 138–146. Cocaine/heroin combinations (speedball) exert synergistic neurochemical and behavioral effects that are thought to contribute to the increased abuse potential and subjective effects reported by polydrug users. In vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used to examine the effects of chronic intravenous self-administ...
Article
Functional genomics and proteomics approaches are being employed to evaluate gene and encoded protein expression changes with the tacit goal to find novel targets for drug discovery. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have attempted to identify valid candidate genes through single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Furthermore, microarray...
Article
Cocaine/heroin combinations (speedball) induce a synergistic elevation in extracellular dopamine concentrations ([DA](e)) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) that can explain the increased abuse liability of speedball. To further delineate the mechanism of this neurochemical synergism, in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) was used to compare NAc...
Article
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Functional impairment of the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex underlies deficits in executive control that characterize addictive disorders, including alcohol addiction. Previous studies indicate that alcohol alters glutamate neurotransmission and one substrate of these effects may be through the reconfiguration of the subunits constituting ion...
Article
Full-text available
Exercise has recently been suggested as an attractive alternative to pharmacotherapy for treating drug addiction. The goal of this study was to determine, using an animal model, whether aerobic exercise may block reinstatement of cocaine-seeking and its underlying neurobiology (i.e., neuronal signaling in the prefrontal cortex). Following acquisiti...
Chapter
Full-text available
The reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse are believed to play a critical role in drug addiction. It is clear that drugs of abuse can serve as positive reinforcers maintaining self-administration in both humans and animals, and there appears to be good correspondence between humans and animals in terms of drugs that are self-administered and patter...
Chapter
Full-text available
Proteomics is the study of sequence, expression, function, interaction and localization of proteins in tissues or fluids of various organisms. With the advent of proteomic techniques providing greater selectivity, sensitivity and throughput, drug abuse researchers are faced with decisions as to the selection of the most appropriate applications for...
Conference Paper
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The detection of endogenous retrovirus-derived transcripts in brain samples of patients with schizophrenia and related disorders suggests a possible role of such elements in neuropsychiatric diseases. However, most patients receive antipsychotic drugs that may influence the expression activity of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). Monitoring HE...
Article
Background: Functional impairment of the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex underlies deficits in executive control that characterize addictive disorders, including alcohol addiction. Previous studies indicate that alcohol alters glutamate neurotransmission and one substrate of these effects may be through the reconfiguration of the subunits con...
Article
Full-text available
Until recently, knowledge of the impact of abused drugs on gene and protein expression in the brain was limited to less than 100 targets. With the advent of high-throughput genomic and proteomic techniques, investigators are now able to evaluate changes across the entire genome and across thousands of proteins in defined brain regions and generate...
Article
Full-text available
A recent clinical study demonstrated that damage to the insular cortex can disrupt tobacco addiction. The neurobiological mechanisms for this effect are not yet understood. In this study we used an animal model of nicotine addiction to examine the possibility that changes in insular cortex levels of dopamine (DA)- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to model aspects of human addictive behaviors in laboratory animals provides an important avenue for gaining insight into the biochemical alterations associated with drug intake and the identification of targets for medication development to treat addictive disorders. The intravenous self-administration procedure provides the means to m...
Article
Numerous biochemical as well as electrophysiological techniques require tissue that must be retrieved very quickly following death in order to preserve the physiological integrity of the neuronal environment. Therefore, the ability to accurately predict the precise locations of brain regions of interest (ROI) and to retrieve those areas as quickly...
Article
Full-text available
The reinforcing effects and long-term consequences of cocaine self-administration have been associated with brain regions of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, namely the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Studies of cocaine-induced biochemical adaptations in rodent models have advanced our knowledge; however, unbiased detailed assessments of intracellular alt...
Article
Full-text available
Recent evidence has suggested that compounds affecting GABAergic transmission may provide useful pharmacological tools for the treatment of cocaine addiction. Using a rat model of self-administration, the present study examined the effects of GABA agonists and antagonists injected directly into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on cocaine intake in...
Article
Full-text available
The functional integrity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is altered in schizophrenia leading to profound deficits in working memory and cognition. Growing evidence indicates that dysregulation of glutamate signaling may be a significant contributor to the pathophysiology mediating these effects; however, the contribution of NMDA and A...
Article
Psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders are generally considered to be neurodevelopmental in origin. Dysregulated gene and/or protein expression in the brain of adult schizophrenic patients must be understood in the context of a developmental model. This chapter discusses the basic mechanisms of transcriptional regu...
Article
Full-text available
Disturbances in glutamate neurotransmission are thought to be one of the major contributing factors to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), glutamate neurotransmission is largely mediated by AMPA receptors. Data regarding alterations of subunit expression in the brains of patients with schizophrenia r...
Article
Full-text available
Macaca mulatta is one of the most utilized non-human primate species in biomedical research offering unique behavioral, neuroanatomical, and neurobiochemcial similarities to humans. This makes it a unique organism to model various diseases such as psychiatric and neurodegenerative illnesses while also providing insight into the complexities of the...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic cocaine use in humans and animal models is known to lead to pronounced alterations in neuronal function in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain region associated with drug reinforcement. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to compare protein alterations in the NAc between cocaine overdose (COD) victims (n=10) and controls (n=10). F...
Article
Full-text available
Recent evidence indicates that functional impairment of the orbital and medial fields of the prefrontal cortex may underlie the deficits in executive control of behavior that characterize addictive disorders, including alcohol addiction. Moreover, previous studies have indicated that alcohol alters GABA neurotransmission and one substrate of these...
Article
Full-text available
Altered NMDA receptor subunit protein levels have been reported in various regions of the schizophrenic brain; however, chronic antipsychotic administration in schizophrenic subjects may confound interpretation. The effects of chronic antipsychotic drug administration (haloperidol and clozapine) on protein levels of NR1, NR2A and NR2B proteins were...
Article
Full-text available
Analyzing a large number of unfixed gels in a 2-D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-DIGE) experiment presents a challenge of avoiding variable protein diffusion within and across the comparison groups. The characteristics of protein detection and quantitation in a 2-D differential in gel fluorescence experiment were compared for gels w...
Article
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The striatum of the primate brain can be subdivided into three distinct anatomical subregions: caudate (CAU), putamen (PUT), and ventral striatum (VS). Although these subregions share several anatomical connections, cell morphological, and histochemical features, they differ considerably in their vulnerability to different neurological and psychiat...
Article
Full-text available
Quantitative proteomics is the workhorse of the modern proteomics initiative. The gel-based and MuDPIT approaches have facilitated vital advances in the measurement of protein expression alterations in normal and disease phenotypic states. The methodological advance in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) has been the multiplexing fluorescent...
Article
Full-text available
Proteomics reveals complex protein expression, function, interactions and localization in different phenotypes of neuron. As proteomics, regarded as a highly complex screening technology, moves from a theoretical approach to practical reality, neuroscientists have to determine the most-appropriate applications for this technology. Even though prote...
Chapter
Full-text available
Until recently, knowledge of the impact of abuse drugs on gene and protein expression in the brain was limited to less than 100 targets. With the advent of high-throughput genomic and proteomic techniques investigators are now able to evaluate changes across the entire genome and across thousands of proteins in defined brain regions and generate ex...
Article
Full-text available
The concurrent use of cocaine and opiate combinations (speedball) has increased since the 1970s and now represents a growing subset of intravenous drug abusers. An isobolographic analysis was applied to the ascending limb of the dose-effect curves for rat self-administration of cocaine, heroin, and their combination to determine the nature of the i...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic cocaine and withdrawal induce significant alterations in nucleus accumbens (NAc) glutamatergic function in humans and rodent models of cocaine addiction. Dysregulation of glutamatergic function of the prefrontal cortical-NAc pathway has been proposed as a critical substrate for unmanageable drug seeking. Previously, we demonstrated signific...
Article
Full-text available
Previous examination of binge cocaine self-administration and 2 week withdrawal from cocaine self-administration on ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit (iGluRs) protein levels revealed significant alterations in iGluR protein levels that differed between the mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways. The present study was undertaken to extend...
Article
Full-text available
Biological markers are useful tools for the diagnosis and prognosis of disease. Many different methods are currently used to extract markers from multiple data sources, including gene expression microarrays. This paper investigates the effect of outlier removal on the performance of one such biomarker selection method, Support Vector Machines (SVM)...
Chapter
Full-text available
The combination of tissue microdissection protocols including discrete cell microaspiration and laser capture microdissection with high throughput gene expression profiling platforms such as cDNA microarrays and oligonucleotide microarrays enables the simultaneous assessment of many individual elements from a single cell or a population of homogene...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic stress causes disinhibition of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Consequently, the brain is overexposed to glucocorticoids which in humans may precipitate stress-related disorders, e.g. depression. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal activity is strongly regulated by GABAergic input to parvocellular neurons in the hypothalamic paraven...